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MADDA WALABU UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


A REPORT OF INTERNSHIP ACTIVITY AT OROMIA BROADCASTING
NETWORK

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

STREAM OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING


NAME OF STUDENT ID NUMBER

1. TOLERA TAMIRU………………..…………………………………… EECER/0084/07


2. ELILI HUSIEN………………………………………….…………………EECER/0016/07
3. FOZIYA DURI…………………………………………………………….EECER/0019/07
4. SHEMSIYA KASIM………………………………………………………EECER/0080/07
5. SITINA NURE………………………………………………..……………EECER/0081/07

ADVISOR: - SELAM BIRU

BALE ROBE, ETHIOPIA

DATE 27/06/2011 E.C


INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

APPROVAL LETTER
This is to certify that the internship report entitled of Oromia Broadcasting Network,
prepared by Tolera Tamiru, Elili Hussien, Foziya Duri, Shemsiya Kasim and Sitina Nure is
accepted in terms of quality forms and the report has been prepared under my guidance. I also
confirm that the report is prepared based on the daily and monthly reports that they submitted.

Advisor Name Selam Biru………………….………sign…………..date………………………

I approved that this report is compiled in accordance to the fulfillment of the internship program.

1.Examiner name……………………………….sign….............date…………………

2.Examiner name……………………………….sign….............date…………………

3.Department UIL………………………………sign………….date…………………

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstly, we would like to say thanks to our department of Electrical and computer
Engineering for permitting this field practice and also we would like to express our heartily
gratitude to the Oromia Broadcasting Network Organization (OBN) for hosting us to apply this
internship there. Next we need to express our heartfelt thanks to all workers of radio, television,
maintenance, ICT and System Administration rooms and all technicians for their special supports
during our internship period. At the last, but not the least we are heartily thanks to our university
advisor Mrs.Selam Biru for her support us with her knowledge by coming to the host
Organization and also by telephone that we ask her at any time.

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ABSTRACT
This paper describes about the practice we have done for four months in Oromia
Broadcasting Network in Adama city. Oromia Broadcasting Network (OBN) was previously
founded as „Oromia mass media organization according to the declaration number 113/1998 and
later on renamed as „Oromia Broadcasting Network by declaration number 164/2003.The
organization is growing in all its aspects and is now becoming one among the influential media
with the prospect of becoming the leading media soon in the country. The organization that is
established in order to distribute services of both radio and television programs on air for inside
country and international audiences through their own frequency and website Satellite systems
which is broadcast 24 hour per a day .So we had also pass a late 4 months with this organization
as an internship trainer and we have seen that they are a real coach. We have also faced to some
challenges and we have taken our own measurements to overcome them. During the internship
program we have been benefited with improving practical skills, theoretical knowledge,
interpersonal communication skills entrepreneurship skills, team playing and leadership skills.

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Table of Contents
APPROVAL LETTER.................................................................................................................................. II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................... III
ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................................. IV
CHAPTER ONE ....................................................................................................................................... - 1 -
1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ - 1 -
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANIZATION .................................................................... - 1 -
1.2 MISSION OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK .................................................. - 2 -
1.3 VISION OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK ..................................................... - 3 -
1.3.1 ORGANIZATION CORE VALUES ............................................................................ - 3 -
1.4 PRODUCT OR SERVICE OF THE OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK ............... - 4 -
1.5 THE FUTURE PLAN OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK .............................. - 5 -
1.6 THE MAIN CUSTOMER OR END USERS OF THE PRODUCTS ................................... - 5 -
1.7 OBJECTIVE OF INTERNSHIP ........................................................................................... - 6 -
1.8 SCOPE OF WORK EXPECTED AND OUTPUT EXPECTED .......................................... - 6 -
1.9 THE OVERALL WORK FLOW OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK ................... - 7 -
CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................................................... - 8 -
2. THE OVER ALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE............................................................................. - 8 -
2.1 MAJOR DUTY WE WERE GIVEN TO PERFORM (SECTION OF THE COMPANY IN
WHICH WE HAVE BEEN WORKING IN).................................................................................... - 8 -
2.4 THE MAIN SUPPORT WE HAVE OBTAINED FROM THE SUPERVISOR ........................ - 9 -
2.5 THE QUALITIES IN THE DAILY DUTIES IN THE INTERNSHIP WE HAVE DEVELOPED -
9-
2.6 THE PROCEDURES WE FOLLOWED WHILE PERFORMING OUR TASK ...................... - 9 -
2.7 HOW GOOD WHILE WE WAS PERFORMING OUR TASK .............................................. - 10 -
2.8 THE CHALLENGES WE HAVE BEEN FACED DURING PERFORMING OUR TASK ... - 10 -
2.9 SOME MEASURES THAT WE WERE TAKEN TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES .. - 10 -
2.10 MEDIA AUTOMATION SYSTEM ....................................................................................... - 11 -
2.10.1 WORK FLOW OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK MEDIA AUTOMATION
SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................................... - 11 -
2.10.2 INGESTION ROOM ....................................................................................................... - 13 -
2.10.3 SERVER ROOM ............................................................................................................. - 13 -

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2.10.4 EDITING ROOM ............................................................................................................ - 15 -


2.10.5 PREVIEW ROOM ........................................................................................................... - 16 -
2.10.6 AUDIO RECORDER ROOM ........................................................................................... - 16 -
2.10.7 STUDIO ........................................................................................................................... - 16 -
2.10.8 AVID NETWORK ........................................................................................................... - 16 -
2.11 INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ..................................................... - 16 -
2.11.1 ICT SERVER ROOM ...................................................................................................... - 17 -
2.11.2 NETWORK SHARING ................................................................................................... - 18 -
2.11.3 HARDWARE MAINTENANCE .................................................................................... - 18 -
2.11.4 TEAM VIEWER .............................................................................................................. - 25 -
2.11.5 TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM ....................................................................... - 25 -
2.11.6 WINDOW AND WINDOW SERVER 2012 AND IT IS DIFFERENCE ....................... - 25 -
2.11.7 IP ADDRESS ................................................................................................................... - 25 -
2.11.8 NETWORKING............................................................................................................... - 26 -
2.11.9 NETWORK CABLE........................................................................................................ - 29 -
CHAPTER THREE ................................................................................................................................ - 31 -
3. OVERALL BENEFITS GAINED FROM THE INTERNSHIP ..................................................... - 31 -
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNSHIP BENEFIT ............................................................ - 31 -
3.1.1 IMPROVEMENT OF PRACTICAL SKILLS................................................................... - 31 -
3.1.2 UPGRADING THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE ............................................................. - 31 -
3.1.3 IMPROVEMENT OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION ................................... - 32 -
3.1.4 IMPROVEMENT TEAM PLAYING SKILLS ................................................................. - 32 -
3.1.5. IMPROVEMENT OF LEADERSHIP SKILLS ............................................................... - 32 -
3.1.6. UNDERSTANDING ABOUT WORK ETHICS RELATED ISSUE .............................. - 32 -
3.1.7. WHAT WE HAVE GAINED IN TERMS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS .......... - 33 -
CHAPTER FOUR................................................................................................................................... - 34 -
PROJECT CARRIED OUT DURING INTERNSHIP ................................................................... - 34 -
4.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM ................................................................................................. - 34 -
4.2 PROPOSED SOLUTION ......................................................................................................... - 34 -
4.3 WEBISITE BASED HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ............................. - 34 -
4.3.1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ - 34 -
4.3.1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................... - 35 -

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4.3.2 OBJECTIVESOF THE PROJECT ........................................................................................ - 35 -


4.3.2.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE ................................................................................................ - 35 -
4.3.2.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE ................................................................................................. - 35 -
4.3.3 METHODOLOGY USED ..................................................................................................... - 36 -
4.3.3.1 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION ......................................................................... - 36 -
4.3.3.1.2 COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA ............................................................. - 36 -
4.3.3.2 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT TOOLS............................................................................. - 36 -
4.3.3.3 TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS .................................................................................. - 38 -
4.3.4 THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SYSTEM ........................................................................ - 38 -
4.3.4.2 USE CASE DIAGRAM .................................................................................................. - 39 -
4.4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION .................................................................................................... - 42 -
CHAPTER FIVE .................................................................................................................................... - 43 -
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................. - 43 -
CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................... - 43 -
RECOMMENDATION ...................................................................................................................... - 43 -
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................................. - 45 -

