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Introduction to Airplane Performance

Assignment – Week 1

1. What is most likely sequence of pressure for the given figure. Ans: b

(a) A>B>C

(b) A<B<C

(c) A=B=C

(d) Can’t be said

2. An aircraft is equipped with symmetrical aerofoil. For complete aircraft the lift curve slope is 5
/rad. Stall angle is 12 deg, wing area is 10 m2 . What is mass during flight, whereas stall speed is
observed 90 Km/hr. g = 9.8 m/s2 , density of air is 1.225 kg/m3. Ans : d

(a) 68707 kg

(b) 5301.4 kg

(c) 23438 kg

(d) 409.06 kg

(a) Thrust

(d) Fuselage reference line

4. In the given figure, Xg, Xc and V are, X-axis of inertial frame, chord reference line and free
stream velocity respectively. What is the correct sequence of flight path angle, angle of attack
and pitch angle? Ans : b

(a) 3, 1, 2

(b) 2, 1, 3

(c) 1, 3, 2

(d) 2, 3, 1

(d) Wave drag

6. Rudder is primarily used for: Ans : a

(a) Yaw

(b) Roll

(c) Pitch

(a) Yaw

(b) Roll

(c) Pitch

(a) Yaw

(b) Roll

(c) Pitch

(a)

CD

CL
(b)

CD

CL

(c)

CD

CL

(d)

CD

CL

(a) Infinite

(b) Zero

(d) Depends upon aerofoil

11. For a certain angle of attack, at a given altitude, the lift will be doubled for which combination(s)
of S and V Ans : a, c, d

(a) V√2, S

(b) V/2, 2S

(c) V, 2S

(d) 2V, S/2

12. For the following 𝐶𝐿 vs 𝛼 curve, which has higher aspect ratio? Ans : a

CL Plane 1

Plane 2

(a) Plane 1

(b) Plane 2

(d) Can’t be determined

Introduction to Airplane Performance
Assignment – Week 2

1. Because of positive camber in the aerofoil. Ans : a

a. 𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 increases, 𝛼𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 decreaess.
b. 𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 decreases, 𝛼𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 increases.
c. 𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 increases, 𝛼𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 increases.
d. 𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 decreases, 𝛼𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 decreaess.

2. Air speed measurement using Pitot tube depends upon. Ans : c,d
a. Only static pressure.
b. Only total pressure.
c. Dynamic pressure.
d. Both static and total pressure.

3. Altimeter gives. And : b

a. Absolute altitude.
b. Pressure altitude.
c. Density altitude.
d. True altitude.

4. Which angle is responsible to generate lift and drag. Ans : a

a. Angle of attack.
b. Flight path angle.
c. Pitch angle.
d. all (a, b, c)

5. A point mass m is thrown horizontally in atmosphere (𝛾 = 0) with velocity V, at what rate

velocity vector V will turn. ans : a
𝑔 cos 𝛾
a. − 𝑉
𝑔 cos 𝛾
b. 𝑉
1
c. 2𝑉
𝑔 cos 𝛾
𝑔
d. 𝑚∗𝑉
6. In given figure what is angle of attack. Ans : c

horizon
A

B
Chord line

a. +A
b. –B
c. +B
d. A+B

7. When thrust required is minimum then Ans : a

𝐶𝐿 1
a. | , 𝐶𝐿 = √𝐶𝐷0 /( )
𝐶𝐷 𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝜋 .𝐴𝑅.𝑒

𝐶𝐿 1
b. |
𝐶𝐷 𝑚𝑖𝑛
, 𝐶𝐿 = √𝐶𝐷0 /(𝜋 .𝐴𝑅.𝑒)

𝐶𝐿 3/2 1
c. 𝐶𝐷
| , 𝐶𝐿 = √3𝐶𝐷0 /(𝜋 .𝐴𝑅.𝑒)
𝑚𝑖𝑛
3/2
𝐶𝐿 1
d. 𝐶𝐷
| , 𝐶𝐿 = √3𝐶𝐷0 /(𝜋 .𝐴𝑅.𝑒)
𝑚𝑎𝑥

8. When power required is minimum then Ans : d

𝐶𝐿 1
a. |
𝐶𝐷 𝑚𝑎𝑥
, 𝐶𝐿 = √𝐶𝐷0 /(𝜋 .𝐴𝑅.𝑒)

𝐶𝐿 1
b. |
𝐶𝐷 𝑚𝑖𝑛
, 𝐶𝐿 = √𝐶𝐷0 /(𝜋 .𝐴𝑅.𝑒)

