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Regional stratigraphic correlation of subsurface till units in Ottawa


County, Michigan

Conference Paper · February 2014

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3 authors, including:

Christopher Aaron Vanderlip Patrick M. Colgan


The University of Memphis Grand Valley State University
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Regional stratigraphic correlation of
subsurface till units in Ottawa
County, Michigan
Christopher A. Vanderlip, Katelynn N. Braunschneider, and Patrick M. Colgan
Department of Geology, Grand Valley State University

Presenter: Christopher A. Vanderlip


vanderca@mail.gvsu.edu

Acknowledgments
Funded by Norman and Helen Gibson Geology Field Study Scholarship
Thanks to Alan Kehew & Derrick Lingle (Western Michigan University)
WI
MI HC

Moraine systems named by Leverett and Taylor (1915, figure by Kehew et al. 2005).
Hemlock Crossing Park Core

Till Unit 1

Organic bed: ~ 42-46,000


calendar years B.P.
Till Unit 2

Till Unit 3

Lingle (2013)
WI
MI HC

Glenn
Shores
section

Important glacial sites


relative to this study

Moraine systems named by Leverett and Taylor (1915, figure by Kehew et al. 2005).
Glenn Shores Section

Saugatuck Till

Photo: Pat Colgan


Ganges Till

Organic bed: 37,150 -


>48,000 year B.P.
(Monaghan et al., 1986)

Glenn Shores Till


Figure modified from Photo: Chris Vanderlip
Monaghan et al. 1986.
Core Sampling
Grain Size Determination: Hydrometer
Test Run: GVSU Diamicton
Sample Clay Silt Sand
L1 41.5 43.2 15.3
L2 34.0 49.2 16.8
L3 33.7 51.1 15.2
L4 35.6 52.2 12.2
L5 28.7 52.8 18.5
L6 37.8 50.1 12.1

Clay

Sand Silt
Method followed is that of Lewis 1984 (Practical Sedimentology)
USDA Texture Classification
Mean Sand
Unit Depth Samples Content (%) 100% Clay
Till Unit 1 6-14 m 13-22 20.4

Till Unit 2 21-27 m 39-49 31.6

Till Unit 3 29-39 m 60-86 50.3

Clay Fraction >2 microns.

100% Sand

100% Silt
Sand Fraction of Hemlock Crossing Core
Till Units with Depth
Percent Sand
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0
0

10

20
Depth (m)

30

40

50
Compare: Monaghan et al (in Monaghan, 1990)

Till Units
60 Sand Silt Clay
(descending)
Saugatuck 36% 42% 22%
70
Ganges 59% 22% 19%
Glenn Shores 46% 34% 20%
Clay Mineral Analysis: X-Ray Diffraction
X-Ray Diffraction Plot
HC-19: Till Unit One

Illite
7 Å
___ 431
___ 10.169 Å
= = 0.752 573 cps
10 Å 573 Kaolinite (etc.)
7.142 Å
Counts 431 cps
(per second)

Diffraction Angle (2Θ)


X-Ray Diffraction Plot
HC-41: Till Unit Two

Illite
7 Å
___ 682
___ 10.13 Å
= = 1.029 663 cps
10 Å 663 Kaolinite (etc.)
7.105 Å
Counts 682 cps
(per second)

Diffraction Angle (2Θ)


Hemlock Crossing: Clay Fraction 7/10 Ratio
7/10 Angstrom Clay Mineral Ratio  Increasing Kaolinite vs. Illite
0.100 0.600 1.100 1.600 2.100
0.0

5.0

10.0 Till Unit 1


Depth (m)

15.0

20.0

25.0 Till Unit 2


30.0

35.0
Till Unit 3
40.0

Low High Mean St. Dev.


Till Unit 1 (10 Samples) 0.662 0.960 0.800 0.09
Till Unit 2 (8 Samples) 1.027 1.226 1.123 0.08
Till Unit 3 (14 Samples) 1.381 1.926 1.553 0.22
Comparison: Clay Fraction 7/10 Ratios
7/10 Angstrom Clay Mineral Ratio  Increasing Kaolinite vs. Illite
0.100 0.300 0.500 0.700 0.900 1.100 1.300 1.500 1.700 1.900 2.100 2.300 2.500
0.0

5.0

10.0
Depth (m)

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

Low High Mean St. Dev.


Glenn Shores Data Saugatuck (25 spl) 0.50 0.66 0.58 0.04
(Monaghan et al., 1986) Ganges (39 spl) 0.62 1.18 0.85 0.11
Glenn Shores (21 spl) 0.96 1.48 0.12 0.16
Preliminary Correlation
Glenn Shores Hemlock Crossing
?

0.58 0.80

1.12

0.85
1.59
1.21 ?
Modified from Monaghan et al. 1986. Modified from Lingle 2013.
Conclusions
— Preliminary Unit
Correlations
– Till Unit 1: Ganges Till
– Till Unit 2: Glenn Shores Till
– Till Unit 3: Previously
Undefined Till
— Where is the Saugatuck Till?
— Sand content increases with
depth
— How to identify or date Unit 3?
References
Kehew, A.E., Beukema, S. P., Bird, B.C. and Kozlowski, A.L. 2005. Fast flow of the Lake
Michigan Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: evidence from sediment-landform
assemblages in southwestern Michigan, USA, Quaternary Science Reviews 24
2335-2353.
Leverett, F., and Taylor, F.B, 1915. The Pleistocene of Indiana and Michigan and the
History of the Great Lakes. U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, 53, 529 p.
Lewis, D. W., 1984. Practical Sedimentology. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 229p.
Lingle, D. 2013. “Origin of High Levels of Ammonium in Groundwater, Ottawa County,
Michigan.” Unpublished Masters thesis. Western Michigan University.
Monaghan, G.W., 1990. Systematic variation in the clay-mineral composition of till
sheets: Evidence for the Erie Interstade in the Lake Michigan Basin. In Late
Quaternary history of the Lake Michigan Basin, Edited by A.F. Schneider and G.S.
Fraser, Geological Society of America, Special Paper 251:43-49.
Monaghan, G.W., Gephart, G., and Larson, G.J., 1986. Drift stratigraphy of the Lake
Michigan Ice Lobe, southwestern Michigan: Geol. Soc. Am. Bulletin, 97:324-328.

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