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List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Oromia broadcasting network(OBN) Logo. ............................................................................ - 2 -
Figure 1.2 the overall work flow of Oromia Broadcasting Network. ....................................................... - 7 -
Figure 2. 1 Ingest work flow. .................................................................................................................. - 11 -
Figure 2. 2 Archive work flow. ............................................................................................................... - 12 -
Figure 2. 3 Play out work flow. .............................................................................................................. - 12 -
Figure 2. 4 Server room. ......................................................................................................................... - 15 -
Figure 2. 5 ICT server room work flow. ................................................................................................. - 17 -
Figure 2. 6- Inside a Desktop Computer Case. ....................................................................................... - 19 -
Figure 2. 7 Back of Desktop Computer Showing Ports. ......................................................................... - 21 -
Figure 2. 8 Cisco switch.......................................................................................................................... - 26 -
Figure 2. 9 Crimping tools. ..................................................................................................................... - 27 -
Figure 2. 10 Trunk cable. ........................................................................................................................ - 27 -
Figure 2. 11 Registered jack (Rj-45). ...................................................................................................... - 27 -
Figure 2. 12 Category six cable (Cat-6). ................................................................................................. - 28 -
Figure 2. 13 Screw Drivers. .................................................................................................................... - 28 -
Figure 2. 14 Cutter. ................................................................................................................................. - 28 -
Figure 4. 1HRM use case diagram. ......................................................................................................... - 39 -
Figure 4. 2Manage employee use case diagram...................................................................................... - 40 -
Figure 4. 3Manage leave use case diagram............................................................................................. - 40 -
Figure 4. 4.Manage efficiency use case diagram. ................................................................................... - 41 -
Figure 4. 5 Login Page. ........................................................................................................................... - 42 -
Figure 4. 6Home page for HR administrator. ......................................................................................... - 42 -

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List of Table
Table 4. 1Use Case Description for Login. ............................................................................................. - 41 -

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ABBREVIATION (ACRONYMS)
AC……………………………………Alternating Current

BIOS…………………………………Basic Input and Output System

CD-ROM……………………………..Compact Disc, Read-Only-Memory

CPU…………………………………..Central Process Unit

DHCP………………………………...Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DNS…………………………………..Domain Name System

DVD……………………………….…Digital Versatile Disc

ETV…………………………….…….Ethiopia Television

FM……………………………………Frequency Modulation

HD……………………………………High Definition

ICT……………………………………Information Communication Technology

IP………………………………..…….Internet Protocol

ISIS……………………………….….., Integrated Set of Information System

LAN…………………………………...Local Area Network

LCD…………………………………...Liquid Crystal Display

LED……………………..…………..…Light-Emitting Diode

MMF………………………………..…Multi-Mode fiber

OBN……………………………….…..Oromia Broadcasting Network

PC…………………………………...…Personal Computer

RAM……………………………..……Random Access Memory

RJ45………………………….……….Registered Jack

SD……………………………………..Standard Definition

SMF…………………………………..Single-mode fiber

STP…………………………….……Shielded Twisted-Pair

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TV……………………………………….Television

TRS………………………………………Tip, Ring and Sleeve

UTP………………………………………UN-shielded Twisted-Pair

USB…………………………… ………...Universal Serial Bus

UPS………………………… ……………Uninterrupted Power Supplies

VGA………………………………… ….Video Graphics Array

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CHAPTER ONE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANIZATION
After transitional government / Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia / has started
governing the nations, nationalities and peoples of the country gets chance to use the
broadcast media. At the beginning, all of them broadcast their programs through Ethiopian
Radio and TV organization. The Oromia Regional state also start broadcasting regional
programs since 1989 EC. At the time, it was organized under the Oromia cultural and truism
bureau as one department. Later the radio and TV department was transferred to the Oromia
information and public relation bureau.Oromia Broadcasting Network (OBN) Organization
started November 23, 1999 E.C under Abba DulaGamada, Oromia regional state president in
Oromia region at Adama town. To fulfill the needs and interest of Oromo people by showing
the culture, tradition, historical background, ethics and language of the Oromo people living
inside and outside of the country, which were weakened by early Ethiopian leaders. Oromia
radio is established on March 16, 2000 E.C and Television established on March 16, 2001
E.C. And also Finfinnee FM 92.10MHz is started on February 22, 2002 E.C. Before 2001,
OBN TV is working on ETV media as one program named as STVO. In 2001, OBN became
an independent organization. The fly way of live (oduu) is being started. OBN organized
with resource and human power in August 2002 E.C. At the first time, the organization used
to have both electronic and print media services. Now the organization has only the
electronics media (meaning it has Radio, Television and website). According to the media
mapping survey, it employs are journalist, technician and part timers workers are totally 300
at 2003 E.C. But now the employers are more than 500 workers are there. The government
maintains complete monopoly on television broadcasting, but it has licensed a handful of
private radio stations. The basic function of OBN is to connect people through voice transfer
and via radio and television media is becoming a very common measure of communication in
our country. The number of media user is increasing day to day. It is a very attractive market
for mobile connection providers. Presently there are many branches in the Oromia region.
From these, there are 16 branches of TV transmitter zone; there are 3 AM radio transmitter
and nine (9) FM radio transmitter zone of Oromia regions.

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Figure 1.1 Oromia broadcasting network(OBN) Logo.

 Do You Know The Objectives Of Oromia Broadcasting Network Organization?

 Encouraging the people to freely express their opinion based on constitution


of the federal Government and that of Oromia Region as well as other laws
and policies.
 Crate a conductive condition for the people of oromia region to get correct,
objective adequate and quality information timely.
 Work towards the creation of national consensus on major national and
regional issues.
 Encouraging towards developing a democratic culture in economic, political
and cultural activities, andworks towards promotion of Oromo culture,
history and language

1.2 MISSION OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK


The mission of the Oromia Broadcasting Network is to transmit periodical information and
entertainment programs by using electronic media and website that provides awareness of
building good democracy for people as well as to announce Oromo cultures, norms and to create
relationship within country and with outer country. And also to provide current, real and
reasonable information by using electronic media and providing entertainment program that
recreate and educate the public as well as enable them to building democracy and good image of
the region and development of the country. Other missions of OBN are:-

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 To increase study, discoveries and innovation


 To develop and organize good experience
 To increase good work and service
 To develop the faithfulness with government
 To develop the participation of customers by advertising their products
 To increase participation of community in all aspects
 To develop work culture of community
 To increase organization of all sectors
 To develop and organize good experience
 To increase good work and service
 To increase using and presenting technology material
 To improve the benefit of budget
 To increase revenue of government or country

Organizations Strategic Focus Area


 Quality and standardize news and programs.
 Increase media coverage
 Improve workers' capacity.

1.3 VISION OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK


The vision of Oromia Broadcasting Network is became the most preferable media in the
Oromia region, competence within the country and in the east Africa in 2012. The most media
have being developed and movement of social development and give a lot of result in the region
In this year in Oromia region the Oromia Broadcasting Network is the most popular media of
information, competent within country media. And also to be the most chosen and trusted media
in the country as well as prominent in Africaby providing quality, timely, balanced information,
news, educational and Entertainment programs by using modern media technology and efficient
internal structure of management system

1.3.1 ORGANIZATION CORE VALUES

 Truth telling (Honesty)


 Loyalty

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 Participatory
 Commitment
 Professional ethics
 Team work or co-operation(work together)
 Quality service
 Keep the sound of people
 Work for change
 Uncorrupted work
 Make participant
 Reliability

1.4 PRODUCT OR SERVICE OF THE OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK


There are strong and well organized advertising services of different products, like
editing service of news, entertainment, educational thing and other program. There is also
recording services of news, music, entertainments, educational things and other issues like
political, social and cultural issues can be recorded in the organization. Training service
is also given for the workers of the organization. The Transport service is given to the
organization workers. The organization is also planned to expand its services in the near
future with respect to its quality and performance as well. Generally products or services of
the organization are:

 Periodical News
 Entertainment
 Advertisement
 Holy Day Programs
 Production
 Renting Studio
 Direct Transmitting information service
 Script writer‟s service
 Documentary film service
 Library services are given for the organization workers.