𝐶𝐿 3/2 1
c. | , 𝐶𝐿 = √3𝐶𝐷0 /( )
𝐶𝐷 𝜋 .𝐴𝑅.𝑒
𝑚𝑖𝑛
3/2
𝐶𝐿 1
d. 𝐶𝐷
| , 𝐶𝐿 = √3𝐶𝐷0 /(𝜋 .𝐴𝑅.𝑒)
𝑚𝑎𝑥
9. In following figure represents power required vs true air speed for same aircraft. What is the
correct order of altitude? Ans : c

a. 𝐻1 = 𝐻2
b. 𝐻1 > 𝐻2
c. 𝐻1 < 𝐻2
d. Insufficient data

10. For given figure identify static pressure, total pressure and dynamic pressure respectively. Ans:d

a. 𝑃1 , 𝑃2 , 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
b. 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 , 𝑃1 , 𝑃2
c. 𝑃1 , 𝑃2 , 𝑃2 − 𝑃1
d. 𝑃2 , 𝑃1 , 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

11. Using standard atmosphere and given table find the temperature at 1500 feet. Ans : a

Altitude (feet) Temperature (° 𝑭)

1000 55.7
6000 37.87

a. 53.9 (° 𝐹)
b. 39.9 (° 𝐹)
c. 53.8 (° 𝐹)
d. 38.8 (° 𝐹)
Introduction to Airplane Performance
Assignment – Week 3

1. Suppose an aircraft is flying in such atmosphere that there is no wind. As altitude increases, how
Mach number changes for same speed. Ans : a
a. Increases.
b. Decreases.
c. Remains unchanged.
d. Insufficient data.

2. For same speed as altitude increases how Reynold’s number and viscosity of flow changes
respectively. Ans : b
a. Increases, increases.
b. Decreases, decreases.
c. Decreases, increases.
d. Increases, decreases.

3. Under same atmospheric conditions when landing gears are taken in from out position. Among
𝐶𝐷0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑘 which will change significantly ? Ans : b
a. 𝑘.
b. 𝐶𝐷0 .
c. Both equal.
d. Can’t say.

4. A low speed aircraft while tested under same aerodynamic conditions in a wind tunnel, what we
duplicate for dynamic similarity point of view. Ans : a, d

a. Reynolds number.
b. Mach number.
c. Angle of attack.
d. Ratio of inertia to viscous force.
5. In 2D aerofoil 𝐶𝑑 increases with angle of attack. This increment is due to increment in :
ans : c
a. Only induced drag.
b. Only skin friction.
c. Only flow separation.
d. Induced drag and skin friction.

6. In following figure for a given altitude power available and power required Vs velocity plot is
given. At which velocity the rate of climb will be maximum? Ans : c

A B C D

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D

7. Which of the following parameters can be read from the parabolic polar diagram of an
airplane? Ans : d
a. The aspect ratio of the wing and the induced drag coefficient.
b. The minimum rate of descent and the induced drag.
c. The induced drag and the parasite drag.
d. The minimum glide angle and the parasite drag coefficient.

Data for question 8 to 12

Drag polar of an aircraft is given by
𝐶𝐷 = .020 + .019 𝐶𝐿2 and
8. What is the value of parasite drag coefficient? Ans : a
a. 0.020
b. 0.019
c. 1.052
d. 1.025

𝐶𝐿
9. is maximum for 𝐶𝐿 = Ans : c
𝐶𝐷

a. 1.052
b. 1.777
c. 1.025
d. Insufficient data

𝐶𝐿 3/2
10. 𝐶𝐷
is maximum for 𝐶𝐿 = Ans : b

a. 1.052
b. 1.777
c. 3.157
d. Insufficient data

11. For thrust required minimum theoretically at what angle of attack the aircraft is flying? Is this
angle of attack advisable? Ans : b

a. 13 degree, yes
b. 13 degree, no
c. 22.6 degree, yes
d. 22.6 degree, no

12. For power required minimum theoretically at what angle of attack the aircraft is flying? Is this
angle of attack advisable? Ans : d

a. 13 degree, yes
b. 13 degree, no
c. 22.6 degree, yes
d. 22.6 degree, no
Introduction to Airplane Performance
Assignment – Week 4

1. For same aircraft in which of the following cities the required runway length will be minimum.
Ans : a
a. Chennai.
b. Bengaluru.

. Ans : d
a. 0.20 deg.
b. 11.48 deg.
c. 0.11 deg.
d. 6.63 deg.

. Ans : b
a. 0.20 deg.
b. 11.48 deg.
c. 0.11 deg.
d. 6.63 deg.

