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TRIAL STPM 2010 – ANSWER SCHEME

SECTION A
NO ANSWER SUB- TOTAL
TOTAL
1(a) Sarcomere 1 1
(i)
(ii) A-Z line 1
B-Actin 1
C-myosin 1 3
(b)(i) I band 1
(ii) I band and H zone 1 2
(c)(i) Provides energy to break cross- bridges/rotates 1
myosin head (reject muscle contraction)
Provides energy to pump actively calcium ions back into the 1
sarcoplasmic reticulum 2
(ii) • Calcium ions bind to troponin causing reorientation of the 1
tropomyosin
Exposing myosin head binding site on the actin filament 1 2
TOTAL 10
2a(i) Graph M
unlimited growth 1
• It is produced following an annual serial of smaller sigmoid 1 2
curves
Graph N
intermittent growth 1
• Growth only takes place for a short period of time during 1 2
ecdysis before the new skin hardens
(ii) • Because growth is represented by the increase in organic 1
material in the body.
• Length of the exoskeleton is not a true reflection of growth for 1
insects Max 1
(iii) (Normal) sigmoid curve // S-shaped curve 1 1
(b)(i) Ecdysone
• stimulates ecdysis / moulting of exoskeleton // stimulates 1
development of adult characteristics
Juvenile hormone
maintains the juvenile characteristics of an insect 1 2
(ii) • Synthetic juvenile hormone can block the production of adult 1
characteristics in insects.
• Thus insects don’t mature to breed. 1 2
TOTAL 10
3(a) T molecule binds to the operator 1 1
(b) • The operator and part of the promoter are covered, preventing 1
RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter.
• The lactose operon system is switch off.//Transcription of 1
structured genes to produce enzyme does not occur. 2
(c) • A small amount of lactose is converted to the allolactose 1
isomer. Allolactose bind to the repressor, changing its
1
NO ANSWER SUB- TOTAL
TOTAL
structure
• Allolactose repressor complex detaches from the operator. 1
RNA polymerase binds to the promoter.
• Transcription of structured gene occurs, mRNA is produced, 1 3
translated and enzymes like ß-galactosidase are synthesize
(d) The lac Y gene encodes the synthesis of permease enzyme (the
membrane protein that transports lactose molecules into cell) 1 1
(e) (i) codes synthesis of repressor molecule 1
(ii) binding site for RNA polymerase 1
(iii) binding site for repressor molecule 1 3
TOTAL 10
4(a) Protoctista// Protista 1 1
(b)
Organism Name Phylum
Amoeba sp. Rhizopoda 1+1
A
Paramecium Ciliophora
B 1+1
sp.
Euglena sp. Zoomastigina
C 1+1 6
(Scientific names must ended with sp.
e.g Reject Amoeba )
(c) Function of micronucleus: controls the function of sexual
reproduction 1 1
(d)
Characteristic Organism A Organism C
Cell wall Absent Present 1/0
Flagella Absent Present 1/0
Structure used for Pseudopodium Flagellum 1/0
locomotion
(accept any other suitable answers) Max 2

TOTAL 10

2
SECTION B

NO ANSWER SUB- TOTAL


TOTAL
5.(a)
Carbon dioxide concentration 1
• Required in light-independent reaction 1
• Increasing carbon dioxide concentration, increases the rate of
photosynthesis 1
• Rate of photosynthesis becomes constant after carbon dioxide
concentration exceeds reaches certain level
• At higher concentration, the rate of photosynthesis decreases 1
as CO2 absorption is reduced by stomatal closure 1 Max: 3
(Any 3)

Temperature 1
• Photosynthesis process is controlled by enzymes 1
1
• The rate of photosynthesis increases with an increase in
temperature provided light intensity and concentration of CO2
are not limiting factors
• Rate of photosynthesis doubles for every 10°C increase in 1
temperature until optimum temperature
• Above optimum temperature, rate decreases as the enzymes 1 Max :3
are denatured
(Any 3)
Water availability 1
• Water is required in light dependent reaction//photolysis of
water where electrons/ H atom are given out to reduce 1
NADP
• Without water plants close their stomata and would prevent 1
entry of CO2 into the plants for photosynthesis
(Any 2) Max :2

Oxygen concentration 1
• Relatively high O2 level inhibits photosynthesis 1
O2 competes with CO2 for active site of RuBisCo which 2
will decrease the overall rate of photosynthesis

