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LAB # 1

INTRODUCTION TO SIMPOWER SYSTEM

Procedure

Circuit diagram in SimPower System:

Simulink model

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Observations and Results

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Questions

1) Build and simulate electrical circuits using the powerlib library. Interface an electrical
circuit with Simulink blocks. Build your own nonlinear models. Show the output below.

2) Why is SimPower Systems software tool so useful to scientists and engineers?

3) Which models of typical power equipment does the SimPower Systems libraries contain?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

3
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

4
LAB # 2
DIFFERENT BLOCKS OF SIMPOWER TOOL BOX

Procedure

Circuit diagram in SimPower System:

Simulink model

5
Description of Different blocks of SimPower System toolbox as given below:

1) Three Phase Source

2) Three Phase Circuit Breaker

3) Three Phase V-I Measurement

6
4) Three Phase Fault

5) Three Phase Rlc Load (Series or Parallel)

6) Three Phase Transformer

7
7) Power GUI

8) Scope

9) Demux

8
10) Subsystem

11) RMS Block

Questions

1) Explain the importance of SimPower System software to power engineers and researchers
in power area.

9
2) Classify the different blocks of SimPower System Toolbox.

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

10
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

11
LAB # 3
MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SIMPLE POWER SYSTEM HAVING
THREE PHASE COMPONENTS

Procedure

Circuit Diagram:
1) Draw the circuit diagram of a simple power system having following components:
Source, Phase circuit breaker, VI measurement unit, RLC series load and Fault.

Simulink model

12
Observations and Results

1) Run the simulation and observe and record the current and voltage waveform on Scope.

2) Find the peak value of current and voltage in each phase when the circuit breaker is closed
and note below.

3) Connect the RMS block in each phase of the output current and find RMS value of the current in
each phase.

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4) Find the steady state RMS value of current by using “Powergui” block. Now compare the
RMS value of the current observed on the scope with its exact value obtained from its steady
state analysis.

Questions

1) Why does the utilities worldwide have sophisticated protective equipment?

2) What are the different types of phase and ground faults?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

14
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

15
LAB # 4
MODELING OF OVER CURRENT RELAY

Procedure

Circuit diagram of Over-current relay:

Simulink model
16
Observations and Results
Check and record the output of the “Over-Current Relay” in the three different fault conditions.

1) Single Line-to-Ground (L-G) fault

2) Double line-to-Ground (L-L-G) fault

3) Three Phase Ground (L-L-L) fault

17
Observe the waveforms of both current and voltage on respective scope and record them.

Questions
1) Add third input to the “Over-Current" Relay. When reset is “1” it must close the breaker.
When reset is “0” system must retain its state. Set the total simulation time to 0.5s. Initially
breaker will be open. Energize the system by this reset input at t = 0.1s. Then a fault should
occur at t = 0.25s and relay must clear the fault. Attach the Modified Simulink model,
output on scope and details of modification of this model. Your assignment should be
complete in all respects.

18
Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

19
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

20
LAB # 5
MODELING OF DEFINITE TIME OVER-CURRENT RELAY

Procedure

Circuit Diagram:

Simulink model

21
Observations and Results

Observe the waveforms of both current and voltage on respective scope and record them.

22
1) Model a “Definite Time Over-Voltage Relay”. Voltage setting should be 1.1 times that of
RMS value of nominal voltage. To produce over voltage condition in the system use “Three-
phase programmable voltage source” instead of “Three phase voltage source”. Over-voltage
in the system cannot be modeled by using “three phase fault”. Three-phase fault can only
produce short-circuit fault.
2) Add another input to the “Definite Time Over-Voltage Relay” to reset the relay. This
“reset” input should have same characteristics as mentioned in assignment of lab session 1.
Attach the Simulink model, output on scope and details of modifications of this model.
Note: To produce over-voltage condition in the system use “Three-phase programmable
voltage source” instead of “Three-phase voltage source”. Over voltage in the system cannot
be modeled by using “three-phase fault”. Three-phase fault can only produce short-circuit
fault.

23
Questions

1) Explain the DTOC relay type.

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

24
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

25
LAB # 6
COORDINATION OF DTOC RELAY IN POWER SYSTEM

Procedure

Fig 1.1: Simulink model

Observations and Results

Simulate a small radial system having a single generating source and multiple loads.
Determine the normal operating current in various section of the power system so that the
“Pick-up setting” for the protection relays can be determined. Model the DTOC relay as in
lab # 5.

