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Boundary conditions and sources terms

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Boundary conditions and sources terms

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UNICAMP

conditions before they can be solved.

•The boundary conditions which define a fluid- or heat-flow

problem usually convey the necessary information about how

much fluid enters the domain, where it can leave, what is its

temperature on entry, what are the temperatures of the walls, etc.

•Of course, fluid may be caused to enter or leave at points within

the domain, not only at its external limits; and temperatures of

structural elements within the domain may also be externally

imposed, and exert an influence upon the flow.

•PHOENICS makes no distinction between "boundary" and

"internal" conditions, or between these and "source" terms, so

the former term will be used here for all of them.

TRANSPORT EQ. & SOURCE TERMS

UNICAMP

r.h.s. of the differential equation for a variable φ. Thus

∂

∂t

[ r

]

(ρφ ) + ∇ ⋅ ρVφ − Γ∇φ = S φ + S b1 + S b 2 + S b 3 + ...

•Sφ represents conventionally recognized source terms, such as

pressure gradients or viscous heating terms. These are 'built-in'

to EARTH.

• Sb1 etc. represent various boundary conditions. These may be

present only in certain regions of the domain. More terms of this

kind may be also be present in other regions of the domain, and

these regions may overlap.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS x SOURCE TERMS

UNICAMP

express area dependent terms such as heat fluxes, internal

momentum fluxes imparted by jets, centrifugal forces, etc but

also volumetric dependent terms such as buoyancy force, internal

heat sources/sink, KE production etc…

• On the other hand, the b.c. involves the specification of

convective and diffusive fluxes at surfaces bounding the domain.

• At the boundaries there are no neighboring cell and one needs to

provide information to this link

External information

link thru b.c. N

transmitted thru b.c.

n

W w P e E Boundary cells

s

y Cells inside domain

S

x

GENERIC FORM TO DIFFUSIVE & CONVECTIVE FLUXES

UNICAMP

expressed generally as:

S=− T

{ . C φ ⋅ 1Value

2 3 − φP − T

{ . CP ⋅ 1Value

2 3 − φP ;

{ φ A { φ

Aw

Γw A ( Pw ) W w max (ρU,0 ) W

δx w

and T is a geometrical multiplier.

• For short they can be written as:

S = −T ⋅ C ⋅ [Value − φP ]

DISCRETIZED EQS. &

UNICAMP SOURCE TERMS REPRESENTATION

• In fact any kind of boundary conditions and source terms can be

expressed on the form S = +TC (V - φ), not only the diffusive and

convective terms.

• The plus (+) sign in front of S is because in PHOENICS the source

term always appears on the r.h.s. of the transport equation.

• Representing the external and internal links by TC(V - φ), the

discretized equation takes the form:

∑ ai (φi − φP ) + ∑ TC(V − φP ) = 0

N,S,W ,E,H,L,T

144424443 1PATCHES 44424443

Internal Links Sources & B.C.

∑ aiφi + ∑ TCV

φP =

∑ ai + ∑ TC

IMPLICATIONS OF TC(V - Φ) PRACTICE

UNICAMP

Sources. It involve the following points:

1.PHOENICS always treats a boundary condition as a source of

the entity in question (mass, momentum, energy, chemical

species, turbulence energy, etc). It therefore does NOT insert

boundary values directly.

2.Since sources are inserted at the CENTERS of cells, not at

their walls, "boundary conditions" are not truly inserted at

boundaries. Of course, near-boundary cells can be made small

enough for the shift of location to be unimportant; but

PHOENICS also has other ways of effecting what is want.

3.PHOENICS accepts specifications of sources (and therefore of

boundary conditions) in terms of a geometrical multiplier ´type´

(T), a 'coefficient' (C) and a 'value' (V). The source for variable φ

determined by Cφ and Vφ is then calculated from: Cφ * (Vφ - φP),

SOURCE TERM SPECIFICATION

UNICAMP

(1) define the spatial region (PATCH) where the source will be

applied

(2) define if it is applied in an cell area, cell volume or other

type of geometrical parameter (TYPE)

(3) define the diffusion coefficient (if it exists) (CO)

(4) define the value of φ at the boundary (VAL)

information:

b. The values of T, C and V

PIL COMMANDS FOR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

UNICAMP

The ´where´ and ´when´ definitions for the B.C. are set thru

PATCH command defined as:

- type is T and conveys a geometrical (area, volume) information

- IXF,IXL are the first and last IX in the patch; and similarly for y,

z and t (time)

PIL COMMANDS FOR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS(cont)

UNICAMP

- variable is a SOLVEd - for variable

- coefficient is C

- value is V

SOME TYPES OF BOUNDARY CONDITION SETTINGS

UNICAMP

for are:

•Fixed value

•Fixed flux / fixed source

•Linear boundary condition

•Non-linear boundary condition

•Wall conditions

•Inflows and outflows

•General sources

examples.

