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CHAPTER 2

COMMUNICATION AND GLOBALIZATION


Ernesto P. Ramos, Jr.

“While globalization will make the


world smaller and more accessible, we must
continue to appreciate its vibrant diversity.”
-Jean-Philippe Courtois

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this chapter, you are expected to:

1. Explain how cultural and global issues affect communication;
2.Appreciate the differences of the varieties of spoken and
written language;
3.Write a reaction paper;
4.Determine culturally appropriate terms, expressions, and
images; and
5.Adopt cultural values and intercultural awareness and
sensitivity in communicating ideas.
Lesson 2.1
GLOBALIZATION AND ITS EFFECT ON COMMUNICATION

“Globalization is simply opening the free marketplace to encompass


the entire world.”
-P. J. O’Rourke

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, you are expected to:

1. Explain in your own words the meaning of globalization, and its
effect on communication, and

2.Display creatively your understanding of globalization.

PRE-TASK: Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

World Youth Report 2005


Source: https://www.un.org/development/desa/youth/globalization-wpay.
html
A. Globalization

1. Globalization, roughly defined as the global integration of


economies and societies,a affects many aspects of young peoples’ lives.
Youth have an ambiguous relationship with the globalizing world, both
economically and culturally. On the one hand, they are most flexible and
perhaps best able to adapt to and make use of new opportunities offered.
They are the best educated generation on new information technologies;
they benefit from economic growth; many travel around the world for work,
studies, exchange projects and vacation; and telephone and the Internet
enable them to stay in touch with friends and relatives abroad. On the
other hand, many youth, especially in developing countries, have been left
out of the digitalization and modernization process and lack the economic
power to benefit from the opportunities globalization offers. Four effects
of globalization on the lives of young people are discussed below in more
detail; the distribution of employment opportunities, migration, youth
culture and consumerism, and global citizenship and activism.
28 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization
2. Globalization can be a powerful force for poverty reduction.
Many countries have seen improvements in their welfare and educational
systems as a consequence of globalization. Unfortunately, about 2 billion
people live in countries that do not benefit from globalization, mainly in
parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Western Asia, and the former Soviet Union.b
These countries have seen a declining economic growth rate, loss of jobs,
low incomes, and poor education and health provision. The income gap is
widening not only between, but also within countries.

3. Globalization has substantially changed the job market, to which


young people, as newcomers, are “most vulnerable”. New technologies have
replaced manual labour, mainly affecting low skilled jobs in the service
sector. Even in China, which has seen remarkable economic growth, the
rate of unemployment is rising due to the ongoing transformation from
agriculture to the less employment intensive manufacturing and service
industries, the reform of state-owned enterprises and the reorganization
of the public sector. Trade liberalization forces companies to become more
flexible and competitive. Many have become increasingly dependent on low-
cost, flexible labour, often employed on an irregular basis. The outsourcing
of sophisticated programming assignments and semi-skilled jobs in call
centres to low-wage countries is perhaps the best known example of the
global shift of employment opportunities for young people.

4. Migration, both within and between countries, is another
aspect of globalization. Young people have always been a significant group
among migrants. As foreign investment often creates job opportunities in
the cities of host countries, rural workers move to the cities. In 2003, 48
per cent of the world’s population lived in urban areas, and it is projected
that over 50 per cent will do so by 2007.c In 2002, there were 175 million
international migrants. On the basis of available immigration data, it
is estimated that some 15 per cent, or 26 million, are youth.d Every day
thousands of young people illegally try to pursue a life of fortune in a rich
country, often motivated by unrealistic information and high expectations.
A parallel industry of illicit travel agents, job brokers and middlemen has
arisen, which directs the trafficking of these migrants. The past two decades
have seen a dramatic increase in the trafficking of girls and young women,
who are often lured into prostitution. Young women and girls who are
impoverished, uneducated or from indigenous, ethnic minority, rural or
refugee groups are most vulnerable to being trafficked.

5. Globalization has numerous consequences for youth cultures. The


increase in media streams has resulted in global consumerism. Through
television, music videos and movies, American and European-produced
content is increasingly dominating entertainment around the world. Young
people tend to adopt and interpret global products in terms of their own
local cultures and experiences, thereby creating new hybrid cultural forms

English for Purposive Communication | 29


whose meanings vary with local and national circumstances. Many youth
in developing countries, as well as marginalized youth in the industrialized
world, are unable to fulfil their raised expectations of material wellbeing.
This may result in alienation and frustration and, potentially, in crime and
social strife.