Ans : a

a. ,
b. ,

c. ,

d. ,

Ans : d

a. ,

b. ,

c. ,

d. ,

6. For an aircraft is 12.2. What is minimum glide angle:

ans : c
a. 1.48 deg.
b. 0.08 deg.
c. 4.62 deg.
d. 6.42 deg.

7. For an aircraft is 12.2. What will be maximum range possible if gliding starts at an
altitude of 3000 meters? (neglect wind) Ans : a

a. 36.6 Km
b. 4.4 km
c. 240 m
d. 19.26 Km
8. Power required curve for a propeller driven airplane is shown in following figure. What are
velocity corresponding to maximum range and maximum endurance respectively?
Ans : b

a. ,
b. ,
c. , .
d. , .

9. In following figure the area under curve represents? Ans : a

Where,
W0 : Gross weight of airplane
W1 : Weight of airplane without fuel
c : Specific fuel consumption
P : Engine power
a. Range
b. Consumed fuel
c. Endurance
d. Duration of flight

10. In following figure the area under curve represents? Ans : c

Where,
W0 : Gross weight of airplane
W1 : Weight of airplane without fuel
c : Specific fuel consumption
P: Engine power
a. Range
b. Consumed fuel
c. Endurance
d. Duration of flight
Introduction to Airplane Performance
Assignment – Week 5

1. Take off distance can be reduced by

Ans : c

2. For an aircraft the stall velocity for cruise is 40 m/sec and during a maneuver the load factor is 9.
The stall velocity during this maneuver will be
. Ans : d
a. 40 m/sec.
b. 150 m/sec.
c. 13.33 m/sec.
d. 120m/sec.

3. Weight of an aircraft is 1500 kg , during a maneuver the load factor is 9. The lift during this
maneuver will be
. Ans : a
a. 132.3 kN.
b. 44.1 kN.
c. 14.7 kN.
d. 13.5 kN.

4. Using slots in flaps how stall angle is effected Ans : a

a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Unchanged
d. Can’t say

a. Increase in
b. Decrease in
c. Unchanged
d. None of the above

6. As altitude increases, Ans : a

a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Unchanged
d. None of the above

7. Because of ground effect the overall drag Ans : b

a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Unchanged
d. None of the above

8. With altitude the calibrated Ans : c

a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Unchanged
d. None of the above

9. With increase in Thrust to weight ratio (T/W), ground distance for take-off Ans : b

a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Unchanged
d. None of the above

10. At corner velocity in V-n diagram Ans : a

a. and
b. and
c. and
d. and
Introduction to Airplane Performance
Assignment – Week 6

1. During landing the ground roll distance can be reduced by

Ans :c

2. With increase in Thrust to weight ratio (Treversal/W), ground roll distance for landing
Ans : b

a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Unchanged
d. None of the above

3. If there is fog on the runway, how this will change the landing distance
. Ans :a
a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Unchanged
d. None of the above

4. Using slots in flaps how stall angle is effected Ans : a

a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Unchanged
d. Can’t say

For an aircraft:
CLmax= 2.39, Weight = 33112 kg, S = 88.26 m2
Density of air = 1.210 kg/m3
5. Average flight velocity during flare is Ans b

a. 202.33 m/s
b. 61.67 m/s
c. 19.69 m/s
d. 78.77 m/s

a. 189.17 m/s
b. 57.66 m/s
c. 18.41 m/s
d. 73.64 m/s

a. 1940.40 m
b. 19015 m
c. 1520.30 m
d. 1273.64 m

a. 265.40 m
b. 305.55 m
c. 170.30 m
d. 235.48 m

9. If approach angle is 3o than flare distance will be Ans d

a. 237.60 m
b. 205.55 m
c. 333.17 m
d. 101.55 m

10. If ground distance is 610m than total landing distance will be Ans a

a. 947.03 m
b. 976.95 m
c. 881.85 m
d. 1017.10 m
Introduction to Airplane Performance
Assignment – Week 7
1. What determines the longitudinal stability of an airplane?
Ans :b
a. relationship of thrust to weight and drag.
b. location of CG with respect to the neutral point.
c. location of CG with respect to maneuvering point.
d. none of the above.

