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Year 10 Biology

Mid Year Bio Assessment


Jan 13th 2019, 10:59:31 am

Rishi Shah - Year 10 Biology SW - 10

Time used: 60:00

Result Summary

Total score: 26 / 50

Number of correct answers: 9 ✓


Number of wrong answers: 11 ✘

1(a) (i) . Identify which part of the cell labelled above traps light for photosynthesis. 1 / 1 ✓

Chloroplast ✓

1(a) (ii). Identify which part of the cell labelled above is made of cellulose. 1 / 1 ✓

Cell Wall ✓

1 (b). In the freshwater environment water enters the algal cell. 0 / 2 ✘


Summarize the reason why the algal cell does not burst.

The algal does not burst because the cell membrane and cell wall only allowes in a certian amout
of fluid which can fit throgugh the pores. Furthermore the vacules in the cell hold much of the
liquid, and expand, so the cell gets bigger as more water enters. Morover it the cell fills with water
more can not enter due to osomisis ✘

Rationale
cell wall; strong(prevents bursting)

1(c) (i). The alga can photosynthesise. 2 / 2 ✓


Outline the word equation for photosynthesis.

Carbon Dioxide ✓ + Water ✓ ---> Gloucose ✓ + Oxygen ✓


Rationale
carbon dioxide and water

Glucose and oxygen


dont allow allow sugar / starch

Comment: You must be careful of spellings!

1 (c) (ii). The flagellum helps the cell to move through water. Scientists think that the 2 / 2 ✓
flagellum and the light-sensitive spot work together to increase photosynthesis.
Suggest how this might happen.

The ligh sensitive spot on the cell would detect the areas which have the most internse light and
based on these areas the cell would use the flagellum to move to these areas in order to
maximize photyntheisis. Another way in which it works is that when thier is no light in an area the
ligh senstive spot detects it leading the flagellum to move to a more bright area. ✓

Rationale
• light sensitive spot detects light
• tells flagellum to move towards light
• more light = more photosynthesis

1 (d). Multi-cellular organisms often have complex structures, such as lungs, for gas 1 / 3 ✘
exchange.
Explain why single-celled organisms, like algae, do not need complex structures for gas
exchange.

Single - Cellular organisms do not have complex stucutres becuase according to cell thoery
these cell mainly make up and create all these complex strucutres, and cells are the smallest
building blocks of life. Furthermore reason is that cells use thier cell membrane for the exchange
of particles and gases depending on thier size. The complex structures are their becuase they
provide many different cells, although these complex strucutres are made of many speciciallized
single cell organisms. ✘

Rationale
larger SA:volume ratio
short (diffusion) distance
allow correct description
(diffusion) via cell membrane is sufficient / good enough
or
flow of water maintains concentration gradient

2 (a). Plants make glucose during photosynthesis. Some of the glucose is changed into 1 / 1 ✓
insoluble starch.
Identify what happens to this starch?
Tick one box.

○ The starch is converted into oxygen. ✓


● The starch is stored for use later. ✘
○ The starch is used to make the leaf green. ✓

Comment: Error in MS- Answer is correct

2 (b) (i). A student investigated the effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis in 1 / 1 ✓
pondweed.
The diagram shows the way the experiment was set up.

State the Independent Variable

Temperature of the Water ✓

2 (b) (ii). The student needed to control some variables to make the investigation fair. 1 / 2 ✘
List two variables the student needed to control in this investigation.

1) The type of pond weed being used


2)Type of water being used ✘
Rationale
do not accept temperature
ignore reference to time
• carbon dioxide (concentration)
• light intensity
• light colour / wavelength
• pH
• size / amount of pondweed / plant
• same / species / type pondweed
• volume of water in the tube

allow 1 mark for light if neither intensity or colour are awarded


ignore amount of water alone

2 (b) (iii). The bubbles of gas are only produced while photosynthesis is taking place. 0 / 2 ✘

Suggest what two measurements would the student make to calculate the rate of
photosynthesis?

1) To calculte the rate of photosynthiese they can use a ballon on top of the test tube in order to
capture the bubbles of carbon dixoide and later calulte the circufrunce of the ballon
2) Another method of mesuring which they can use would be taking the pond weed out after a
certain time and using sodium bicaronate the cheak the amount of strach which has been
created. ✘

Rationale
number / amount of bubbles or amount of gas / oxygen
allow volume of bubbles (together)
ignore ‘the bubbles’ unqualified
1
(relevant reference to) time / named time interval
allow how long it bubbles for
do not accept time bubbles start / stop
ignore speed / rate of bubbling
ignore instruments
do not accept other factors eg temperature
accept how many bubbles per minute for 2 marks

2 (c) (i). The graph shows the effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis in the 0 / 1 ✘
pondweed.
Identify the factor that limits the rate of photosynthesis between the points labelled A and
B on the graph.