6. Young people around the world show concern about the negative
consequences of globalization, such as unequal distribution of wealth
and environmental degradation. The anti-globalization movement has
expanded all over the world and comprises a heterogeneous group of non-
governmental organizations, student groups, political organizations and
civil rights activists. The movement fights for various issues such as global
justice, fair trade, debt relief, and sustainable development. Remarkable
results have been achieved in the last two decades, including in the
recognition of basic universal rights and in the prevention of global threats.
Despite the presence of many active youth in the international arena, it
may be argued that the diverse landscape of issues, opinions, interests and
beliefs among young people hampers the emergence of a strong unified
voice of young people and of a global youth and student movement.

7. In order to address some of the concerns related to migration


of youth, young people need to have viable alternatives to remain in their
countries. This means addressing root causes such as poverty, and by doing
so, seeking to redress the inequalities between rich and poor nations. It
also requires that young people are provided, through education and
skills training, with the knowledge and confidence to become successful
participants in the labour markets of their own countries.

8. Most migration data is not disaggregated by age. Data on the


outflow and inflow of young nationals would be a useful supplement to an
analysis of the global youth employment situation.
Footnotes:
a. See World Bank, Globalization, Growth and Poverty: Building an Inclusive World Economy
(Washington, D.C., and New York, World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2002).
b. Ibid.
c. See United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision (United Nations
publication, Sales No. 04.XIII.6).
d. See estimate based on the average age composition of the 10 largest immigration countries;
based on data provided by the United Nations Statistics Division.

Comprehension Questions:
Answer individually, then discuss your answers in groups with 3
– 5 members. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for
submission.
1. Based on the World Youth Report, what is globalization?
2. Do you agree that globalization can be a powerful force for
poverty reduction?
3. Discuss at least 3 consequences of globalization on the
youth.

30 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization


DIRECTIONS: Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.
Group Output:
Group number/name: ____________________
Group members (Surname, Given Name)
1.____________________ 4.____________________
2.____________________ 5.____________________
3.____________________

Question 1
What is globalization?
Based on the World Youth Report, globalization is . . .
Based on an internet source and/or book, globalization is . . .

Question 2
How many of your members agree that globalization can be a powerful
force for poverty reduction?
_____ of _____ members agree that globalization can be a powerful
source for poverty reduction.
Why do they agree?
Why do they disagree?
What do you think are the 3 most important consequences of
globalization on the youth?
Third most important consequence . . .
Second most important consequence . . . .
Most important consequence . . .

WHAT GLOBALIZATION IS
The UNESCO website defines globalization as a multidimensional process
characterized by:
• The acceptance of a set of economic rules for the entire world designed
to maximize profits and productivity by universalizing markets and
production, and to obtain the support of the state with a view to making
the national economy more productive and competitive;
• Technological innovation and organizational change centered on
flexibilization and adaptability;
• The expansion of a specific form of social organization based on
information as the main source of productivity and power;
• The reduction of the welfare state, privatization of social services,
flexibilization of labor relations and weaker trade unions;
• De facto transfer to trans-national organizations of the control of
national economic policy instruments, such as monetary policy, interest
rates and fiscal policy;
• The dissemination of common cultural values, but also the re-
emergence of nationalism, cultural conflict and social movements.”

English for Purposive Communication | 31


Globalization has been the buzzword in many academic, business, and political
circles for decades. The concept has both been viewed positively and negatively. This
is expected insofar as globalization does have beneficial and harmful consequences.
However, whether we like it or not, globalization is here to stay. Most countries are
“interconnected and form part of a single, interdependent global economy.” (Connor,
2014). And the best way to adapt to it is to anticipate and prepare for its foreseeable and
unforeseeable consequences.

Exercise 1
Identify whether the following words or phrases characterize globalization. Write
letter G if they characterize globalization and letter N if not. Write your answers on a
separate sheet of paper for submission.

______1. Improved connectivity


______2. Independent economies
______3. Cultural diversity
______4. Financial integrations
______5. Free trade

Exercise 2
Chicken and feathers. From the list of words given below, separate the causes from the
effects. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.