(b)
Photosynthesis Aerobic respiration
An anabolic process which A catabolic process which
results in the synthesis of results in the breakdown of 1/0
carbohydrate from simple carbohydrate molecules to
inorganic molecules simple inorganic molecules
Energy is accumulated and Energy is stored in the form
stored in the form of of ATP for future use. 1/0
carbohydrates
3
NO ANSWER SUB- TOTAL
TOTAL
Oxygen is released Oxygen is used 1/0
Results in an increase in dry Results in a decrease in dry
mass mass 1/0
Occurs in chloroplast Occurs in the mitochondrion
Occurs only in cells that have Occurs in all cells 1/0
chlorophyll and only in the continuously throughout the
presence of light lifespan of the cell 1/0
(Any 5) Max :5
TOTAL 15
6. Atrial Systole

both atria contract 1


both atrioventricular valves open 1
blood flows into ventricles 1
pulmonary and aortic valves remain closed 1 Any 2

Ventricular systole
1
both ventricles contract 1
1
• increased ventricular pressure of blood causes atrioventricular
1 Any 2
valves to close
• semilunar valves open
• blood flows to aorta and pulmonary artery

Diastole 1
• Ventricles relax 1
• Semilunar valves close 1 3
• Blood flows into atria from vena cava and pulmonary veins.

(b) Structure :
• the heart is composed of striated muscle cells 1
• the cells are cross-connected by branching fibres and 1
intercalated discs separating individual muscle cells permit
diffusion of Na+ and K+
• this allows rapid spread of impulses from cell to cell 1
• cardiac muscle is myogenic
(Any 3) 1 Max:3

Heartbeat:
• initial stimulus originate from the sinoatrial node (SAN)
which is the pacemaker found on the right atrium wall near 1
the entrance of the vena cava
1
• membrane of SAN cells are permeable to Na+
1
• Na+ enter cells and depolarizes cell membranes 1
• An excitatory wave is generated, and spread rapidly from the
SA node across the two atria making both atria contract
4
NO ANSWER SUB- TOTAL
TOTAL
• Waves reach the AVN ( atrioventricular node) located 1
between atria.
• Impulses from AVN are conducted by the bundle of His that 1
branches into Purkinje fibres
The waves conducted throughout the ventricular walls and the 1
ventricles contract (Any 5) Max :5
TOTAL 15
7. • any foreign/non-self substance in the body 1
(a) i • that trigger an immune response against it 1 2
ii. • a substance produced by plasma cells 1
• as a response to the presence of antigen 1 2
(b) • Response of T-lymphocytes is cell mediated response 1
• cytotoxic T-lymphocytes binds and 1
• causes lysis of the cell membranes of infected/malignant/non- 1
self cells
• Helper T-lymphocytes produce chemicals 1
to activate/promote growth and multiplication of other
lymphocytes
• response of B-lymphocytes is a humoral response 1
1
• B-lymphocytes response to antigen by dividing and
differentiating into plasma cells
1
• these plasma cells are synthesized in large quantities, 1 8
• produce antibodies specific to the antigens
that will destroy the antigens
(c) • in the immune system, cells/lymphocytes have the ability to 1
detect whether or not a foreign substances present in the body
is compatible with it
• if compatible it will be accepted as self 1
• if not it will treated as non-self 1
• and will trigger an immune response 1
(Any 3) Max: 3

TOTAL 15
8. • After double fertilisation, the triploid nucleus divides rapidly 1
to form the multicellular endosperm.
• The multicellular endosperm functions as a nutrient storage. 1
• The zygote divides through mitosis to form two cells: basal 1
cell
• and terminal cell. 1
• The basal cell multiplies and develops into the suspensor that 1
anchors the embryo to the endosperm.
1
• The terminal cell develops into the embryo
1
• The embryo cells further develops into one or two cotyledon
• The embryo cells between the cotyledons differentiate to form 1
the shoot apical meristem
5
NO ANSWER SUB- TOTAL
TOTAL
• The embryo cells near the suspensor differentiate to form the 1
root apical meristem 1
• The root apical meristem develops to become the radicle
• The shoot apical meristem develops to become the plumule 1 Max:10
(Any 10)