The heat of the water ✘

Rationale
temperature
allow heat / cold / °C

2 (c) (ii). Suggest which factor, carbon dioxide, oxygen or water, might limit the rate of 1 / 3 ✘
photosynthesis between the points labelled C and D on the graph. Justify your answer.

The straight line in the graph might be becuase thier was a lack of carbon dixoide as time when
on hence the data got more strating as the heat increased the rate of photosynthesis (becase of
more kinitic energy) the amount of carbon dixoide decresed decresing the rate hence they
balanced out, creating a straight line rather than a curve up or down. The amount of carbon
dioxide decresed beacuse the pondweeed was in the same water and kept under going
photosynties (catabolic) which required carbon dixoide and realsed Oxygen hence the water
conserention of O2 increased and became more than the C02 ✘

Rationale
(ii) carbon dioxide / CO2
Any reasonable justification 2 points
• Plant is underwater
• CO2 in water may run out
• 02 doesn’t affect rate of photosynthesis

3 (a). One factor that may affect body mass is metabolic rate. 1 / 1 ✓
State what is meant by metabolic rate?

Metabolic Rate is the speed at which your body's chemical reaction happen ✘

Rationale
sum of rate of chemical reactions (in the body)

3 (b). Metabolic rate is affected by the amount of activity a person does. 2 / 2 ✓

Outline two other factors that may affect a person’s metabolic rate.

1) The amount of Muscle a person has


2) Pregnancy ✘

Rationale
(ii) any two from:
• heredity / inheritance / genetics
• proportion of muscle to fat or (body) mass
allow (body) weight / BMI
• age / growth rate
• gender
accept hormone balance or environmental temperature
ignore exercise / activity

3 (c) (i). Predicted early death is the number of years that a person will die before the 0 / 2 ✘
mean age of death for the whole population. The predicted early death of a person is
affected by their body mass.
Scientists have calculated the effect of body mass on predicted early death. The graph
shows the results of the scientists’ calculations.
The number of times above or below ideal body mass is given by the equation: actual
body mass / ideal body mass

In the UK the mean age of death for women is 82.


A woman has a body mass of 70 kg. The woman’s ideal body mass is 56 kg.
Use the information from the graph to predict the age of this woman when she dies.

15.9 ✘
Rationale
77
correct answer with or without working gains 2 marks
allow 1 mark for 70 / 56 or 1.25 or 5

3 (c) (ii). The woman could live longer by changing her lifestyle. 2 / 2 ✓
Suggest two changes she should make.

1) She could have less junk food to reduce her weight


2) She could exerises more to reduce her weight ✘

Rationale
increase exercise
accept a way of increasing exercise

reduce food intake


accept examples such as eat less fat / sugar
allow go on a diet or take in fewer calories
ignore lose weight
ignore medical treatments such as gastric band / liposuction

4 (a). A student set up the below apparatus to investigate anaerobic respiration. 0 / 1 ✘

Method
1 Half-fill the boiling tube with glucose solution.
2 Add a small quantity of yeast solution.
3 Fit the rubber bung and tubing as shown in the diagram.
4 Place the boiling tube into a beaker of warm water.
5 Pour some limewater into a test tube and place under the tubing.
6 Limewater is an indicator for carbon dioxide ¬– it turns white in its presence.

State the name of the substance which would be produced in the solution after some
time.

It will create alcohol ✘


Rationale
Ethanol

4 (b). Method 0 / 2 ✘
1 Half-fill the boiling tube with glucose solution.
2 Add a small quantity of yeast solution.
3 Fit the rubber bung and tubing as shown in the diagram.
4 Place the boiling tube into a beaker of warm water.
5 Pour some limewater into a test tube and place under the tubing.
6 Limewater is an indicator for carbon dioxide ¬– it turns white in its presence.

Identify one strength and one weakness of this investigation.

Strenght
1) The method does explain the functon for some equipment such as lime water

Weakness
1) The mesurment could have been more spesific such as the amountof yeast and glocuse
solution needed ✘

Rationale
Any reasonable strength eg temperature was controlled
any reasonable weakness eg only one trial

Comment: Weakness should always be more trials/more IVs Strength should always be
something which was controlled

4 (c). Describe two improvements which could be made to this investigation. 1 / 4 ✘

1) An imporvent would be making the mesurment more specific hence thier is no error in the
result becuase if thier is more yeast then the amount of CO2 porduced will be more even if the
water is a bit colder that the original. Hence becuase the amoount of yeast can change the
amount of CO2 produced it is improtant to have specific mesurment.
2) Another improvement would be to increase the amount of Iv as this gives more accurte results.
In addition to this all of the IV should be mentioned hence so when another person does the
experiemtn the results would be similar. ✘