Improved telecommunications Worldwide division of labor


Change in supply chains Improved transportation facilities
Increase in free trade agreements Cultural impact
Environmental damage Increase in multinational corporations

Causes of Globalization Effects of Globalization


1._____________________________ 1._____________________________
2._____________________________ 2._____________________________
3._____________________________ 3._____________________________
4._____________________________ 4._____________________________

THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON COMMUNICATION


Communication is the lifeblood of any organization and globalization
poses new challenges to communication in any organization. One immediate
effect is the increase in intercultural communication. Communication in the
21st century is increasingly transnational and intercultural. Consequently,
effective global communication proves to be a challenge to many people since
cultural diversity increases the possibility of miscommunication. Consequently,

32 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization


it is assumed that poor communication leads to poor job performance and a
decrease in employee productivity.

Another important consequence of globalization is the rise of World


Englishes where each country boasts of its own variety of English. Experts claim
that the Englishes are different in relation to word use, pronunciation, accent, and
grammar. As such, the challenges to intercultural communication do not only
include problems in slang or idiomatic expressions which non-native speakers
usually find problematic, but also grammatical and pronunciation variations
and other verbal as well as non-verbal facets of language.

TASK
Infographics about Globalization
Please prepare an infographic about globalization. The following information should
be found in the infographic:
1.Definition of globalization,
2.Causes of globalization,
3.Effects of globalization, and
4.Effects of globalization to communication.
Submit your output online or print a copy and bring it to class next meeting. Ask your
teacher about it.

Your presentation will be graded based on the following


criteria:

+ Content =8
+ Creativity of presentation =8
+ Task achievement =4

20 pts.

English for Purposive Communication | 33


Lesson 2.2
WRITTEN VERSUS SPOKEN COMMUNICATION

“Write to be understood, speak to be heard, read to grow.”


-Lawrence Clark Powell

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, you are expected to:

1. Know the difference between written and spoken communication;
2.Appreciate the difference between written and spoken communication,
and
3.Use your knowledge of the difference to improve your communication
skills.

PRE-TASK: Examine the non-prose text below, and answer the reflection questions that follow.

Reflection Questions:
Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.
1. What does the cartoon tell us about written communication?
2. What does the cartoon tell us about verbal communication?

34 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization


COMPARING WRITTEN COMMUNICATION WITH VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
Some differences between written communication and verbal communication
are as follows:
1.Speaking is a social activity while writing is a solitary activity.
2.Speaking is universally learned while writing needs to be
taught.
3.Writing is generally planned while speaking is usually
unplanned.
4.Speaking makes use of gestures and facial expressions while
writing uses punctuation marks.
5.Writing creates a permanent output while speaking does not.
Furthermore, Crystal (2006) differentiates speech and writing in relation
to physical form where speech uses phonic substance and writing uses graphic
substance. He also differentiates writing from speaking in relation to structure
and use where he also describes speech as “time-bound, dynamic, and transient”
and writing as “space-bound, static, permanent” [emphasis supplied].

THE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENTIATING WRITTEN FROM


VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Knowing the difference between written and verbal communication can
help improve your communication skills. For example, you need to remember
that unlike a written output that can be read over and over again, effective
speaking requires the effective use of clear pronunciation, pausing, and
emphasis to ensure the listener understands the speech the first time it is heard
since there is a possibility that the audience cannot ask the speaker to repeat
the speech. For writing, it is acceptable to compress more words in a sentence
whereas in speaking this should definitely be avoided since long sentences are
harder to understand in speeches.
Formal Writing Informal Speaking
1 I want a banana
2 Na chet
3 Lemme go
4 Did you do it?
5 When did you get it?

English for Purposive Communication | 35


TASK
Discuss in at least one paragraph a technical term from one of your major subjects.
Please include a formal definition and technical descriptions of your chosen text. After
writing the first draft, write another draft for speaking (Use spacing and bold letters to
indicate pausing and emphasis. You may also simply shorten some sentences).

Pre-writing
Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.
Formal definition (Term + class + differentiating characteristic)
Technical descriptions
Other information about the chosen topic

Output 1 (Text for reading): Write your answers on a separate sheet of


paper for submission.
Name:_______________________________
Section:___________ Score:_____/40

Your output will be graded based on the following criteria:

+ Content = 4
+ Definition and descriptions =8
+ Task achievement =8

20 pts.
Output 2 (Text for speaking): Write your answers on a separate sheet of
paper for submission.
Name:_______________________________
Section:___________ Score:_____/40

Your output will be graded based on the following criteria:

+ Content = 4
+ Definition and descriptions =8
+ Task achievement =8

20 pts.