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 Video editing service


 Computer maintenance service
 About Government Issue

In addition to these Oromia Broadcasting Network is giving service by different language such
as: - Afan Oromo, Amharic, and English.

1.5 THE FUTURE PLAN OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK


The OBN organization has the following future plan. Such as:

 To improve the quality of news and programs.


 To reach 100% coverage across the region with both radio and television.
 To improve the capacity of journalists and technical staff.
 To improve internal working environment and developing efficient and effective system.
 To improving use of ICT.
 To make its own website radio online entertainment

1.6 THE MAIN CUSTOMER OR END USERS OF THE PRODUCTS


In all sectors of activities the organization has different users over the country. The
followings are some of the end users of the organizations services and products.
 Government organization, institutes and individuals
 Non-government organization and institutes
 Private sectors and NGOs
 Music and video industry holders and air time users
Additionally, through Website from every corner in the world can cite the web and
have the service.

 The customers who have opportunity to have internet access it gained any
information about OBN.
 The Organization gives a choice to the service through three languages such as
Afan Oromo, Amharic and English.
The customers gained service from different sites or centers Because OBN has many center or
site in different town of the region for example:-

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 Radio transmitting center in: - Nekemte, Finfine and Bale at Am frequency FM with
5kw and Am with 100kw
 Television transmitting centers in all over the Oromia region. Few of them are:-
Adama,AmboChiro, Adola, Yabelo, Harar, Shashemene, GobaEntot, Furi, Wonchi,
Shambu, Gimbi, Denbidolo, Gore and Jimma.

1.7 OBJECTIVE OF INTERNSHIP


Internship has many objectives. From the objective of internship;

 To give additional knowledge to the students

 To know which learned theoretically, by practical

 To visualize the real applications & mistake managements

 To develop the theoretical knowledge

 To improve provisional and personal skills

 Prepare students to the future work

 To ensure the quality and performance of the students

 To increase self-confidence of the students

1.8 SCOPE OF WORK EXPECTED AND OUTPUT EXPECTED

 Students‟ knowledge on the broadcasting communication will be improved.


 Students have more self-confidence on the working with different electronic materials.
 Students are capable to do in ICT center and in other system administration.
 The real Problem of media and organizations can be solved.

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1.9 THE OVERALL WORK FLOW OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK


The general work flow of the Oromia Broadcasting Network is as flows.

Caffee(Assembly)
Caffee(Assembly)
Caffee(Assembly)

Figure 1.2 the overall work flow of Oromia Broadcasting Network.

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CHAPTER TWO
2. THE OVER ALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE
2.1 MAJOR DUTY WE WERE GIVEN TO PERFORM (SECTION OF THE COMPANY
IN WHICH WE HAVE BEEN WORKING IN)
The major duties we were assigned are classified into Two parts under department of
technology. Even if department of technology of Oromia Broadcasting Network is classified into
five sub units, two sub units are not concerned with our internship program.

1. Radio Station
2. Television station
3. Maintenance station
4. System administration
5. Information and communication technology

When we enter into the organization for the internship our supervisor Mr. Anbesa
allocated us into two departments. Within three months we have worked on each of the two
sections being in three groups of different members in each group. From our daily duty we
developed qualities of ideas; performance of work, personal quality, educational quality and our
understanding developed from day to day activities. These qualities indicates us that we can
perform any work which are related to our profession and over stand challenges of responsibility
which given for us. We have learnt how to search a solution of some relevant problems. So in
general this internship program helped us to develop the qualities of our personality as required.

2.3 ORIENTATION WITH THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF JOB

At the first time we are oriented about the whole system of the organization and the
qualification of the workers. They informed us, the responsibilities and duty for the time we
stayed there. In general we are oriented the whole system of the Oromia mass-media
organization, the future career goals of the organization and the responsibilities and duties which
we had there during the internship period. But the orientation was not need for us only the
internship period, also important for our future life style.

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2.4 THE MAIN SUPPORT WE HAVE OBTAINED FROM THE SUPERVISOR (The role
of supervisor in the given assignment)

 Our supervisor tells us the whole things that he knows, which concern us with related to
the hosting organization.
 He showed us what we want to see
 He answered the question that we raise during the internship period.
 He told technical operation of the studio equipment and their maintenance system of the
equipment.
 He showed us the function, application and purpose of the equipment found in the
organization
 He also shared us his experiences that he had during his work life.

2.5 THE QUALITIES IN THE DAILY DUTIES IN THE INTERNSHIP WE HAVE


DEVELOPED (Qualities developed which allowed succeeding in daily)

From our daily duty we developed qualities of ideas, performance of work, personal
quality, educational quality, and our understanding developed from day to day activities. These
qualities indicate us that we can perform any work, which are related to our profession and over
stand challenges of responsibility, which given for us. We learnt how to search a solution of
some relevant problems. So in general this internship program helped us to develop the qualities
of our personality as required.

2.6 THE PROCEDURES WE FOLLOWED WHILE PERFORMING OUR TASK


We have been carrying out our tasks daily through active participation and day to day
follow up as well as active commitment in training. In some section we have been participating
on practical work after getting training from the technician of that company. This enables us to
put into practice what we have been learning in theory so far .In doing so we have passed
through some steps in order to be successful in our work. Our first task is that to know
theoretically about media automation system, ICT and maintenance by studying from technician
of the company. After knowing theoretical part of our core issue then we had going to practically
apply what we have got from theory. Since there are two sections first we enter to the
media automation system section and after that we join to the ICT section.

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2.7 HOW GOOD WHILE WE WAS PERFORMING OUR TASK


As we are stranger for tasks, it was good to develop our abilities .To some extent there is
also confusion in our work. When we take the percentage of goodness of our work almost 80% is
good as much as possible. However, there are some failures. There are also some factors that
cause failures as we are stranger for the companies.

2.8 THE CHALLENGES WE HAVE BEEN FACED DURING PERFORMING OUR


TASK
At the beginning it was not easy to adapt the Adama weather condition where the company is
found. Also the workers of the organization have different ethics. For example, the time spent
and formality of work and education is so different. So some of challenges faced us while
we were doing the tasks are as follows:-

 There is a lot of meeting as a result we cannot contact to our instructors.


 Being stayed in the organization without accessing internet connection is difficult for us.
 The rules and regulation of the organization was strong for instance no mobile phone, any
flash and computer to enter in the organization.
 The other challenges that was faced us was there is luck of reference and computers in
the organization.

2.9 SOME MEASURES THAT WE WERE TAKEN TO OVERCOME THE


CHALLENGES
The final idea that we was taken was showing smile face, trying to understand them, try to
give response for their reason, dealing with them not only with the intended objective but
also about any else. And try to made good approaches with them. The measurement to
overcome the problem was as follows:-

 We must try to be punctual and able to achieve punctuality easily after some time.
 Since we are in the organization we must give a chance to handle problems that seems
challenging and also it was eliminated by adaptation.

The back bone of Oromia Broadcasting Network organization are media technology
department, inside media technology department there are tree sub departments which are called
media automation system, ICT service and radio and television broadcasting. And we are
assigned in the two sub departments of the organization. These are:

1. Media automation system


2. Information communication technology

Within four month we have worked on each of the above sections.

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2.10 MEDIA AUTOMATION SYSTEM


Media automation System is one of the automation systems which is automating media file.
To perform it is task it uses its own application which developed for OBN Company for different
purpose. Also it uses Avid tapeless work flow. Media automation System has seven main
working environments which we will study about:-

 Ingest room

 preview room

 Audio recorder room

 editing room

 Avid network server room

 Server room

 Studio room

2.10.1 WORK FLOW OF OROMIA BROADCASTING NETWORK MEDIA


AUTOMATION SYSTEM

INGEST WORK FLOW

Figure 2. 1 Ingest work flow.