26
Measure the RMS value of current of Scope 1 and Scope 2. Calculate the pick-up value of
current for the relays to be installed.
Current 1 RMS value = I1 = Current 2 RMS value = I2 =
Pick-up Value for Relay 1 =1.4x I1 = Pick-up Value for Relay 2 =1.4x I2 =

Make a subsystem named DTOC Relay 1. Implement the model of DTOC relay in this
subsystem as in lab # 5. Connect this relay block to the circuit breaker. Create a copy of this
subsystem to connect with the other breaker. Set the “pick-up” and “time delay setting” in the
relay.

Observe the waveforms of both current and voltage on respective scope during fault time
interval.

27
Simulate the following fault conditions and describe your results obtained.
1) A fault in section 2 of the power system with Time setting of relay1 > Time Setting of Relay 2

2) A fault in section 2 of the power system with Time setting of relay1 < Time Setting of Relay 2

3) A fault in section 2 of the power system with any time setting of relay 2

4) Explain how Relay 1 works as a Back-up Protection for section 2 of the power system

5) What is the necessary condition for Relay Coordination in this system?

28
6) What is the disadvantage of setting DTOC time-delay to a very high value?

Questions

1) Explain the concept of relay coordination and selectivity.

2) Explain the effect of absence of relay coordination and the concept of back-up protection.

3) What is the disadvantage of setting DTOC time-delay to a very high value?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

29
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

30
LAB # 7
CALCULATE THE OVER-VOLTAGE, UNDER-VOLTAGE & THE TIME SETTING FOR
THE OVER/UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY

Procedure

Fig 1.1: Simulink model

31
Measurements:

Measure the RMS value of phase-voltages by steady state analysis of the system. Calculate
the Pick-up values of voltage for the relay.
Under-voltage value = 0.9 * RMS value of voltage =
Over-voltage value = 1.1 * RMS value of voltage =

Observations and Results

Fig 1.1: Simulink model

Questions

1) How to calculate the over-voltage and under-voltage condition for the system.

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

32
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

33
LAB # 8
MODELING OF DEFINITE OVER VOLTAGE AND UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY

Procedure

Simulink model

34
Observations and Results
Complete the logic implementation of “DTOV & DTUV Relay” and draw the output which comes on
the scope.

Also check the performance of the relay in following conditions.


1) Three-phase programmable voltage source (Source):
Time value: [0 0.07 0.2 0.3 0.4],
Time delay = 0.06s,
Reset at 0.25s and 0.42s

35
2) Three-phase programmable voltage source (Source):
Time value: [0 0.1 0.2 0.28 0.38],
Time delay = 0.05s,
Reset at 0.24s and 0.45s

Questions

1) What is the difference between Over-Voltage and Under-Voltage Relay?

2) How will you determine the time settings of Over-Voltage Relay?

36
3) How will you determine the time settings of Under-Voltage Relay?

4) What is the difference between Voltage Dip and Swell?

5) Will the construction of Over-Voltage and Under-Voltage Relay be same or different?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

37
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

38
LAB # 9
TO UNDERSTAND THE MODELING &WORKING OF OVER- FREQUENCY & UNDER
FREQUENCY RELAY

Procedure

Simulink model

39
Observations and Results
Run the system at lower and upper limits of frequency by setting the frequency of voltage source to
49Hz and 51Hz, and observe the output of gain on “display”. Set the values of blocks according to
observation and note down the observations. Output of “gain” at
50Hz: ________, 49Hz: ________, 51Hz: ________
Upper limit (51Hz): ________, Lower limit (49Hz): ________

40
Questions
1) What is relationship between frequency and area under the curve for sine wave?

2) What are the causes for over-frequency and under-frequency in power system?

3) How much frequency variations are acceptable in Power system operation?

4) How we recover the frequency of generator in case of over-frequency or under-frequency?

41
5) How the frequency of system will vary by changing active and reactive load demand?

6) Explain the effect of variation in the speed of prime mover?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

42
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

43
LAB # 10
MODEL THE OVER-FREQUENCY &UNDER FREQUENCY RELAY IN THE GIVEN
SYSTEM

Procedure

Simulink model

44
Observations and Results
Simulate the system. Use frequency relay modeled in the last lab and set the following parameters of
“three phase programmable voltage source” and record the output.
Frequency (in all conditions): 50Hz, Normal Condition: Step magnitude: 0, Over Frequency: Step
magnitude: 1.5, Under Frequency: Step magnitude: -1.5

Assignment:
Modify your frequency relay to add four other inputs: Upper frequency limit, Lower frequency limit,
Time delay and Reset. Your relay must accept the frequency limits in Hz and delay in seconds.
Energize the system using “reset” on start and after fault clearance. Attach the simulink model, output
on scope (voltage only) for time delay (0.02s & 0.1s) and details of modifications of the simulink
model.

45
Questions

1) Draw the graph between frequency of the system and active power demand?