(b ) Monocotyledonous seed Dicotyledonous seed

• Has only one cotyledon • Has two cotyledon


1/0
• Cotyledon reduced to • Cotyledons are fleshy,
shield-like structure no scutellum
called as scutellum 1/0
• Aleurone layer is • No aleurone layer
present. 1/0
• Coleoptiles protect the • Coleoptiles and
plumule, the coleorhiza coleorhiza are not
protects the radicle present 1/0
• Testa and pericarp are • Testa and pericarp are
1/0 5
fused together not fused together
TOTAL 15
9.(a) • Types of gene mutation are base/nucleotide substitution, 1
base/nucleotide deletion, base/nucleotide inversion and
base/nucleotide insertion
• In base/nucleotide substitution, a nucleotide/base is replaced 1
by another base/nucleotide in the DNA sequence of a gene
• Causes missence mutation// this new base/nucleotide alters
one genetic code to a different genetic code which may code 1
for different amino acid
• In base/nucleotide inversion, two or more nucleotides/bases
have been reverse in the DNA sequence within the gene. 1
• The altered genetic code results in a different amino acid in
the polypeptide chain and the formation of non- functional
protein 1
• In base /nucleotide insertion, and extra base/nucleotide is
inserted into the DNA sequence of a gene
1
• Causes the whole base sequence to be shifted to one place
backward 1
• In base/nucleotide deletion, a base/nucleotide is deleted from
the DNA sequence of a gene
• Causes the whole base sequence to be shifted to one place 1
backward
• Insertion and deletion are more harmful than substitution and 1
inversion
• Both base /nucleotide insertion and deletion are frameshift 1
6
NO ANSWER SUB- TOTAL
TOTAL
mutation as every single triple code after the mutation point is
altered 1
• Because frameshift mutation leads to production of non- 1
functional protein (Any 10) Max:10

• Down’s syndrome is an example of aneuploidy with 47 1


(b) chromosomes instead of 46 chromosomes in an individual
• It is a result of non-disjunction during meiosis( I and II)
• Two chromosomes of no 21 failed to separate during 1
Anaphase I/II of meiosis
• The gametes produced contain 23 + X / 23 + Y 1
• When a sperm with 23 + Y fuses with normal ovum / When a
sperm with 23 + X fuses with normal ovum/ When n ovum 1
with 23 + X fuses with normal sperm, the zygote formed
contains 45 + XY/XX //trisomy//47 chromosomes 1 5

TOTAL 15
10. Gene therapy
(a)
• Genetic disorders which are caused by a single defective gene 1
could be cured by inserting a functional gene into certain
body cells such as bone marrow cells.
• Adenosin deaminase (ADA) is important in the proper
functioning of the immune system. It is used by white blood 1
cells to produce antibodies.
• The normal gene for ADA is cloned in a vector.
• The vector containing the ADA gene is introduced into a 1
retrovirus.
• A small amount of bone marrow cells are isolated from the 1
patient and cultured in the lab.
1
• The bone marrow cells are infected with the ADA gene
containing the retrovirus.
1
• The retrovirus integrated the normal ADA gene into the bone
marrow cells. 1
• Bone marrow cells with the normal ADA gene are injected
into bone marrow of the patient. 1

• These cells continue to divide thus producing sufficient ADA 1 Max: 7


enzymes. (Any 7)
(b) DNA fingerprinting techniques

• DNA fingerprinting is used for identifying criminals and to 1


identify dead victims beyond recognition and for solving
paternity cases.
• In every person, the sequence of bases on the intron is unique
and it usually contains a repeating sequence called 1

7
NO ANSWER SUB- TOTAL
TOTAL
minisatellite/ VNTR (Variable Number Tandems Repeat)
Minisatellite can be used to form a DNA fingerprint.
• DNA extracted from cells 1
• and treated with restriction enzyme to produce
RFLP(restriction fragment length polymorphism) so that 1
their lengths are unchanged.
• Gel electrophoresis is performed to separate the fragments. 1
• The southern blotting procedure is carried out to transfer the
fragments to a nitrocellulose filter. 1
• A radioactive probe with a base sequence complementary to
the mini satellite repeat sequence is used to hybridise with 1
the fragments
1
• The remaining DNA fragments are exposed to an X-ray film
to produce a unique DNA fingerprint that consists of a
number of bands //(autoradiography)
1
• DNA fingerprints from different specimens can be compared
to look for differences and similarities regarding the profile
of bands (Any 8)
Max:8
TOTAL 15