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Figure 2. 2 Archive work flow.

Figure 2. 3 Play out work flow.

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2.10.2 INGESTION ROOM


Ingestion room is one of Tapeless workflow element in which the process of recording media
files in to data base center will be done. This task is performed through avid news capture
software and avid network. The capman is a person who ingest server via cap client PC, then file
is automatically transferred ingest or to ISIS. For this task capman get data from different area by
different mechanisms like:-

 Memory
 Network
 Satellite
 File zilla
 Cassetteetc.

2.10.3 SERVER ROOM


It is highly secured area. The organization has its own integrated set of information
system (ISIS) to store its data. As it is 24hr working organization, there are many things recorded
in day. The server has two parts 32tb.The 32 TB memories used in a day-to-day activity like
recording directly from satellite, and editing for final broadcasting. The organization has many
branches from different zone in Oromia region. At every branch, there is a journal that feed
different data to the server through ingest in different way such as internet , USB flash disk and so
on. This room contain same component that is used to store and process media file. Same
component which we will see and learn about:-

ISIS:-Is a storage devices which used to store media file. It has client to map workspace drive to
the clients which is ISIS client

Ingest: - There are four ingest. Each of them contains two channels. So totally, there are eight
channels. It stores media files that are ingested for temporary.

Indexer:-

 It indexes or directs the path where metadata or media file can be accessed.
 It registers the path where both metadata and media file goes while ingesting.
 Then it indexes the between metadata and media files.

Play out:-To output the edited data to broadcast to the air. it stores media files which are sent by
users from assist, access and newscutter but in our case we can only send from newscutter or
disabled for others

Cluster:- Cluster is a set of independent computers that work together with another system to
increase the availability of services and applications. The clustered servers (called nodes) are
connected by physical cables and by software.

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Archive:- To store the data that sends from ISIS to it for some length of day.

Interplay:-

 it stores interplay database ;head fram,metadata and AAF


 control interplay client software like;access,assist and news cutter
 runs and controls interplay engines like ;transfer engine, restore engine and archive
engine.

Look up server:-

 it is the back bone of avid system


 it works as the active directory of avid system:-
 contains the domain control run group policy
 contains the list of client computer
 it works as the DNS server of the avid system

ALTO
 It is storage servers
 Its capacity is 432TB
 It is raid configured
 It is on different workgroup or data base

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Figure 2. 4 Server room.

2.10.4 EDITING ROOM


Editing room is one of media automation system rooms in which the media file is edited.
This file is edited on avid news cutter software by editors and then the editor give id for that file
and they send the Meta data of that media file to play out through avid network.

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2.10.5 PREVIEW ROOM


Preview room is one of media automation system rooms in which journalist see the
ingested (original) data and re arrange ingested media files as it need by using avid interplay
assist software. And also write script.

2.10.6 AUDIO RECORDER ROOM


Audio recorder room is a room in which sound of journalist is recorded and edited
simultaneously by using Adobe audition software.

2.10.7 STUDIO
Studio is starting point of transmission signal sound. The studio has two rooms which are
SD and HD room. Both studios are their own purpose.

SD studio:-installed before 10 years ago and 3 cameras with full SD equipment. Both Cassette
and server based system. Equipped with virtual studio and all machines are installed in control
room.

HD studio:-5 HD cameras with all teleprompter news reading technology. Fully server based
system. All machines are installed in separate room called data center. Configured with full
redundant system.

2.10.8 AVID NETWORK


Avid network is a network which link computer to share only data between them. Avid
network is land locked network it cannot be connect to internet. Computer in this network is
linked by using hybrid topology.IP address are configured manually and also use class C type IP
address.

2.11 INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

In our duration at Oromia Broadcasting Network ICT section, our daily technical duties and
responsibilities were mainly on networking activities and maintenancewhich includes Crimping
both straight through and cross over UTP cable to RJ45and participating on daily problem
solving activities. The daily technical duties and responsibilities we had and a section we will see
during internship period:-

 Ict server room


 Network sharing
 Hardware maintenance
 Telecommunication system server
 Cable

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2.11.1 ICT SERVER ROOM


This room contain same component that is used to give internet and SMS service to the
company. Same component which we will see and learn about:

Filezilla Server:-Is a server which used to receive file from zone.

Sms server:-Sms server is aserver which used to store short message comes from client and it
can be accessed only inside the company. To perform it is task telecommunication line is
connected to it and it takes Ip address from main router.

Security camera server:-Security camera server is a computer which use window server 2012
operating system and used to control the environment.

Server access control:-This is a server which control access of employee to different room. This
server supported by window server 2012 operating system and security view software to perform
it is task.

Epon Getway
Cisco
Ethio
telecom fiber
cable

SMS
server WIFI

Filezilla LAN
server

Tele line DSL

Figure 2. 5 ICT server room work flow.

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2.11.2 NETWORK SHARING


Network sharing is a feature that allows resources to be shared over a network by
connecting devices to a network server, in this company all users which have the same domain
name or workgroup can share and exchange information through this network. Also Printer
sharing can be configured in this network and print servers enable multiple computer users to
access a single printer.

2.11.3 HARDWARE MAINTENANCE


The software, hardware and network technicians are responsible for maintenance of any
operating system, applications, and hardware and network problems. As hardware technicians we
have tried to develop the ability of maintaining different computer hardware.

Hardware is the physical equipment needed for a computer to function properly. The basic
hardware parts are briefly described here. A desktop computer is used in the photos, but all of
this equipment is also found (in a more compact arrangement) in a laptop computer.

CASE: -The computer case (also called a tower or housing) is the box that encloses many of the
parts shown below. It has attachment points, slots and screws that allow these parts to be fitted
onto the case. The case is also sometimes called the CPU, since it houses the CPU (central
processing unit or processor), but this designation can lead to confusion. Please see the
description of the processor, below.

POWER SUPPLY: - The power supply is used to connect all of the parts of the computer
described below to electrical power. It is usually is found at the back of the computer case.

FAN: - A fan is needed to disperse the significant amount of heat that is generated by the
electrically powered parts in a computer. It is important for preventing overheating of the
various electronic components. Some computers will also have a heat sink (a piece of fluted
metal) located near the processor to absorb heat from the processor.

MOTHERBOARD:- The motherboard is a large electronic board that is used to connect the
power supply to various other electronic parts, and to hold these parts in place on the computer.
The computer‟s memory (RAM, described below) and processor are attached to the
motherboard. Also found on the motherboard is the BIOS (Basic Input and Output System) chip
that is responsible for some fundamental operations of the computer, such as linking hardware
and software. The motherboard also contains a small battery (that looks like a watch battery)
and the chips that work with it to store the system time and some other computer settings.

DRIVES:- A computer‟s drives are the devices used for long term storage of information. The
main storage area for a computer is its internal hard drive (also called a hard disk). The
computer should also have disk drives for some sort of removable storage media. A floppy disk

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drive was very common until recent years, and is still found on many older desk top computers.
It was replaced by CD-ROM and DVD drives, which have higher storage capacities. The
current standard is a DVD-RW drive, which can both read and write information using both CD
and DVD disks. The USB ports on a computer can also be used to connect other storage devices
such as flash drives and external drives.

Power Supply

Drives

Fan Housing. The


processor is
underneath on
the motherboard.

RAM

Cards

Figure 2. 6- Inside a Desktop Computer Case.

CARDS: - This term is used to describe important tools that allow your computer to connect and
communicate with various inputs and output devices. The term “card” is used because these
items are relatively flat in order to fit into the slots provided in the computer case. A computer
will probably have a sound card, a video card, a network card and a modem.

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RAM: - RAM is the abbreviation for random access memory. Is a memory that is used to store
documents while they are being processed? The amount of RAM in a computer is one of the
factors that affect the speed of a computer. RAM attaches to the motherboard via some specific
slots. It is important to have the right type of RAM for a specific computer, as RAM has
changed over the years.

