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TRUNCATED Lesson Planning Format for Teacher Education Candidates

Ithaca College School of Humanities and Sciences

Name Tara Morgan

Lesson Title or Topic Why do we Invent?

Grade Level 9

Course Name or Content Area 9th Grade World History

Central Focus
Describe the ​central focus​ for the content/skill you will teach. The central focus should provide a short narrative summary of this
lesson and/or learning segment.
Through observation and examination of household tools, and identification of simple machine
components, learners will work collaboratively to investigate technological art from the Renaissance Era
to form hypotheses which address the question: “Why do we Invent?”

Prior Knowledge
What knowledge, skills, and concepts must students already How will you know if your students have prior knowledge, etc.?
know to be successful with this lesson? How/when will you teach/re-teach if necessary?
What are simple machines? How are they related Learners will have been taught a previous lesson
to machines and engines? pertaining to this topic in Intro. to Small Engines
class. Prior knowledge will be checked during the
Warm-up Activity, which asks learners to identify the
simple machine components used in a gadget(s) of
their choosing. Take-home handouts with pictures
and definitions be made available to learners during
the Inquiry Activity, particularly if prior knowledge
does not seem enough for students to complete the
Inquiry Activity.
What was the Renaissance Era? What was Learners will have been taught about innovations of
happening in terms of innovation and invention the Renaissance Era in a previous lesson, in Ms.
during the Renaissance Era? Who is Leonardo da Morgan’s 9th Grade World History Class. She will be
Vinci? providing a quick review after the Warm-Up Activity
and learners may ask clarifying questions if
necessary. This lesson will address in review some
of Da Vinci’s ideas and drawings introduced in the
previous lesson. If at the end of the lesson,
additional instruction in this area is necessary, a mini
follow-up lesson will be provided for students in
World History.
State/National/Common Core Standards
List the number and full text of each standard that is addressed in this lesson.
Remember to include content ​and​ literacy standards, as appropriate to the lesson.
NYS Social Studies Standards:
9.9a The Renaissance was influenced by the diffusion of technology and ideas. The Islamic caliphates
played an important role in this diffusion. Students will investigate technologies and ideas, including
printing and paper, navigational tools, and mathematics and medical science that diffused to Europe,
noting the role of the Islamic caliphates. Students will explore shifts in the Western European Medieval
view of itself and the world as well as key Greco-Roman legacies that influenced Renaissance thinkers
and artists.
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Social Studies Literacy Standards:

A. Gathering, Interpreting, and Using Evidence
1. Define and frame questions about events and the world in which we live, form hypotheses as potential
answers to these questions, use evidence to answer these questions, and consider and analyze
5. Make inferences and draw conclusions from evidence.
B. Chronological Reasoning and Causation
7. Relate patterns of continuity and change to larger historical processes and themes

Speaking and Listening Standards

Comprehension and Collaboration
1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and
teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and
expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

CDOS Standards
Standard 3a - Universal Foundation Skills
2. Thinking skills lead to problem solving, experimenting, and focused observation and allow the
application of knowledge to new and unfamiliar situations.
3. Personal qualities generally include competence in self-management and the ability to plan, organize,
and take independent action.
4. Positive interpersonal qualities lead to teamwork and cooperation in large and small groups in family,
social, and work situations.

AFNR Standards
PST.01.02.01.a. Compare and contrast applications of simple machines in AFNR related mechanical

Literacy Standards
WHST 1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or
opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an
understanding of the topic by identifying and using credible sources.
Objectives and Assessments
--Here list the short-range learning objectives specific to this particular lesson. These objectives should be items that are
immediately observable and easily assessed.
--In addition, you will identify how you will know if the learning objectives for this lesson have been met. List the types of
assessments​ you will use to determine whether the objectives have been met. List the types of formative assessments you will use
to monitor student learning of your specific learning objectives for this lesson. What assessments will determine proficiency,
excellence, or failure to meet the learning objectives of this lesson?
--As you consider your assessments, you should think about the kind(s) of feedback your students will receive from you related to
your assessments and how you will expect them to use this feedback.
- Formal assessments could include an exit ticket, a homework assignment, an in class writing assignment, a project, or a quiz or
a test you will give later, etc. Informal assessments could include structured observation, thumbs up/thumbs down,
think-pair-share, whiteboards, etc.
Learning Objectives Formative Assessments Summative Assessments
The students will be able to … What formal and informal assessments What evidence, by the end of the
(Learning outcomes to be achieved by the will you use during this lesson to learning segment/unit, will show that
end of this lesson) monitor whether your students are students understand and have met your
developing the understanding/skills learning objectives?
required to meet the learning objective
p. 3