2. The conventional vertical tail of an aircraft contributes toward Ans : d

a. longitudinal stability
b. lateral stability
c. directional stability
d. both lateral and directional stability

3. If the center of gravity of the aircraft moves forward. The effort required by pilot to trim the
aircraft will Ans : a

a. always increase
b. sometimes may increase
c. remain same
d. decrease

4. For static stability following condition must be satisfied Ans a

a. 𝐶𝑚𝛼 <0
b. 𝐶𝑚𝛼 < 0, 𝐶𝑚0 > 0
c. 𝐶𝑚𝛼 > 0, 𝐶𝑚0 > 0
d. 𝐶𝑚𝛼 < 0, 𝐶𝑚0 < 0

a. positive to the longitudinal stability

b. negative to the longitudinal stability
c. does not affect the stability
d. none of the above
6. A positive tail incidence angle setting, as compared to negative tail incidence angle setting, will
result in Ans c

a. more static stability

b. less static stability
c. same static stability
d. can’t say

7. For a cambered airfoil, 𝐶𝑚0𝑎.𝑐.,𝑤 is Ans b

a. always positive
b. always negative
c. zero
d. can’t say

8. Due to some fault, pilot realized that maximum up and down elevator movement was reduced
by 20%. To ensure that during the landing reduced elevator movement required for trim, the
pilot should request the passengers Ans a

a. to move backward
b. to move forward
c. evenly distribute left and right of fuselage
d. pray to god

9. If the vertical tail was inverted and put below the horizontal tail of the aircraft at same distance
from CG of aircraft as earlier, then its contribution to lateral stability will Ans c

a. increase
b. decrease
c. remain same
d. can’t say

10. If the elevator size is decreased, keeping the tail area same. The static longitudinal stability will
Ans c

a. increase
b. decrease
c. remain same
d. can’t say
Introduction to Airplane Performance
Assignment – Week 8
Data for Question 1 to 5
For a general aircraft flying at straight and level at sea level following details are given

Geometry and Flight conditions

𝑆 = 17.09 𝑚 2 𝑆𝑡 = 4 𝑚2 , Tail span= 4.4 m
𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 = 10.18 𝑚 𝑙𝑡 = 4.88 𝑚
𝑐̅ = 1.74 𝑚 𝑋𝑐𝑔 = 0.259𝑐̅
𝑊 = 1247.4 𝑘𝑔 𝑉 = 53.64 𝑚/𝑠

Wing Airfoil Characteristics Tail Airfoil

𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑐 = −0.07 𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑐 = 0.0
𝑐𝑙𝛼 = 0.09/𝑑𝑒𝑔 𝑐𝑙𝛼 = 0.05/𝑑𝑒𝑔
𝛼0𝐿 = −5 𝑑𝑒𝑔 𝑖𝑡 = 0.0 𝑑𝑒𝑔
𝑋𝑎𝑐 = 0.25𝑐̅
𝑖𝑤 = 0.0 𝑑𝑒𝑔

1. What is the 𝐶𝑚0𝑤 for the above aircraft Ans: b

(a) 0.067

(b) -0.067

(c) 0.07

(d) -0.07

2. What is the total 𝐶𝑚0 for the aircraft (assume 𝐶𝑚0 = 0, 𝜂 = 1, ) Ans: d
𝑓

(a) 0.067

(b) -0.081

(c) 0.014

(d) -0.008
3. What is the stick fixed neutral point for the aircraft (Take 𝐶𝑚𝛼 = 0.13 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑑 ) Ans: a
𝑓

4. For the aircraft what is the static margin Ans: b

(a) 0.1652

(b) 0.1828

(c) 0.7687

(d) 0.1084

5. If for the above aircraft, if we want𝐶𝑚0 = 0.047. What should be the tail incidence angle:

Ans: c

(a) ≈ 5 𝑑𝑒𝑔

(b) ≈ −5 𝑑𝑒𝑔

(c) ≈ −2 𝑑𝑒𝑔

(d) ≈ 2 𝑑𝑒𝑔

6. In an aircraft without changing any other dimensions the tail setting angle is increased by 5
degree. Due to this change the longitudinal stability of aircraft will Ans: c

(a) Increase

(b) Decrease

(d) Can't say

7. In an aircraft without changing any other dimensions the distance of tail from CG is increased.
Due to this change the longitudinal stability of aircraft will Ans: a

(a) Increase

(b) Decrease

(d) Can't say

8. If there is tail wind during the flight. How will this affect the range and endurance of flight
respectively? Ans: c

(a) Increase, Increase

(b) Increase, Decrease
(c) Increases, Unchanged
(d) Increases, Slightly decreases

9. During a flight for a given airplane the rate of climb at sea level is 2 m/sec and the true air speed
is 60 m/sec. If the density of air at sea level and at 1500 m altitude is 1.226 kg/m3 and 1.056
kg/m3 respectively. At 1500 m altitude to achieve the rate of climb of 2 m/sec the required
calibrated air speed will be Ans: c

Ans: b