PROCESSOR: - The processor is the main “brain” of a computer system. It performs all of the
instructions and calculations that are needed and manages the flow of information through a
computer. It is also called the CPU (central processing unit), although this term can also be used
to describe a computer case along with all of the hardware found inside it. Another name for the
processor is a computer “chip” although this term can refer to other lesser processors (such as the
BIOS). Processors are continually evolving and becoming faster and more powerful. The speed
of a processor is measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz

PERIPHERAL HARDWARE: - Peripheral hardware is the name for the computer components
that are not found within the computer case. This includes input devices such as a mouse,
microphone and keyboard, which carry information from the computer user to the processor,
and output devices such as a monitor, printer and speakers, which display or transmit
information from the computer back to the user.
COMPUTER PORTS
The peripheral hardware mentioned above must attach to the computer so that it can transmit
information from the user to the computer (or vice versa). There are a variety of ports present on
a computer for these attachments. These ports have gradually changed over time as computers
have changed to become faster and easier to work with. Ports also vary with the type of
equipment that connects to the ports. A computer lab manager should become familiar with the
most common ports (and their uses), as described below.

SERIAL PORT: - This port for use with 9 pin connectors is no longer commonly used, but is
found on many older computers. It was used for printers, mice, modems and a variety of other
digital devices.

PARALLEL PORT: -This long and slender port is also no longer commonly used, but was the
most common way of attaching a printer to a computer until the introduction of USB ports (see
below). The most common parallel port has holes for 25 pins, but other models were also
manufactured.

VGA: - The Video Graphics Array port is found on most computers today and is used to connect
video display devices such as monitors and projectors. It has three rows of holes, for a 15 pin
connector.

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PS/2: - Until recently, this type of port was commonly used to connect keyboards and mice to
computers. Most desktop computers have two of these round ports for six pin connectors, one
for the mouse and one for the keyboard.

USB: - The Universal Serial Bus is now the most common type of port on a computer. It can be
used to connect mice, keyboards, printers, and external storage devices such as DVD-RW drives
and flash drives.

TRS: -TRS (tip, ring and sleeve) ports are also known as ports for mini-jacks or audio jacks.
They are commonly used to connect audio devices such as headphones and microphones to
computers.

Serial Port (left)


Parallel Port (right)

PS/2 Ports

USB Ports

VGA Port
TRS (mini-jack) Ports

Phone/Modem Jacks
(top)
Ethernet Port
USB Ports

Figure 2. 7 Back of Desktop Computer Showing Ports.

ETHERNET: - This port, which looks like a slightly wider version of a port for a phone jack, is
used to network computers via category 5 (CAT5) network cable. Although many computers
now connect wirelessly, this port is still the standard for wired networked computers. Some
computers also have the narrower port for an actual phone jack. These are used for modem
connections over telephone lines.

WHY MAINTAIN?
If we allow our computers to intake harmful materials (such as dust) and programs (such as
viruses) and we don‟t keep our software in good condition (updated) then the computer may also

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end up with significant problems that are then harder to deal with. Proper maintenance of a
computer, on the other hand, can keep it running smoothly for years and years. Some of the
different categories of computer maintenance are described below.

UPDATING SOFTWARE
Software programmers gradually develop updates for their software packages as they discover
problems with the software and design tools to address or fix these problems but is typically
most common and important for operating systems. It is important for a computer user to find
and install software updates in order to have well performing computers. Updating software can
be done in a variety of ways
 Automatic updates.
 Automatic alerts for updates.
 Manual updating.
 Offline updating.

Virus and Malware Prevention and Removal


Viruses, spyware and other malicious programs can all be referred to together as malware.
Malware prevention is a significant maintenance task for a computer lab . Without vigilance, a
computer will quickly become prey to malware. It will spread from machine to machine causing
the computers to slow down, work improperly or possibly even stop working altogether.

COMPUTER HARDWARE MAINTENANCE


There are some common hardware problems that can be avoided, or at least made less frequent
by taking particular preventive measures with computers. These preventive measures are listed
below.

DUST CONTROL: - Dust is very harmful for computer parts. Excess dust can cause
mechanical failures, particularly on computer components with moving parts. Minimizing dust
in a computer lab is an important part of computer maintenance.
The computers themselves should be regularly dusted (wiped with a dry cloth or duster) and if
the computers are housed in a particularly dusty area, the use of dust covers (when the computers
are turned off) is advised. In addition, when a computer case is opened for other repairs, the dust
that has built up inside the case should be blown out. This works best with forced air. Different
mechanical and electrical tools are available to compress air.

HEAT CONTROL: -Computer parts, in particular the CPU, produce a large amount of heat
while operating. It is important for this heat to dissipate, so that the computer is not damaged by
overheating. Computers do have fans and heat sinks, but these will only work well if the air flow
to the computer is not blocked. This means, for example, that a laptop computer should not be
left running for any length of time on a soft surface (like a sofa) that conforms around it, and a

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desktop computer case should not be used while in an enclosed cabinet. In addition, it is ideal
that the computer lab temperature be kept low. Using air conditioners is a good option, since the
windows can also be kept closed to minimize dust, but many computer projects cannot afford air
conditioners or the associated electricity costs. Therefore curtains (to reduce the heat of the
sunlight), open windows and fans are often the best alternatives, although their use requires
increased vigilance against dust.

SURGE PROTECTION: - In many countries, the electrical supply does not have a uniform
(well controlled) voltage. Voltage is also variable due to surges that occur, particularly during
thunderstorms and when power is returning after an outage. Voltage surges can be very
damaging to computers and other electrical components, and it is important to protect against
these events. The simplest form of surge protection is to purchase surge protecting power
(adaptor) strips. These devices contain 4 or 5 outlets that are protected by a fuse that is blown in
case of a power surge. The quality of these power strips varies, though, and they cannot be
guaranteed to be the safest form of surge protection. A second form of surge protection is a
surge suppressor that is installed where the main power enters a computer lab. These devices,
though more expensive, are of higher quality and will protect all of the electrical components
plugged in to electrical sockets within the room. A third option to consider is to purchase
uninterrupted power supplies (UPSs) to share between every two computers in a computer lab
(since a UPS includes six to ten electrical sockets). A UPS regulates the voltage sent to the
sockets located on the UPS itself, and also contains a battery that allows for continued operation
of a computer after a power outage. Depending on the UPS model and the amount of equipment
attached to the UPS, the battery might last for an hour or for just a few minutes, but even just a
few minutes allows enough time for the user to save their work and shut the computer down
properly.

LAPTOP MAINTENANCE ISSUES: -For computer labs using laptop computers, there are a
couple of additional issues to be aware of that can affect the lifespan of the computer. Because
laptop computers are moved around from place to place and handled more roughly than desktop
computers, they are more likely to have hardware problems develop. One problem area, for
example, is in the AC adaptor port. If it is found in the back of a laptop computer, it is easy for
the computer user to tilt the laptop backwards and unintentionally place pressure on the AC
adaptor as it is forced against the table top. The AC port (and any other port located on the back
of a laptop) can be easily damaged from this stress. Therefore computer users should be
instructed on the proper technique to use when picking up a laptop computer. A second problem
area for laptop computers is that the screws on the laptop body gradually become loosened as the
computer is moved about. A computer lab manager should periodically (perhaps twice a year)
tighten the screws on all laptop computers.

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PERIPHERAL HARDWARE USE AND MAINTENANCE:- Peripheral hardware will also


last longer if it is well maintained. For peripheral hardware such as printers, projectors and
external drives, all of the advice above about heat, dust and power surge control is still relevant
and important. In addition, there are some tips below for using printers and projectors that will
help these pieces of equipment work efficiently and last a long time.

PROPER USE OF AN LCD PROJECTOR: -An LCD projector is a valuable tool for making
presentations and assisting in training courses. However, these projectors are very expensive to
purchase. If a computer project has had the good fortune of being able to purchase a projector, it
is important that every effort be taken to make sure that the projector is kept in good repair.
Some suggestions are shown here:
 Store and carry the projector in a padded case. This will keep dust out of the
projector and cushion it in case of rough handling.
 Keep a designated surge protecting power strip (adaptor strip) with the projector,
and make sure that all projector users know the importance of using the projector
with surge protector.
 Make sure that the appropriate procedure for shutting down the projector is used,
and inform all projector users about the procedure. For most projectors, the
proper shut down procedure includes not unplugging the projector until the
cooling process is complete. This is indicated by a status light changing color, or
a fan turning itself off. It is important to allow the projector bulb to cool
completely in order to extend the life of the bulb.
It is particularly important to note that the projector bulb, which is the most expensive part in a
projector, will wear out and need to be replaced eventually. Projector bulbs can cost half the
price of buying a new projector! A computer project will need to make a plan for bulb
replacement, ideally even keeping a spare bulb on hand.