2) Draw the graph between frequency of the system and reactive power demand?

3) What are the effects of variations of frequency on transformer?

4) What are the effects of variations of frequency on cables and transmission lines?

5) What are the effects of variation of frequency on motors, generators and capacitor
banks?

46
6) What are the causes of over-frequency and under-frequency in a power system?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

47
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

48
LAB # 11
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION MODEL FOR POWER TRANSFORMER

Procedure

Simulink model

49
Observations and Results
Observe the waveforms of both current and voltage on respective scope during fault time interval and
record them below.

50
Run the simulation and observe the waveforms of currents on both scopes and record them.

2) In the last figure of this Lab session, Fault 1 and Fault 3 are outside the protected zone of
differential relay, so relay does not trip. But Fault 2 occurs inside the protected zone so relay picks the
fault and opens the circuit breaker to clear it.
Note: If the simulation is taking a long time to complete, change the “powergui” setting from
“Continuous” to “Discrete” and set sample time 50e6. The “powergui” block is present on the top left
corner of the main Simulink file. If “powergui” block is not present in the file, place it from
SimPower-Systems toolbox.
Perform this simulation and describe your observations.

51
Questions
1) Differentiate between differential protection and percentage differential protection?

2) What is the basic principal of differential protection?

3) How differential protection works for busbars?

4) Can we use differential protection for motors? Answer with reason.

52
5) What types of settings are required for differential relay?

6) What is the current balance or circulating current protection scheme?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

53
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

54
LAB # 12
IMPLEMENTATION OF A UNIVERSAL RELAY (an open ended lab)
Implement a “Universal relay” that protects the power system in the following conditions:
Short circuit fault, Over-Voltage, Under-Voltage, Relay must be “define-time” and “resettable”, Relay
must have following inputs, Three-Phase voltage (output of VT), Three-Phase current (output of CT),
Current setting (pick-up value), Over-Voltage setting, Under-Voltage setting, Time delay, Reset

Procedure

Simulink model

55
Observations and Results

Simulate the system for 1sec and show all operation of relay in single simulation time in
following sequence. Energize the system through “reset”.
1) Short circuit fault, relay must clear this fault after specified time delay. Reset
the relay after removal of fault.
2) Over voltage fault, relay must clear this fault after specified time delay. Reset
the relay after removal of fault.
3) Under voltage fault, relay must clear this fault after specified delay. Reset the
relay after removal of fault.

56
Questions

1) Explain the concept of a universal relay?

2) What are the applications of a universal relay?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

57
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

58
LAB # 13
INTRODUCTION TO ETAP SOFTWARE

Procedure

ETAP model

59
Editing Element Properties:

1) Motor Properties

2) Cable Properties

3) Transformer Properties

60
4) Lumped Load Properties

5) Bus Properties

6) Power Grid Properties

61
Observations and Results

Running Load Flow Analysis


1) After running the Load Flow Analysis, illustrate the results displayed on the one-line
diagram.

2) Looking at the results on the one-line, note that the operating voltage of Bus4 is 96.77%.
This caused the bus to be flagged as marginally under voltage in the Alert View window. The
criteria for which a condition is flagged can be changed in the Load Flow Study Case editor.
We will now use the bus voltage regulation feature of the Transformer Editor to change our
Load Flow results.
ETAP allows Auto LTC settings to be applied to regulate buses that are directly or indirectly
connected to a transformer. Now run a Load Flow study again, with attention paid to the
operating voltage of Bus4. Click the Run Load Flow button on the Load Flow toolbar to do so.

62
Questions

1) What does the term ETAP stand for?

2) Explain the desirable features of ETAP software in power systems?

3) Explain the term Load Flow Analysis.

4) What does PD stand for in One-line diagram?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

63
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

64
LAB # 14
SHORT-CIRCUIT & MOTOR ACCELERATION ANALYSIS IN ETAP SOFTWARE

Procedure

ETAP model

65
Setting the parameters in one line diagram for the following elements:

Utility

Transformers

Generator

66
Circuit Breakers

Cables

Transformers

67
Load

Observations and Results

1) Run the load flow analysis and paste a screen shot of the results.

68
2) Running a Short Circuit Analysis will generate an output report. Discuss your observations
here.

69
3) Running a Static Motor Starting Study
Run the study by clicking on the Run Static Motor Starting button on the Motor Starting
toolbar. Plot the output reports.

70
4) Running a Dynamic Motor Starting Study
Run the study by clicking on the Run Dynamic Motor Starting button on the Motor Starting
toolbar. Plot the output reports.

71
View the plots that are generated. Click the Motor Starting Plots button on the Motor Starting
toolbar and draw the results.

Questions

1) What does Short-circuit Analysis program do in ETAP software?