FIXED VALUE BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP

0.0, and to 1.0 in the diagonally opposite corner.

• Numerical practice: the value of phi can be fixed in any cell by setting C to a

large number, and V to the required value.

• The equation then becomes:

φP = = ≅ =V

∑ ai + TC small number + TC TC

PATCH/COVAL would be:

PATCH (FIXED, CELL, IXF,IXL, IYF,IYL, IZF,IZL, ITF,ITL)

COVAL (FIXED, phi, FIXVAL, required_value)

• The PIL variable FIXVAL is a real flag to PHOENICS which is replaced by

2E+10. This value is big enough to prevail over any sum of coefficients and to

fix the desired Value.

FIXED VALUE BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP - Example From The Library Case 100 -

A solid cube of material, in which one corner is held at a low

temperature, and the diagonally opposite corner is held at a high

temperature:

**Corner at IX=IY=IZ=1

PATCH(COLD,CELL,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1)

**Fix temperature to zero

COVAL(COLD,TEMP,FIXVAL,0.0)

**Corner at IX=NX, IY=NY, IZ=NZ

PATCH(HOT,CELL,NX,NX,NY,NY,NZ,NZ,1,1)

**Fix temperature to 1.0

COVAL(HOT,TEMP,FIXVAL,1.0)

FIXED FLUX/FIXED SOURCE BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP

rate per square meter (W/m2).

•Numerical practice: a fixed source can be put into the equation

by setting C to a small number, so that the denominator is not

changed, and by setting V to (source/C). T then ensures that the

final source is per cell. The equation then becomes:

V

∑ aiφi + T ⋅ tiny ⋅

∑ aiφi + TCV tiny ≅ ∑ aiφi + TV

φP = =

∑ ai + TC ∑ ai + T ⋅ tiny ∑ ai

PATCH/COVAL setting would be:

PATCH (SOURCE, area, IXF,IXL, IYF,IYL, IZF,IZL, ITF,ITL)

COVAL (SOURCE, phi, FIXFLU, source_per_unit_area)

FIXED FLUX/FIXED SOURCE BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP - Example from Library case 921 -

The PIL variable FIXFLU is a real flag to PHOENICS which is

replaced by 2.0E-10. This value is small enough to be negligible

over any sum of coefficients and to set the desired flux per area

or volume.

Library case 921 concerns the prediction of

the flow and temperature fields in a closed

cavity with one moving wall and a heated

block. The heated block appears as shown:

PATCH(HEATEDBL,VOLUME,NX/4+1,3*NX/4,NY/4+1,3*NY/4,1,1,1,1)

COVAL(HEATEDBL,TEM1,FIXFLU,1.0E7)

The patch type VOLUME converts the source from (W/m3) to W per

cell, by multiplying by the appropriate cell volumes.

LINEAR BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP

heat to the surroundings. The external heat transfer

coefficient, H , and the external temperature, Text (K), are

both known and constant.

•Numerical practice: The heat source for a cell with area A is:

Q = AH(Text − TP )

typical PATCH/COVAL would be:

COVAL (HEATL, TEM1, heat_transf_coeff, external_temp)

COMMENT ABOUT THE FIXVAL PRACTICE

UNICAMP

• FIXVAL fix the value of the variable at the center of the cell.

•Considering a scalar (temperature) one may have as b.c. the

temperature value on the west face, not on P. One have two ways

to go:

(1) use a fine grid where the difference between Tw and TP is

negligible and employ the FIXVAL practice;

(2) set the face temperature.

To close the overall energy balance, one has to specify the heat

flux on the west face as:

δwP

k

Q = A w (Tw − TP ) w

{ δ

wP 14243 P

T 123 V − φ

C

x

COMMENT ABOUT THE LINEAR B.C. PRACTICE

UNICAMP

flux is correct if the ´west´ face temperature is close enough to

point P temperature.

Q = AH(Text − TP ) if Tw ≅ TP

or if the cell Biot = δwPH/k <<1 means that the conductivity thermal

resistance is much smaller than the convective resistance. One

can control Bi size by choosing a grid which results in a small δ.