EFFICIENT USE OF A PRINTER: - Most computer labs will have at least one printer for the
use of the computer lab manager and selected computer lab users. Printers are a great resource,
but if not controlled well they can be overused. This puts unnecessary wear on the printer, and
also uses up expensive ink and paper. It would be wise for a computer lab manager to have in
place some policies about what sort of material can be printed, and when color ink use is
allowed. Users should also be instructed to preview their work before printing, to avoid printing
unnecessary pages. In addition, many printers have different printing settings that control the
quality of the printouts and thus the amount of ink used. Inkjet printers, for example, usually
have an option for “draft” or “fast” printing that uses significantly less ink, but still looks
reasonably good. To find this option when printing a document, select Print from the File menu
(or the Office Button in MS Word 2007). When the print menu opens, there will be a Properties

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button next to the selected printer. Clicking here will bring up choices such as the print quality
and whether the printout should be in color or black and white.

2.11.4 TEAM VIEWER


Team Viewer is computer software used in OBN Company ICT department for remotely
access customer‟s computer and desktop sharing over the internet to installing the software on
the customers' computer.

2.11.5 TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM


The organization uses two type of telecommunication. Both of this telecommunication
line are comes from Ethiopian telecommunication line and connected to central box called
unicast21 to control and manage this telecommunication system. A telecommunication used by
OBN which we will see and learn about:-

Public telecommunication:-a line which comes from Ethiopian telecommunication corporation


with payment.

Private owned telecommunication:-Communication system that owned by the organization


itself to communicate in that organization only without payment to Ethiopian
Telecommunication Corporation.

2.11.6 WINDOW AND WINDOW SERVER 2012 AND IT IS DIFFERENCE


The operating system (OS) controls almost all functions on a computer. In this section,
we will learn about the components, functions, and terminology related to the Windows server
2012 and Windows operating systems that used in this company. All operating systems perform
the same four basic functions. Operating systems control hardware access, manage files and
folders, provide a user interface, and manage applications. Window server 2012 is installed only
on server computer and it contains additional component domain name service and dynamic host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) which it make difference from other windows and support it to
dynamically assigns IP addressing information to hosts.

2.11.7 IP ADDRESS

IP address (internet protocol address): is a numerical label assigned to each device


connected to a computer network that uses the internet protocol for communication. IP address
classified in to two as private and public.

Private: it works on LAN, locally in the same area of organization, any user may use any of
the reserved blocks. These addresses are not routed on the internet and thus their use need not be
coordinated with an IP address register.

 24bit block 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 single class A

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 20bit block 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 contigu range of class B


 16bit block 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 contigu range of class C

Public: are required for any publicly accessible network hard ware for your home router as
well as for the server that host website. Public address we can‟t share it with the same
organization it only given by Telecommunication Corporation through payment so it is given as
unique code example high control company like:-Google, yahoo etc. uses public address. The IP
address of our host organization which is OBN is 172.20.0.0

There are two types of IP address version which is IPv4 and IPv6.

2.11.8 NETWORKING

Cable Tester: -Used to test a cable whether it works or not. The device has two plugin sockets
for the end outlet part of the cable so after we plug the cable from the screen menu we provide
the type of cable to be checked the tester automatically test the cable and shows “pass” or “fail”
result

Swith2960:- We used this device to interconnecting networking device from core layer to access
layer.

Figure 2. 8 Cisco switch.

Crimping Tool: -It is a networking tool used:-

 To crimp or connect a connector to each end of the cable. We also used it for
crimping RJ-45 (8-Pin) connectors and also include a wire.

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Figure 2. 9 Crimping tools.

Trunk cable:-A trunk cable used to consists of multiple wires, cables, or fiber optic strands to
maximize the available bandwidth and the number of channels that can be accommodated. A
trunk can also be a broadband wireless link. The use and management of trunks in a
communications system is known as trunking.

Figure 2. 10 Trunk cable.

RJ45:-A registered jack (RJ) is a used for us to construct and wiring pattern for connecting data
equipment to a service provided by a local exchange carrier or long distance carrier.

Figure 2. 11 Registered jack (Rj-45).

Cat-6 cable: - We use this cat-6 cable for data translation between devices.

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Figure 2. 12 Category six cable (Cat-6).

Screw Drivers: - We used this device to open/stretch and close /compress each screw on the
computer.

Figure 2. 13 Screw Drivers.

Cutter: -It is used to cut different materials of networking such as: cable, wires, trucking and
etc...

Figure 2. 14 Cutter.

Cable crimping and punching


 Crimping UTP cable to RJ45

 UTP cable is used to connect devices to networking equipment such as router


or switches.
 The RJ45 cable is a standard cable which has four twisted pairs of colors.

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 RJ45 cable can be crimped either in straight through or cross over


arrangement.

2.11.9 NETWORK CABLE


This is also one the tasks we have taken during our internship program. In this section we have
been studying about different types of network cables and the difference between them. Also we
implement UTP cable.

Coaxial and twisted-pair cables use electrical signals over copper to transmit data. Fiber-optic
cables use light signals to transmit data and also it transmitte data over long distance. These
cables are used in this company to take network line from telecommunication.

 There are two types of coaxial cable: thicknet, and thinnet

 Twisted-pair cables are terminated with an RJ-45 connector. Twisted-pair comes in two
types:

 Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)


 Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP)

 Fiber-optic cables are broadly classified into two types:

 Single-mode fiber (SMF) - Uses lasers to send a single ray of light that can travel
hundreds of kilometers.

 Multimode fiber (MMF) - Uses LEDs to send multiple light signals that can travel
up to 550 meters.

 Twisted-pair is the most popular type of cabling used in OBN Company.

 There are two different twisted-pair wiring schemes: called T568A and T568B.

 Each wiring scheme defines the pinout, or order of wire connections, on the end of the
cable.

 Two types of cables can be created: a straight-through cable and a crossover cable.

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

 A straight-through cable is the most common cable type. The wiring scheme is the
same on both sides.

 A crossover cable uses both wiring schemes. T568A on one end of the cable and T568B
on the other end of the same cable.

 “A” arrangement- Twisted pair cables have 4 pairs of circuits(green paired with white
green , blue paired with white blue, orange paired with white orange, brown paired with
white brown ) so while arranging” A” arrangement we have to arrange as white green,
green, white orange, blue, white blue, orange, white brown then finally brown.
 “B” arrangement- B arrangement can be arranged as white orange, orange, white green,
blue, white blue, green, white brown, and brown.

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

CHAPTER THREE
3. OVERALL BENEFITS GAINED FROM THE INTERNSHIP
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNSHIP BENEFIT
This internship offers an opportunity for us to see company set ups used to add value to raw
materials, and the opportunity to link the theoretical concepts learnt in class and the practice. We
have got many advantages from the internship course in terms of

 Improving practical skills


 Upgrading theoretical knowledge
 Improving interpersonal communication
 Improving team playing skills
 Improving leadership skills
 Understanding about work ethics related issues
 Gaining entrepreneurship skills

3.1.1 IMPROVEMENT OF PRACTICAL SKILLS


During the internship period we have been participating on some practical tasks which are
related to our field of study. For instance, we have seen the computer hardware maintenance,
crimping of the cables and how media file is automated. In this internship program as electrical
computer engineering students we have developed our practical skills in the following way.

 The ability to understand the problems faced on some computer hardware.