36 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization


English for Purposive Communication | 37
Lesson 2.3
WRITING A REACTION PAPER
“You have the ability to choose your reactions.”
-Steve Maraboli, Life, the Truth, and Being Free

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, you are expected to:

1. Learn some descriptive and evaluative words;
2.Know the basic parts of a reaction paper; and
3.Write a reaction paper on a chosen topic.

PRE-TASK 1: Identify the evaluative words which are positive/neutral by putting a check mark
(/) on the blank provided and putting a minus sign ( - ) on the negative evaluative word. Write
your answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.
________1. charismatics leads ________11. cliché-ridden
________2. avant-garde ________12. banal
________3. well-paced ________13. blasé
________4. juvenile ________14. stock plot
________5. second-rate ________15. formulaic
________6. intellectually stimulating ________16. stereotypical
________7. trite ________17. enigmatic
________8. riveting ________18. epic
________9. futuristic ________19. superficial
________10. gimmicky ________20. pretentious

PRE-TASK 2: Describe three films you have watched recently. Write at least three sentences
and use exactly 10 words from the list of evaluative words in pre-task 1. Write your answers on
a separate sheet of paper for submission.
1. Film 1
2. Film 2
3. Film 3

38 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization


WRITING A REACTION PAPER
One of the major writing tasks you will be asked to do in college is what
is known as a reaction paper. Although there is no strict standard in writing
a reaction paper, some professors have their own format which they expect
their students to follow. However, it can be noted that at least two things are
expected from a reaction paper. Firstly, it is expected that a summary or a
general description of the book, film, cultural belief, business practice, or any
idea, activity, event, or subject matter is provided. Here, the writer is expected
to enumerate and discuss the most important features of the subject. Secondly,
the writer is expected to evaluate the subject in parts, as a whole, or both. A fair
evaluation should also include both positive and negative evaluations. Subjective
and objective evaluations are characteristic of effective reaction papers.
As an academic research paper, a reaction paper should be written with
at least 5 paragraphs. An outline would help one do this easily. A sample outline
is given below:
I. Summary/ description of subject matter
II. First evaluation with discussion
III. Second evaluation with discussion
IV. Third evaluation with discussion
V. Summary of evaluation/ General evaluation of subject matter

PRE-TASK 3: Summarize the video you were asked to watch in one paragraph. Write your
answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.

PRE-TASK 4: Summarize the video you were asked to watch in one paragraph. Write your
answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.

PRE-TASK 5: Please prepare a reaction paper outline for a video you will be assigned to watch.
Ask your teacher/classmate for comments and suggestions to improve your outline.
Tentative Outline: Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.
I. __________________________________________________
II. __________________________________________________
III. __________________________________________________
IV. __________________________________________________
V. __________________________________________________
Revised Outline: Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.
I. __________________________________________________
II. __________________________________________________
III. __________________________________________________
IV. __________________________________________________
V. __________________________________________________
English for Purposive Communication | 39
post task
DIRECTIONS:
Using the revised outline, write a five-paragraph reaction paper on the
assigned subject matter. Write your draft on a separate sheet of paper.

Your output will be graded based on the following criteria:

+ Paragraph 1 =10
+ Paragraph 2 =10
+ Paragraph 3 =10
+ Paragraph 4 =10
+ Paragraph 5 =10

50 pts.

40 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization


English for Purposive Communication | 41
Lesson 2.4
LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMUNICATION IN
MULTICULTURAL SETTINGS
“Every human is like all other humans, some other humans, and no
other human.”
-Clyde Kluckhon

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, you are expected to:

1. Learn about culturally appropriate terms, expressions, and images;
2. Raise cultural awareness and sensitivity on intercultural
communication; and
3.Conduct basic research on different intercultural modes of
communication.

PRE-TASK 1: True or False. Assess your intercultural assumptions by showing your agreement
or disagreement with the statements that follow. Answer TRUE to indicate your agreement
and FALSE to show your disagreement. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for
submission.
1. Good eye-contact is a universal sign of self-confidence.
2. In a job interview, a firm handshake is expected by your prospective employer.
3. Everyone values individuals over the collective.
4. In the academe, it is generally accepted that students learn best when provided with a
supportive and caring environment.
5. Interruptions must be generally avoided as much as possible.
6. One must always state explicitly what he/she wants.
7. Getting down to business quickly and efficiently is always the best way to go.
8. Pink is a universal color for girls and blue for boys.
9. Some cultures believe that information cannot be separated from speaker or writer.
10. In the US, lively and informal presentations are favored over rigid and formal
presentations.