•The other way to fix it is to insert the total heat transfer resistance

k Text

Q = A w H + (Text − TP ) w P

{ δ wP 14243

T 14243 V −φ

C

LAMINAR WALL BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP

The force exerted by the shear stresses on a stationary wall, in laminar flow, is

expressed by:

dU 0 − Uwall

Fwall = − A ⋅ τ = A ⋅ µ = A ⋅ (ENUL ⋅ RHO1) ⋅

dy wall δy

• where area A is the cell face area, δy is the distance from the cell face to the

cell center and Uwall is the velocity on the first node next to the wall.

(ENUL ⋅ RHO1) ,

• This can be put into form TC(V-φ) if : T = A, C = V =0

δy

• The problem with this approach is that the density and laminar viscosity may

be varying, whilst the distance to the wall will change as the grid is refined, and

indeed may change from cell to cell in a BFC grid. This simple method is

therefore not recommended, as all the quantities causing problems to the user

are known to EARTH.

• A special PATCH type is provided which ENUL ⋅ RHO1

T=A

automatically sets: δy

MOMENTUM LAMINAR WALL BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP

• The coefficient, CO, is then a further multiplier, which is usually set to 1.0.

• These special PATCH types are NWALL, SWALL, EWALL, WWALL, HWALL

and LWALL.

Example From The Library: The stationary and moving walls in case 921 are

specified as shown:

Moving wall at South side of domain at –0.1 m/s

PATCH (MOVING,SWALL,1,NX,1,1,1,1,1,1)

COVAL(MOVING,U1,1.0,-WALLVEL)

PATCH (NORTHW,NWALL,1,NX,NY,NY,1,1,1,1)

COVAL(NORTHW,U1,1.0,0.0)

• Note that the coefficients have all been set to 1.0, and the values to the wall

surface values. This suffices for momentum laminar wall conditions.

ENTHALPY LAMINAR WALL B.C.

UNICAMP

• The wall b.c. deserves special attention when the enthalpy equation is in

use. Two observations apply:

(1) at the wall there is diffusion of heat and not enthalpy. Therefore the heat

flux at the wall is:

Q = A ⋅ k ⋅ [dT dy]wall

(2) the diffusion coefficient in PHOENICS is always:

Γ = RHO1*ENUL/PRNDTL(φ). If PRANDTL(H1) is set to (ν/α), then

T6

in 4

* WALL

447command

4448

dT (ENUL ⋅ RHO1) 1

Q = Ak = A⋅ ⋅ [Twall − TP ]

dy wall δy PRNDTL

k k

= A ⋅ [(Hwall CP ) − (HP CP )] = A ⋅ [Twall − TP ]

δy δy

• Note that the temperature is deduced from the ratio H1/Cp

TEMPERATURE (TEM1) LAMINAR WALL B.C.

UNICAMP

enthalpy (H1), there is no problem with the TYPE *WALL as long

the Prandtl number of TEM1 is set to the thermal condutivity of

the material.

•For example, the thermal cond. of the air, at 20oC, is 2.58E-02

W/moC. This is set in GROUP 9:

Group 9. Properties

RHO1 = 1.189000E+00; CP1 = 1.005000E+03

ENUL = 1.544000E-05 ;ENUT = 1.000000E-03

PRNDTL(TEM1) = -2.580000E-02

ENCYCLOPEDIA

ENTALPHY X TEMPERATURE WALL B.C. (cont)

UNICAMP

that PRNDTL(H1) is positive and equal to the fluid Prandtl

number.

• When using TEM1and the *WALL command CO = 1.0 provided

that PRNDTL(TEM1) is negative and equal to the fluid

conductivity.

PATCH (MOVING,SWALL,1,NX,1,1,1,1,1,1)

COVAL(MOVING, H1, 1.0/PRNDTL(H1), 100); PRNDTL(H1) = 0.715

COVAL(MOVING, TEM1, 1.0, 100) ; PRNDTL(TEM1) = -2.58E-02

fact that for the 1st case what is solved is H1.

TURBULENT WALL BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP

in the fully-turbulent region, otherwise the assumptions in the

turbulence model are invalid. The wall shear stress and heat

transfer can no longer be obtained from the simple linear

laminar relationships.

•Unless a low-Reynolds number extension of the turbulence

model is used, the normal practice is to bridge the laminar

sub-layer with wall functions. These use empirical formulae for

the shear stress and heat transfer coefficients.

•Three types of wall function are available, selected by the

COVAL settings:

CO = GRND1 for Blasius power law

CO = GRND2 for equilibrium Logarithmic wall function

CO = GRND3 for Generalized (non-equilibrium) wall function

TURBULENT WALL BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP - Example From The Library Case 172 -

•Library case 172 concerns the prediction of developing flow in a

channel. The k-epsilon turbulence model is used.