Every objective​ should have an you have identified? If you are using
assessment. observation as a form of assessment,
write the questions you will use as a
Note: Use as many rows as you have guide for your observations of students
learning objectives. You must have at during the lesson.
least one objective, but there is no
maximum number.
SWBAT gather, interpret and use Teams will share CLAIMS and
evidence to make scientific EVIDENCE regarding Da Vinci’s
claims. inventions, and their diagram
labeled with simple machine

SWBAT participate effectively in a Learners will verbally report on

range of collaborative discussions their chosen gadget, allowing for
regarding simple machines and assessment of prior knowledge
technological innovation. regarding simple machines.
-What simple machines are used
in this gadget?
-How does this machine work?
-What do you think this gadget
used for?
SWBAT identify technology and Teams will investigate invention
ideas that influenced Renaissance sketches by Leonardo DaVinci,
thought. and share both verbally and in
writing the simple machines
used to create his ideas, and
their link to the larger question:
Why do we invent?
SWBAT self-manage, plan, Students will work within teams
organize, and take independent to investigate and draw
action in a group work setting. conclusions about Leonardo Da
Vinci’s notebook sketches.
Students will each fulfill the
expectations of their role, that
-Town Crier
The success of this activity will
depend upon the active
participation of each student.

Advanced Preparation for the Lesson

1. What instructional resources/materials do you need to prepare in advance?
List here the resources you will use to engage your students and assess their learning in this lesson.
Include handouts, slides, supplies, images, grouping plans, manipulatives, equipment, rubrics, answer keys, or anything else that
requires advance preparation. Written materials should be attached to this plan.
2.​ ​What else do you need to do ​before the lesson starts ​in order to be ready?
List here reminders to yourself so that you’re prepared when the students walk into the room.
p. 4

1.Large printed agenda

2.Prepared ‘Google Slides’ presentation
3.Various gadgets, with simple machine components (i.e. egg beater, garlic press, corkscrew, etc.)
4.Pictures of inventions using simple machine components to provide for inspiration
5.Inquiry chart handouts for warm-up activity
6.Team handouts:
a. Copies of team claim/evidence charts, and markers (one for each team)
b. Paper copies of simple machine pictures (take home)
c. Paper copies of simple machine purposes (take home)
d. Da Vinci invention sketches (team-choice)
i. Landing gear
ii. Self-propelled cart
iii. War machine/human machine gun
iv. Variable transmission
Lesson Procedures: Instructional Strategies/ Learning Tasks
Describe, in detail, the steps you will follow in this lesson, attending to both what ​you​ will be doing and what ​the students​ will be
Time Step-by-Step Procedures
Opening (Launch)
How will you begin your lesson in a way that motivates and engages students in learning this lesson’s content? (Motivation for
lessons should be interesting, age-level appropriate, brief, and directly related to the learning objectives of the lesson.)
3 mins 1. Warm-up Activity: Learners will self-guide through this activity as Ms. Morgan reads aloud,
and explains, instructions. Ms. Morgan will be available to answer questions, and to provide
guidance where/when needed. Ms. Morgan will explain inquiry chart to students, and guide
them through the inquiry process. As students enter the classroom, the activity is displayed on
screen with directions to follow.
1. Enter quietly and get settled in.
2. Choose a gadget from the table in the middle of the room and bring back to your seat.
3. Observe and examine your gadget closely.
4. Think about the following, noting in your inquiry chart:
What simple machines are used in this gadget? (photo chart for reference
How do you think this gadget works?
What do you think this gadget used for?
5. Be prepared to talk about your gadget in 2-3 minutes.
Learners will then be asked to report on their chosen gadget and Ms. Morgan will be able to
assess prior knowledge of simple machines through student engagement and responses. When
students address their gadget, teachers will document some of the key ideas and statements
provided by students for ‘Brainstorming’. There are handouts with pictures and definitions
that will be made available to learners during Inquiry Activity if prior knowledge does not seem
to be sufficient in completing the activity successfully.