42 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization


INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Smerekar (2015) wrote that the word intercultural communication was
first used by Edward Hall in 1959 in his book The silent language. And in today’s
almost borderless world, intercultural communication is unavoidable for many
businesses. Since the time of Hall, the field of intercultural communication has
grown so much that getting a single definition might not reflect the richness this
field of study has to offer. And so, here are some insightful definitions from some
authors:
• Intercultural communication refers to the communication between
people from two different cultures (Chen & Starosta, 1998:28).

• Intercultural communication refers to the effects on communication


behavior, when different cultures interact together. Hence, one way of viewing
intercultural communication is as communication that unfolds in symbolic
intercultural spaces (Arasaratnam, 2013:48).
From these two definitions, we could note at least two similarities
in relation to their definition. First, there should be interaction. Second, the
interaction should be between cultures. An important additional information
provided by the second definition is that contact affects communication
behavior. And sadly, the consequence is often shock and confusion. In both
verbal and nonverbal communication, the pitfalls are often miscommunication,
misattribution, sending the wrong information, missing the signal, and getting
the wrong context.

Given the said pitfalls plus the possibility of poor performance or poor
team work in the workplace, many companies now provide intercultural
awareness training with the aim of increasing their employees’ intercultural
competence. There are those who even suggest that intercultural training be
given alongside language classes. Some go as far as talking about an intercultural
approach to language teaching.

IMPROVING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE


The Australian government website featured an article on communicating
in culturally appropriate ways which discusses some good pointers on how to
improve intercultural competence. The first one is awareness. Knowing that two
cultures are more often than not different rather than similar can help you avoid
intercultural faux pas. The second pointer given is that individuality trumps
culture. It is incorrect to assume that everyone acts according to the dictates of
his/her culture. Everyone can, and in many cases, tends to follow his/her own
English for Purposive Communication | 43
beliefs and values which by experience, training, or accident be different from
his/her home culture’s beliefs and values. Communicating clearly and checking
for understanding are the third and fourth pointers given which are basic to
communicating effectively.

Another important pointer is listening to non-verbal signals. Hall (1959)


compared culture to an iceberg where a bigger part of it is unseen and where the
importance of the unspoken in everyday life is undervalued and misunderstood.
Finally, the website reminds us that all cultures are equal. A culture is neither
superior nor inferior to another. It is only different.

POST TASKS
TASK 1: Conduct an informal research on different intercultural modes of
communication.
Target respondents: 20 (Minimum)
• Parents, relatives, or acquaintances working abroad
• Friends, classmates, relatives living or who have lived for at least a year
in another country
• Transnational students/tourists

Interview questions (Minimum)


1. Where, when, and how did you gain experience on intercultural
communication?
2. Have you experienced any problem communicating with other
nationalities (cultures)? Can you tell us more about it?
3. Have you noticed any differences with how other nationalities
communicate with other people? Please describe the differences in detail.
4. For transnational students or tourists, how are your communication
practices different from Filipinos? Please describe the differences in detail.
5. What pointers can you give to help us improve intercultural competence
or at least improve intercultural awareness?
Data collection
Interviews must either be audio or video recorded. At the start of the
interview, inform the interviewee of anonymity and confidentiality. Confirm also
his/her willingness to participate in your study.
In the event that a face-to-face interview is not possible, online video
interviews or emails are also allowed as long as proper documentation is observed.
Data analysis and presentation
The results of your interview should be summarized in a PowerPoint
presentation where video clips of the interview or verbal extracts are presented in

44 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization


the slides. Feel free to organize your report in the best possible way you can.

Your output will be graded based on the following criteria:

+ Useful and informative content =30


+ New insights provided by research =30
+ Clear and interesting data presentation =20
+ Task achievement =20

50 pts.
DIRECTIONS: Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for submission.
Group Output:
Group number/name: ____________________ Score: _________/ 100
Group members (Surname, Given Name)
1.____________________ 4.____________________
2.____________________ 5.____________________
3.____________________

Tentative Interview Script. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper for
submission.

Tasking and Schedule


Task Schedule/ Deadline Assigned Person/s
Finalize interview script

Conduct interview All

Summarize key interview All


data and submit to group
leader
Prepare PowerPoint
presentation
Practice your presentation All

Do the actual presentation

Notes and reminders.

English for Purposive Communication | 45


46 | Chapter 2: Communication and Globalization