GROUP 13. Boundary conditions and special sources

** North-Wall Boundary

PATCH (WFUN, NORTH, 1, 1, NY, NY, 1, NZ, 1, 1)

COVAL( WFUN, W1, GRND2, 0)

The GRND2 in the coefficient slot activates logarithmic wall

functions

SETTING MASS INFLOW &

UNICAMP THE PRESSURE EQUATION

Correction equation, (P1).

• For example, suppose a mass inlet at west boundary. There will

be no ´west´ link, therefore the term (P’P-P’W) does not exist

neither the velocity correction for U´W.

• In fact Uw is known and it will define the mass flux

does

644not

74 exist

4

8

( ) (

− D* = aE PP´ − PE´ − a W PP´ − PW

´ ) (

+ aN PP´ − PN

´ ) (

− a S PP´ − PS

´ )

west face mass

[( )( )]

flux set as b.c.

D* = ρVn* An − ρVs* A s + ρUe* A e − ρU*w A w Type T = Area

Coefficient CP

These velocities are

evaluated internally

INFLOW BOUNDARY CONDITION TC(V-φ) FORM

UNICAMP

sources in the continuity equation, with pressure (P1) as the

variable. A mass source is thus:

internal pressure. This effect is achieved by setting C to FIXFLU,

and V to the required mass flow per unit area: (RHO1)*(INLET

VELOCITY) .

• The sign convention is that inflows are +ve, outflows are -ve. A

fixed outflow rate can thus be fixed by setting a negative mass

flow.

INFLOW BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP - Example from the Library Case 274 -

Library case 274 concerns the flow over a

simplified van geometry. The inflow

boundary at the low end of the solution

domain is represented as:

** Upstream boundary: RHOIN = 1.0 kg/m3 & WIN = 14.0 m/s

PATCH(UPSTR, LOW, 1, NX, 1, NY, 1, 1, 1, 1)

COVAL(UPSTR, P1, FIXFLU, 14.0); COVAL(UPSTR, W1, 0, 14.0)

COVAL for P1 sets the mass flux to 14.0, which is (inlet density)*(inlet velocity).

The coefficient is FIXFLU because it causes an inlet of mass into domain.

The mass flux is fixed, and the in-cell pressure is allowed to float.

COVAL for W1 sets only the convective flux of W momentum (mwWIN). The zero

for CO means that there is no momentum diffusion from the inlet, and it applies

to Cφ, CP is transmitted directly from P1 equation.

S = TCφ ⋅ [V − φP ] + TCP ⋅ [V − φP ] = A w 0(Win − WP ) + A w (ρinWin )(Win − WP )

INFLOW BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP - Example from the Library Case 274 (cont) -

The previous PATCH and COVAL statements are correct and are the ones

echoed in the RESULT file.

To avoid mistakes setting inlet properties there are two equivalent commands

named INLET and VALUE for this purpose. The advantage relies on the more

straight settings

** Upstream boundary

INLET(UPSTR, LOW, 1, NX, 1, NY, 1, 1, 1, 1)

VALUE(UPSTR, P1, 14.0); VALUE(UPSTR, W1, 14.0)

Note that for an INLET, the VALUE command for P1 sets the mass flux. This is

often set as RHOIN*VELIN, the (inlet density) * (inlet velocity).

The mass flux is fixed, and the in-cell pressure is allowed to float.

The VALUE command for W1 sets the velocity of the inflowing stream. In this

case all other variables are taken to be 0.0 at the inlet. If they are not, then

VALUE commands would have to be added.

FIXING PRESSURE &

UNICAMP THE PRESSURE EQUATION

• For example, suppose one wants to fix pressure at the east boundary. There

will be no ´east´ link, therefore the term (P’P-P’E) does not exist neither the

velocities U*E and U´E.

• In fact UE is expressed in terms of the pressure difference:

ρUe = CP*(PEXT – PP)

• Observe, ρUe is determined in terms of the Pressure difference (external

minus pressure point P) not its correction, P´.

does not exist

( ) (

− D* = aE PP´ − PE´ − a W PP´ − PW

´ ) (

+ aN PP´ − PN

´ ) (

− a S PP´ − PS

´ )

= CP(Pext-PP)Ae

[( )(

D* = ρVn* An − ρVs* A s + ρUe* A e − ρU*w A w )]

These velocities are

evaluated internally

FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP

fixed irrespective of the mass flow.

large number for CP, and the required external pressure for V.

about 1E3 usually suffices.

PATCH by whether Pp>Pext, or Pp< Pext. The first produces

local outflow, the second local inflow.

FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP - Example from the Library Case 274 -

The exit boundary in case 274 is a fixed pressure B.C., set as:

** Downstream boundary

PATCH(DWSTR,HIGH, 1, NX, 1, NY, NZ, NZ, 1, 1)

COVAL(DWSTR, P1, 1000, 0.0)

COVAL(DWSTR, W1, ONLYMS, 0.0)

In this case, the in-cell pressure is fixed by the COVAL for P1 =

0, and the mass flux is adjusted to satisfy continuity. The

direction of flow is determined by whether the in-cell pressure is

> or < the fixed value.

The COVAL for W1 are supplied in case part of the boundary

should be an inflow - they specify velocities to be brought in.

They are not used in cells where in-cell pressure > external.

GENERAL SOURCE TERMS: IMPLEMENTATION

UNICAMP

through a constant coefficient and a constant value.

• In many instances, the coefficient and/or the value are

functions of one or several solved-for variables, the value of

which cannot be foreseen at the time of data input.

• As we have already seen, PHOENICS copes with these complex

relationships through the insertion of FORTRAN coding in the

GROUND module.

• To do so, special flags (GRND, GRND1, ... GRND10) can be

specified as coefficients and/or values in the COVAL command.

These instruct EARTH to visit special sections of GROUND,

where coefficients and/or values can be computed and set back

into EARTH.

• Nearly all the conditions specified in GREX are of this type.

NON-LINEAR BOUNDARY CONDITION

UNICAMP

coefficient and external temperature are likely to be a function of

some solved-for variable or other suitable expression.

• The non-linear source can always be linearized into TC(V-phi)

form by arranging to update C and/or V during the course of the

calculation.

• The updating of C and V is signaled to EARTH by setting C or V

to one of the 'ground flags' - GRND, GRND1, GRND2, ...,

GRND10.

• Thus the following COVALs may be seen:

COVAL (HEATLOSS, TEM1, heat_transf_coeff, GRNDn) or

COVAL (HEATLOSS, TEM1, GRNDn, GRNDn)

EXAMPLES OF NON-LINEAR SOURCES

UNICAMP

frequently be written in the form:

velocity squared.

TREATMENT OF NON-LINEAR SOURCES

UNICAMP

several representations in the linear form.

(FIXFLU) source, with the value of the source computed from in-

store values.

unstable. However, in some cases it is the only way.

source. Only experience will show which is the most stable.

EXAMPLES OF SOURCE LINEARIZATION

UNICAMP

solution, v = v*, and the source is the required one.

THE PIL IMPLEMENTATION

UNICAMP

COVAL (PDROP, W1, GRND, 0.0)

NON-LINEAR SOURCES FROM Q1

UNICAMP

directly from Q1, but that non-linear sources need additional

coding in GROUND. Many such sources have already been

provided by CHAM.

In addition to the GROUND code already supplied in GREX, a wide

range of non-linear sources CAN be introduced directly from Q1

without the need for any GROUND coding. A range of these will

now be described. A full list can be found in the Encyclopedia,

under the PATCH entry. The following non-linear Q1-set sources

will be exemplified:

• Stagnation Pressure Condition

• Quadratic Source

• Power Law Source

• Radiative Heat Loss to the Surroundings

These sources can also all be set from the Menu, using the User-

Declared Source option of the Boundary Conditions submenu.

SUMMARY OF MAIN POINTS

UNICAMP

linearized sources having the form .

• Two PIL commands convey the information required: a PATCH

command which sets "where", "when" and T, and a COVAL

command which sets the values of C and V.

• For a variable φ, the main kinds of boundary conditions are:

Fixed-value boundary condition (coefficient = FIXVAL)

Fixed-flux boundary condition (coefficient = FIXFLU)

Wall-type boundary condition (patch type = *WALL)

Linear boundary condition (coefficient = proportionality

constant)

SUMMARY OF MAIN POINTS (cont)

UNICAMP

linearized sources in the continuity equation, with pressure as the

variable in the linear source: . FIXFLU is used as coefficient for

the specification of mass fluxes, and FIXVAL or FIXP for fixing the

pressure.

•Boundary conditions must be supplied for all the variables when

there is an inflow mass into the domain. This is done by using

ONLYMS as coefficient in the COVAL command for the property,

and the inflowing value as value.

•Linear sources, and certain non-linear sources can be introduced

directly from the Q1 or Menu, by appropriate settings of

coefficient and/or value.

•Non-linear sources have to be linearized, and the non-constant

part programmed in GROUND. This is flagged by using GRND,

GRND1 ... GRND10 for coefficient or value. Many such sources

are already provided in GREX.

FURTHER INFORMATION

UNICAMP

9PATCHES,

9TYPE settings for PATCHes,

9COVAL and

9BOUNDARY CONDITIONS.

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