 Understanding maintenance, repair and how to control computer.
 Understand how UTP cable is arranged and crimped to RJ 45.
 Understand how single printer is shared for money users.
 Understand how window is format.
 Understand how telephone line is distributed for user
 Understand how user remotely access customer‟s computer and desktop sharing over the
internet to installing the software on the customers' computer by using team viewer
software.
 Understand the process of installing different software like antivirus on pc and how clean
it.

3.1.2 UPGRADING THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE


We have gained knowledge theoretically while performing our works in the company. The
theoretical knowledge we are gained are:-

 Study the difference between window server and windows like, window 7, window xp
and its function.
 Understand the process how we can ingest the data to ISIS (storage area).

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

 In addition to this we have also seen the high light of network configuration.

3.1.3 IMPROVEMENT OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION


Internship activity is very helpful in improving interpersonal communication. The more
contacting and idea exchanging with the majority of people, the more communication skills that
one can acquire. We have developed the capability to communicate with people those are in a
different kind of stage /levels as well as those people who are qualified under different
profession/position. Through this process we have developed the skill to exchanging information
with the people and we were able to approach to any higher level individual politely.

3.1.4 IMPROVEMENT TEAM PLAYING SKILLS


The internship activity plays an important role in improving the team playing skills. It
develops the ability to work in cooperation. We have been working together in that company in
order to exchange our experience to achieve an important knowledge. Working in group
develops the capability to acquire new information and knowledge which enables to be
competent with the technology of the world. Several kind of work requires a lot of effort and
skills. For such types of activity team playing skill play an important role. It maximizes the
productivity. It also saves time (to do more in less time).Not only this, but also it develops strong
relationship among the people. Thus, achieving a good team playing skill is essential for

 Getting a good knowledge


 To develop Communication skill
 Increasing understanding of the task
 Effective completion of tasks

3.1.5. IMPROVEMENT OF LEADERSHIP SKILLS


Leadership is the state of leading people for some purpose in order to reach a certain
target/goal. It asks commitment, being punctual, being responsible for the actions required to be
achieved. During our internship activity we understood how leadership can be exercised among
the people. Leadership is also one of the functions of management which includes Planning,
organizing, setting, leading and controlling. This internship program guides us to be an ethical
leader that means ethical leadership provides deep knowledge, guidance and motivation among
members. Basic advantages of good leadership are:

 Ability to apply knowledge


 Ability to analyze something important
 Ability to function on multidisciplinary teams
 Ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems
 Ability to use techniques and skills in order to solve real world problems

3.1.6. UNDERSTANDING ABOUT WORK ETHICS RELATED ISSUE


Work ethics are generally accepted guidelines for right and wrong behaviors at work. Having
good ethics is very important for developing safe working environment and increasing

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productivity. While we were in the company we have been told that knowing and keeping the
ethics of the company is a must. The following principles allow good work ethics at working
area.

Punctuality: This means arriving at work on time

Honesty: Honesty at work means spending working hours and resources totally on work

Willingness to learn: This means understanding the way things are done at your work place and
trying to do it better.

Initiative: Being prepared/having awareness to do something willingly

Loyalty: Do what is best for the growth of the organization

Maximizing productivity: This is the ability to do high quality work faster and efficiently. The
following are ethics we have gained during internship period.

 We observed that group work is better than individual


 Saving money and time is a must within the work ethics
 We observed that precedence was first for work
 How we are being punctual for the future and Being hard worker for the future

3.1.7. WHAT WE HAVE GAINED IN TERMS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS


Entrepreneur is a person who sees a good opportunity for a new business and works hard
to increase the economy. While we were in the company, we have got wide knowledge on the
entrepreneurship skill that we should have to find ourselves as an engineer and creative person
by analyzing work opportunities. The major characteristics of entrepreneurship that we have seen
in the company include the following.

Self-confident multi- skilled: To be an entrepreneur engineer for the future we should have to
be self-confident and multidimensional thinker. Therefore, this internship program opens a door
for us prepare ourselves for such fantastic task.

Innovative skills: A good skilled engineer can create a new mechanism which leads to discover
a new thing. Therefore, this internship program has given us some clues to innovate something
new.

Total commitment: Hard work and potential are essential elements in the entrepreneurship
activity. Commitment is a tool that is used to achieve/accomplish what is wanted to be done.

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CHAPTER FOUR
PROJECT CARRIED OUT DURING INTERNSHIP
4.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
We have identified some problems found in OBN human resource management system. Since,
the system has been carrying out its function using personal database system many problems can
be seen. For instance:-

 It consumes time while employees go to human resource administrator office to see it is


efficiency and to ask for leave.
 For admin difficult to view efficiency to each employee.
 Fast viewing of efficiency at a time is difficult.

4.2 PROPOSED SOLUTION


The proposed solution for those problems is developing a mechanism which can
easy the problems stated above. That mechanism is developing an enterprise level
database system which can design to online the tasks carried throughout OBN human
resource.

4.3 WEBISITE BASED HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

4.3.1. INTRODUCTION
Web applications are applications whose functionality is processed on a web server, and
is delivered to the end users over a network such as the Internet or an intranet. The end users use
a thin client (web browser) to run web applications, which knows how to display and execute the
data received from the server. In contrast, desktop applications are based on a thick client (also
called a rich client or a fat client), which does most of the processing. Web applications evolve
dreaming that one day they'll look and behave like their mature (and powerful) relatives, the
desktop applications. As far as web applications are concerned, their evolution-to-maturity
process will be complete when the application's interface and behavior will not reveal whether
the functionality is delivered by the local desktop or comes through fiber or air. Delivering
usable interfaces via the Web used to be problematic simply because features that people use
with their desktop application, such as drag and drop, and performing multiple tasks on the same

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window at the same time, were not possible. Another problem with building web applications is
standardization. Today, everything web-accessible must be verified with at least two or three
browsers to ensure that all your visitors will get the full benefit of your site.

4.3.1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW


Human resource management is a strategic approach to managing employment relation
which emphasizes that leveraging people capabilities is critical to gain sustainable competitive
advantage, this being achieved via a distinctive set of integrated employment policies, programs
and practices (Bratton J and Gold J, 2003) HR function is a support part of the whole business
management process and cannot be cut off regarded (Personnel Standards Lead Body, 1993), the
overall role of it is to conduct effective people management in employment and development,
and organize the relationship between management and the workforce in order to make the best
use of its workforce to achieve organizational goals and benefit.

HR functions have a variety of policies and activities, and vary from different level of an
organization and from one organization to another (Hope-Hailey et al, 1998; Sisson, 1995;
Tyson, 1987).

4.3.2 OBJECTIVESOF THE PROJECT

4.3.2.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE


To design and develop website based human resource management system for OBN.

4.3.2.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE

 To profile/asses the current human resource system for OBN.


 Identifying the problem under the existing system.
 To identify the requirements of the systems in forms of functional and
non-functional requirement.

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 To develop the website based human resource management system for


OBN.

4.3.3 METHODOLOGY USED

4.3.3.1 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


4.3.3.1.1 COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA

Observation: assessing and analyzing the overall OBN human resource management system has
been carried out by observing the current working system.
Interview: we get some information about the current human resource management system from
human resource administrator Buzuna Ragasa that helps us to analyze the system.

4.3.3.1.2 COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA


Internet: We use the Internet as resource of that information which is necessary to build our
system.
Document revision: Before we plan to develop this system we refer existing system records,
and read from internet about human resource generally.

4.3.3.2 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT TOOLS


Developing human resource management system needs a number of tools that makes the
process easy and fast. These development tools are hardware tools and software tools both
collaboratively work to achieve specific goals. Hardware tools are all tools that we touch and feel
and help to work with the project. Software tools are programs or instructions that help us to
simplify Hardware Tools.
Hardware tools:-

 Computer

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 Network
Software Tools:
 Microsoft office word 2007 or 2013
 Microsoft Power point.
 Window 8 operating system
 Notepad++
 Browser like Google chrome, Mozilla Firefox
 Xampserver2.5 for apache and MYSQL
Programming tool(language)
 Front end: - PHP, HTML JavaScrip.