2) What is the purpose of Motor Acceleration Analysis in ETAP software?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

72
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

73
LAB # 15
TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS & RELAY CONTROLLED ACTIONS IN ETAP
SOFTWARE

Part 1: Transient Stability Analysis in ETAP software


Procedure

ETAP model
74
Observations and Results

1) The output plot is displayed in figure. Looking at the profile, when the fault occurred, the
generator power angle swing to 65 deg. After the fault was cleared, it oscillated and was
damped gradually approaching closely to its initial position. Based on this behavior, Gen1
stays in synchronous with the utility. Discuss the output plots obtained.

75
Part 2: Relay Controlled Actions in ETAP software
Procedure

ETAP model
76
Results:
1) On the “Transient Stability Plot Selection” dialog box, set the options to display the
frequency plot for “Bus3”. Draw frequency graph of “Bus3” below.

2) Set frequency relay “In service”. Run the simulation and observe the frequency plot of
“Bus3”. Draw the frequency graph below.

77
Observations and Results

Task # 1
In the power system that is under consideration, if a fault occurs at “Bus4” for 0.1 sec then
study its effect on the stability of synchronous generator “Gen1” for 15 sec. Now increase the
fault duration up to 0.5 sec and again observe its effect on the stability of “Gen1”. Compare
these results with the previous results. Write down the comments based on your observations.

78
Questions

1) What is the Purpose of Transient Stability Analysis in ETAP?

2) What is an event (intentional or unintentional) in an electrical system?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

79
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

80
LAB # 16
PROJECTS AND EVALUATION USING ETAP SOFTWARE (an open ended lab)

Procedure

81
model

82
Observations and Results

83
ANSI/IEEE Standard Device
Numbers

In North America protective relays are generally referred to by standard device


numbers. Letters are sometimes added to specify the application (IEEE Standard
C37.2-2008).

Device Numbers (most commonly used)


21 - Distance Relay
24 - Volts per Hertz Relay
25 - Synchronizing or Synchronism-Check Device
27 - Undervoltage Relay
32 - Directional Power Relay
40 - Field (over/under excitation) Relay
50 - Instantaneous Overcurrent
51 - AC Inverse Time Overcurrent Relay
52 - AC Circuit Breaker
59 - Overvoltage Relay
67 - AC Directional Overcurrent Relay
87 - Differential Protective Relay

Suffixes indicating zone of protection


B –Bus
G – Ground or generator
L—Line
N –Neutral
T – Transformer
U—Unit

Task
Students are required to memorize the above given device numbers and their names. They will be
evaluated in oral viva.
Questions

1) What is meant by relay coordination?

84
2) What is the role of a grid station in power system?

3) What is the difference between GIS and AIS grid stations?

4) Compare Electromechanical and microprocessor based relays?

Learning Outcomes

What did you learn in this experiment?

85
GENERALIZED LAB RUBRICS
Component with Above Meeting Approaching Below Weight / Score
Used
Taxonomy Expectation (4) Expectation (3) Expectation (2) Expectation (1) 100 (1–4)

Is able to build a Is able to assemble a Is only able to Is not able to


given setup neatly given setup using copy a given assemble a given
and timely using correct hardware setup using setup using
correct hardware components after correct hardware correct hardware
Building
components and / minor revisions components components ☐
(Hardware) – P4
or can reorganize /
adapt to new /
special
requirements

Recording Is able to record Is able to record Is only able to Is unable to


Measurements accurate accurate record accurate record accurate

(Hardware / measurements all measurements most measurements on measurements
Software) – C3 the time of the time some occasions

Is able to Is able to Is not able to Is unable to


formulate/develop evaluate/conclude evaluate/conclude comprehend
theories in correctly about correctly about investigation
addition to investigation investigation parameters
Investigation
evaluating/conclu parameters by parameters by
(Hardware / ☐
ding correctly assessing data assessing data
Software) – C5
about
investigation
parameters by
assessing data

Design / Is able to design / Is able to design / Is able to Is unable to


Development of develop the develop the solution partially design / partially design /
Solution solution of a given of a given problem develop the develop the ☐
(Hardware / problem and add solution of a solution of a
Software) – C6 features to it given problem given problem

Is adept in the use Is able to use the Is able to use the Is unable to use
of software tool software tool software tool but the software tool
Software Usage
and can access effectively by cannot access all ☐
(Software) – C3
advanced features accessing all the the required
required features features

Is able to Is able to complete a Is able to Is unable to


efficiently given task using partially partially
complete a given required complete a given complete a given
task using programming task task
Programming advanced language constructs
Language programming / methods /

(Software) – C3– language commands
C6 constructs /
methods /
commands and/or
add features to the
original task

86