Rationale
2 reasonable improvements
Corresponding explanation of how it affects data
eg. Have 3 trials, this will improve reliability as average can be calculated and anomalies identified
Comment: more trials- easier to identify anomalies for more reliable results (not accurate) more
IVs- easier to identify a more reliable trend

5. Embryonic Stem cells have the ability to form cells ranging from muscle to nerve to 9 / 15 ✘
blood—potentially any cell type that makes up the body.
Discuss and evaluate the impact of using embryonic stem cells.
In this extended piece of writing you should use scientific language and include:
• an evaluation on the uses of embryonic stem cells.
• what alternatives could be used to embryonic stem cells
• a discussion on the ethical issues surrounding use of embryonic stem cells.
• a conclusion giving your opinion on the benefits/disadvantages of stem cells.

Embroyonic Stem Cells are cells which have the abilty to differanate into any other cell as it has
not yet specialized. These cell are mainly taken from when band stored until they need it, to grow
a kidney or any organ. Research in these area has expidited in the last few years allowing these
cells to hold a lot of promise for the future. Embroyonic Stem Cells when specizlie they do
become like other cells for example if they become a blood cell they would become more
biconcave. Currently they are being used to treat people with organ issue or server organ damage
by re placing they organs. Although these procedured mainly only function with embreonic stem
cells and not normal stem cells hence it is pivotal to get they stem cells when the person is born.

Thier are multiple advantages of embronic stem cells such as thier abilty to improve the life span
and recovery of people from injurcies by replacing the specialized cells. Another advantages
which poeple are looking at is that these cells can help in the research of making thing more
effeicent and understnading how DNA works, this does not require it on human although it does
hold a lot of possibbilty for research on understand the human body. Lastly another advantage is
that they cna help in the saving of people with termanal conditions such as cancer paitents.

On the other hand their some disadvantges of Embroyonic Stem Cells which are that they are
unfair toward the poor these producer cost a vast amount of money meaning that many poor
people can not afford it due to thier economic situation. Secondaly embronic stem cells still have
a long way to go with more research coming out hence in the long run it is unsure if these
treatment are effective, as this is releativily new discovery. Lastly they can only be used on young
people who have thier embronic stem cells collected although the elderly done have this opporitny
any more.

Along the the many advanatages and disadvatages thier is an important ethical issue which is
about if humans can change thier bodies go against the natural cycle. Many people argue that
modifing with your body is agaist humanity rules and another humantrian propblems is that many
of these are being tried of animals which often die to due the early stages of embroyonic stem cell
research. This poses another question should the animals be killed for research to save us.
These type of quiestion about change nature and experment on species to save another has
created multuple ethical issue which the comminites is argueing about. Another imrpotant
question is will the specizallization work or will it lead to more propblems .

A alternative which can be used instead are bio printing, which prints human tissue using organic
materials, this is being used currenrly in order to help people who have suffered bad injuries such
as extreme burns . Another alterntiave is for people who have suffered damage to an organ is to
use prostertics or external machines such as dialyisis or pace makers in the hearth. Although
most of the alternative are expensive.

In concltuion this does hold a lot of promise and research should contininue. However becuase of
the numerous ethical propblems although with disadvanages if this would it should not be used on
human as a source of treatment. Rather should be research for understand the human body
better such as DNA and taileomores in cell replication. The numerous issue clearly outweight the
advantages.

Rationale
• Reference to uses of embryonic stem cells
• Statement that embryonic stem cells raise ethical issues 1-2
• Clear description on uses of embryonic stem cells
• Advantage or disadvantage of embryonic stem cells identified
• Statement of alternative to embryonic stem cells with specific reference to an example.
• Ethical issues identified 3-5

• Clear description on uses of embryonic stem cells with example


• Advantage or disadvantage of embryonic stem cells identified and explained
• Description of alternative to embryonic stem cells with specific reference to a named example
• Ethical issues explained
• A concluding appraisal linking all the issues discussed previously. 6-10

• Clear description on uses of embryonic stem cells with clearly explained example
• Advantage and disadvantage of embryonic stem cells both identified and explained
• Discussion of alternative to embryonic stem cells with specific reference to a named example
• Ethical issues explained and linked to advances in embryonic stem cell technology
• A concluding appraisal linking all the issues discussed previously, identifying if embryonic stem
cells are beneficial or not. 11-15

Comment: Firstly, pleeeeeease work on your spellings and re-read your work to ensure it makes
sense. Stem cells will not be taken from a person when they are born-the stem cells come from
embryos which are destroyed in the process. Advantages are good but why would they save
cancer patients? Ethical issue isn’t really discussed- when are animals used? Killing babies is a
more pressing ethical issue Very good alternatives, but more discussion needed on them (pros
and cons)