Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Nadya Crawshaw 32011919

American Psychological Association

By Nadya Crawshaw
TABLE OF CONTENTS

AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION STYLE SAMPLE............................................ 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 3
DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................................... 3
EXAMPLES ............................................................................................................................................. 3
FORMAT................................................................................................................................................. 3
SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. 4

REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................... 5
Nadya Crawshaw 32011919

AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION STYLE SAMPLE

INTRODUCTION

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is primarily used in the social science
disciplines. It is formatted like Modern Language Association (MLA), and shows many
similarities, but is unique in several key points. This paper discusses the APA in detail.
Addressing plagiarism has become a major challenge in education and educating students in
referencing correctly with the APA 6th is one way of trying to overcome the problem
(Bretag, 2013; Hosny & Fatima, 2014)

DISCUSSION
APA uses parenthetical (or in-text) citations within sentences, but rather than indicating the
author's name and page number, APA includes author's name and date of publication. The
page number, represented with a p. or a pp., is only added to the citation when using a direct
quote (not a summary or paraphrase). If the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, then
place the date of publication in parentheses directly after the name. If the name is not
mentioned include the author's name and date in parentheses at the end of the source
material. And, if you use a direct quote, place the page number after the publication date
within the parentheses.

EXAMPLES

Note the difference between the following three examples:

Terrence (2007) has presented poignant examples from 150 interviews. However, it has been
pointed out that the research was conducted in a selective, highly biased, way (Strong &
Porter, 1998). All of the interviewees have been called “exceptions to the norm” (Strong &
Porter, 1998, p. 5)

Note the first example paraphrases an author that is named in the sentence, the second
example paraphrases authors that are not named in the sentence, and the third example
provides a direct quote (thus the inclusion of the page numbers) but also does not identify the
authors within the sentence. If the authors were identified within the sentence in the third
example, the authors' names would be followed by the year of publication and only the page
numbers would be in the parentheses at the end of the quote.

FORMAT

Finally, the bibliographic page in APA style differs from MLA, what APA calls the
Reference page. You will notice a few immediate differences from the MLA Works
Cited format. With APA you include the initial of the author's first name rather than
the complete name, the publication date immediately follows the author's name in
parentheses, and titles of articles are not surrounded with quotation marks. The lists
are still alphabetized by author's last name (or title in the absence of an author) and
the first line is flush left while subsequent lines in the same entry are indented in
(approximately 5 spaces or one tab). A good resource to help you with referencing is
Notre Dame’s referencing guide at http://library.nd.edu.au/referencing/apa#s-lg-box-
3040351. There is also a summary downloadable help document available at:
http://library.nd.edu.au/ld.php?content_id=8053459. In APA Style, you include a
reference list rather than a bibliography with your paper (APA, 2017). A reference
list consists of all sources cited in the text of a paper whereas a bibliography may
include resources that were consulted but not cited in the text as well as an annotated
description of each one.

SUMMARY

The School of Education, University of Notre Dame Australia, uses the APA 6th referencing
style for all written documents. In addition to in text referencing and the reference list there
are a number of formatting requirements to ensure your essay complies with APA standards.
Get to know the APA 6th.
Nadya Crawshaw 32011919

REFERENCES
APA. (2017) Bibliography versus reference list. Retrieved from
http://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on-references.aspx#Bibliography

Bretag, T. (2013) Challenges in addressing plagiarism in education. PLoS Medicine,


10(12), e1001574

Hosny, M., & Fatima, S. (2014) Attitude of students towards cheating and plagiarism:
University case study. Journal of Applied Science, 14(8), 748-757. doi:
10.3923/jas.2014.748.757

Strong, R. L., Porter, M. (1998). Grammatical Combinations. In S. Parker & K.


Gibson (Eds.), Language and Literacy (p 540-578) Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Terrence, H. S. (2007, November 1). Student Success in Community Colleges. The


West Australian, p. 6-7

References

Bretag, T. (2013). Challenges in addressing plagiarism in education. PLoS Medicine, 10(12),

e1001574.

Hosny, M., & Fatima, S. (2014). Attitude of students towards cheating and plagiarism:

University case study. Journal of Applied Sciences, 14(8), 748-757.

doi:10.3923/jas.2014.748.757

Strong, R. L., & Porter, M. (1998). Grammatical combinations. Cambridge: Cambridge


University Press.