PHP: There are several types of web programming language that are used for making a site
more dynamic. But, for this project we are choosing php scripting language to design our
database. Because:-

 It‟s fast and easy


 It‟s cross platform
 It accesses everything

HTML: is used to create the basic elements of Web Pages, so that other advanced web coding
language. It is also used in web designing because of its being interpret able by all available web
browsers and makes the directory accessible. It also used as front end

 HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language.


 A markup language is a set of markup tags.
 HTML documents are described by HTML tags.
 Each HTML tag describes different document content

MySQL: MYSQL is used as a database at the web server and PHP is used to fetch data from the
database. Our application will communicate with the PHP page with necessary parameters and
PHP will contact MYSQL database and will fetch the result and return the results to us. There
are two ways to connect to MYSQL via PHP page. The first one is called Get method. We will
use HTTP Get and HTTP Client class to connect. The second one is called Post method. In the
Post method, the URL Encoder, URL Connection class will be used

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4.3.3.3 TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS


Use Case Diagram:

A use case diagram represents a user‟s interaction with the system. Use case diagrams
show stick fi gures representing actors (someone or something that performs a task) connected to
tasks represented by ellipses. To provide more detail, you can use arrows to join subtasks to
tasks. Use the annotation <<include>> to mean the task includes the subtask. (It
can‟t take place without the subtask.) If a subtask might occur only under some circumstances,
connect it to the main task and add the annotation <<extend>> . If you like, you can add a note
indicating when the extension occurs. (Usually both <<include>> and <<extend>> arrows are
dashed.

4.3.4 THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SYSTEM


4.3.4.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT

Functional requirements describe what the software has to do. They are often called
product features accordingly, the tasks that the project will do are listed as follows: Employee: is
the one who is going to work in OBN Company.

 View efficiency
 Apply leave
 View leave history Director:
 View efficiency
 Approve or reject leave
 View leave history

Human Resource Management (HRM): is our Administrator is the office that will take full
control over the system and manage system resources.

Manage employee.

 View efficiency.
 Manage efficiency.
 Manage Employee previous history.

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 Manage Employee who release from the company.


 Manage User.
 Manage Department.
 Manage Leave.

4.3.4.2 USE CASE DIAGRAM

Figure 4. 1HRM use case diagram.

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Figure 4. 2Manage employee use case diagram.

Figure 4. 3Manage leave use case diagram.

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Figure 4. 4.Manage efficiency use case diagram.

Table 4. 1Use Case Description for Login.

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

4.4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Figure 4. 5 Login Page.

Figure 4. 6Home page for HR administrator.

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
CONCLUSION
During our internship program period in OBN, we have got a different theoretical and
practical skill and adapted the real world or working environment. OBN has offered us
opportunities to learn and develop ourselves in many areas. We gained a lot of experience. Lot of
the tasks and activities that we have worked on during our internship are familiar with what we
studying at the moment. Before our internship started our ideas did not match the experiences
have gained during our internship. Some of the benefits that we gain due to internship program
are we know the process to automate media file, how to broadcast media file to airline, how to
distribute telephone communication line to user from the server, how to identify a problem occur
on hardware of computer and how we maintain it, how to sharing network including printer
sharing ,how to installing different windows and also learn the difference between window
server 2012 and other window operating system. Generally we can get the above practical and
theoretical benefit during our internship program period in OBN.

This company contains people who work for it and the department responsible for
managing resources related to employees. So, we have selected the project that solves OBN
human resource management system problem. This human resource management system enables
the human resource tasks to be executed in a modernized way which saves time and suitable to
apply/use. In this system the activity taken place in the OBN company human resource becomes
more secured and managed.

RECOMMENDATION
We want to recommend OBN that there are so many problems that we have seen in this
company. These problems are:

a) The storage, which is in use, is very small when compared to current storage material
used in the world.
b) Their data center room is too narrow, which is not suitable for their work.
c) Even if their works are periodical, there is no punctuality.

In addition, even though OBN has been producing so many skillful and creative people, but,
there is a case in which some problems have been faced. For instance, the students can‟t use any
electronics devices in the Company to access internet, there is no room for internship students to
do their project and to practice what they learn theoretically and the OBN Company and solve
the problem successfully. Because the area need high security and any electronic equipment is

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

not allowed for any one. So, we would like to remind and recommend OBN Company give an
attention (consider) if possible. And also

 They must prepare documented data that explain the working principles of different
section of the company.
 The company should be ready for internship students by preparing project tasks and
workshop classes to give better experiences.
 The companies should assign professionals who have greater technical knowledge in the
section of the company for the internee students.

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

APPENDIX

!DOCTYPE html
html
head
titletitle
style type=textcss
style
head
body bgcolor=#ccffff
div class=atcent
table align=center width=1500px height=100px bgcolor=greentheadtr
bgcolor=red width=1200px height=100px
th
h1strongGARA OBN SAGALEE UUMMATAATTI BAGA NAGAAN
DHUFTAN!strong h1thtr
table

div class=centimg src=obn1.JPG alt= width=1500;


height=200px border=2 align=leftt div
div
div id=left
fieldset align=center
legend align=center border=0h4 style=background-color gray; color white;Login to your
accounth4 legend
plablestrongUsernamestrong &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;lable
input type=text name=plip

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

plablestrongPassword strong&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; lable &nbsp


input type=password name=ulip
p&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;stronginput type=submit
value=login align=center name=logstrongp
fieldset
php
include('dc.php');
if (isset($_POST['log_btn'])) {

$un=$_POST['username'];
$up=$_POST['password'];
$usl=$_POST['type'];
$fetch=mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query(SELECT FROM users where name='$un' and
password='$up' and type='$usl'));
$fn=$fetch['name'];
$fp=$fetch['password'];
$ft=$fetch['type'];
if (($un==$fn)&&($up==$fp)&&($usl==$ft)) {
if ($usl=='student')
{
header('Locationstudentdata.html');
}
elseif($usl=='director')

{
header('Locationdirector.html');
}

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

elseif ($usl=='hrms') {
header('Locationhrms.html');

elseif ($usl=='employee') {
header('LocationApplyleave.html');

}
else{

}
}
else{
echo iIncorrect entryi;
}
if ($usl=='student')
{
header('Locationstudentdata.html');
}
elseif($usl=='director')

{
header('Locationdirector.html');
}

elseif ($usl=='hrms') {

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

header('Locationhrms.html');
}
else{
}
}
div
body
html

Code For Home Page For HR Administrator


!DOCTYPE html
html
head titletitle style type=textcss style
head
body bgcolor=#ccffff
div class=atcent
table align=center width=1500px height=100px bgcolor=greentheadtr
bgcolor=red width=1200px height=100px
th
h1strongGARA OBN SAGALEE UUMMATAATTI BAGA NAGAAN
DHUFTAN!strong h1thtr
table

div class=centimg src=obn1.JPG alt= width=1500;


height=200px border=2 align=leftt div
div
div id=left
fieldset align=center

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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON OBN 2018/19

legend align=center border=0h4 style=background-color gray; color white;Login to your


accounth4 legend
plablestrongUsernamestrong &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;lable
input type=text name=plip
plablestrongPassword strong&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; lable &nbsp
input type=password name=ulip
p&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;stronginput type=submit
value=login align=center name=logstrongp
fieldset
php
include('dc.php');
if (isset($_POST['log_btn'])) {
$un=$_POST['username'];
$up=$_POST['password'];
$usl=$_POST['type'];

$fetch=mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query(SELECT FROM users where name='$un' and


password='$up' and type='$usl'));
$fn=$fetch['name'];
$fp=$fetch['password'];
$ft=$fetch['type'];
if (($un==$fn)&&($up==$fp)&&($usl==$ft)) {
if ($usl=='student')
{
header('Locationstudentdata.html');
}
elseif($usl=='director')

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{
header('Locationdirector.html');
}

elseif ($usl=='hrms') {
header('Locationhrms.html');
}

elseif ($usl=='employee') {
header('LocationApplyleave.html');}
else{
}
}
else{
echo iIncorrect entryi;
}
if ($usl=='student')
{ header('Locationstudentdata.html');
}
elseif($usl=='director')
{ header('Locationdirector.html');
}
lseif ($usl=='hrms') { header('Locationhrms.html');
}
else{
}

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