List the next steps of your lesson. Provide a detailed description of what teacher and students will be doing. Your planned
formative assessments and language supports from above should show up in this section as part of your lesson procedures. Add
rows below as needed.
Write lesson plan procedures so that another teacher could pick up your plans and actually accomplish your objectives for the
lesson. The following procedural terms are too vague: introduce, discuss, review. H ​ ow​ will you introduce something new? ​ How
will you organize discussion? H ​ ow​ will you conduct a review? Include specific questions you will use.
2-3 2. Introduction to Inquiry Activity/Brief Review of da Vinci:
mins Ms. Morgan will do a brief review of Leonardo Da Vinci/Renaissance Innovation and
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Teaches will reveal essential question of “Why do we Invent?” This is the BIG IDEA question for
learners to think about while they work as teams through the Inquiry Activity.
Inquiry Activity is briefly introduced.
10 mins 3. Inquiry Activity: After activity is introduced, Ms. Morgan will be available for
guidance/support, and to answer questions when they are initiated by learners. She will also
check-in with teams to make sure teams are progressing at an appropriate pace. She may also
prompt teams with questions that will lead them to more questions. Teams will choose an
invention, and a 10 minute timer will be started. The activity will be displayed on the screen
with directions for teams to follow:
1. Gather with your team.
2. As a team, examine and explore your inventions.
3. Be prepared to answer the following questions…
a. What simple machines are used in this invention? What purpose do they serve
in its function/ How to they make it work?
b. What do you believe this invention is, and why?
4. On the diagram of your invention, label simple machines you recognize.
5. Make and record a CLAIM as to what your team thinks your invention is, and why it
was created.
6. Record at least three pieces of EVIDENCE you found to support your claim.
7. Ask questions!
8. Be prepared to report your team’s findings to the class.
How will you bring this lesson to closure? How will students reflect on what they learned today, and how will you prepare them
for what’s ahead?
5-6 4. Discussion and Check-in:
mins Teams share what they have for CLAIMS and EVIDENCE regarding their Da Vinci inventions, and
their diagram labeled with simple machine components. Students may verbalize their claims
and evidence to instructor, who will write the answer for them. Students may also help one
another to fill out inquiry charts.
If students have not yet picked up handouts (simple machines ‘cheat sheet’) in their inquiry,
provide them for students to take home.

Theoretical Principles/ Research-Based Practices

Describe clearly how the theory/research supports your selection of learning activities for this lesson.
1. Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning.
Students come into our courses with knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes gained in other courses and
through daily life. As students bring this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it influences how they filter
and interpret what they are learning. If students’ prior knowledge is robust and accurate and activated at
the appropriate time, it provides a strong foundation for building new knowledge.
-Students will use brainstorming to reveal prior knowledge

2. Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.

As students enter college and gain greater autonomy over what, when, and how they study and learn,
motivation plays a critical role in guiding the direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of the learning
behaviors in which they engage. When students find positive value in a learning goal or activity, expect to
successfully achieve a desired learning outcome, and perceive support from their environment, they are
likely to be strongly motivated to learn.
-Teachers in this activity will provide authentic, real-world tasks for students to complete.
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Dewey– Democratic, real-life curriculum; social and intellectual problems.

Piaget – Cognitive constructivism.
Bruner – Real-life discovery learning: active student involvement in personal discovery, the importance of
teacher-designed scaffolding
-Students will participate in discussion and group work that develops problem-solving skills and promotes
applying knowledge to real-world objects and ideas.

Rev. 06/13/16