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BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND SOURCE TERMS

UNICAMP

•Differential equations need to be supplemented by boundary


conditions before they can be solved.
•The boundary conditions which define a fluid- or heat-flow
problem usually convey the necessary information about how
much fluid enters the domain, where it can leave, what is its
temperature on entry, what are the temperatures of the walls, etc.
•Of course, fluid may be caused to enter or leave at points within
the domain, not only at its external limits; and temperatures of
structural elements within the domain may also be externally
imposed, and exert an influence upon the flow.
•PHOENICS makes no distinction between "boundary" and
"internal" conditions, or between these and "source" terms, so
the former term will be used here for all of them.
TRANSPORT EQ. & SOURCE TERMS
UNICAMP

• In PHOENICS, boundary conditions and sources appear on the


r.h.s. of the differential equation for a variable φ. Thus


∂t
[ r
]
(ρφ ) + ∇ ⋅ ρVφ − Γ∇φ = S φ + S b1 + S b 2 + S b 3 + ...
•Sφ represents conventionally recognized source terms, such as
pressure gradients or viscous heating terms. These are 'built-in'
to EARTH.
• Sb1 etc. represent various boundary conditions. These may be
present only in certain regions of the domain. More terms of this
kind may be also be present in other regions of the domain, and
these regions may overlap.
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS x SOURCE TERMS
UNICAMP

•The source terms are specific of each phenomenon. They may


express area dependent terms such as heat fluxes, internal
momentum fluxes imparted by jets, centrifugal forces, etc but
also volumetric dependent terms such as buoyancy force, internal
heat sources/sink, KE production etc…
• On the other hand, the b.c. involves the specification of
convective and diffusive fluxes at surfaces bounding the domain.
• At the boundaries there are no neighboring cell and one needs to
provide information to this link

External information
link thru b.c. N
transmitted thru b.c.
n
W w P e E Boundary cells
s
y Cells inside domain
S
x
GENERIC FORM TO DIFFUSIVE & CONVECTIVE FLUXES
UNICAMP

• The diffusive and convective fluxes inside of the domain are


expressed generally as:
   
S=− T
{ . C φ ⋅ 1Value
2 3 − φP  − T
{ . CP ⋅ 1Value
2 3 − φP ;
{  φ  A {  φ 
Aw
Γw A ( Pw )  W  w max (ρU,0 )  W 
δx w

•where Cφ and CP refer to the diffusive and convective coefficients


and T is a geometrical multiplier.
• For short they can be written as:

S = −T ⋅ C ⋅ [Value − φP ]
DISCRETIZED EQS. &
UNICAMP SOURCE TERMS REPRESENTATION
• In fact any kind of boundary conditions and source terms can be
expressed on the form S = +TC (V - φ), not only the diffusive and
convective terms.
• The plus (+) sign in front of S is because in PHOENICS the source
term always appears on the r.h.s. of the transport equation.
• Representing the external and internal links by TC(V - φ), the
discretized equation takes the form:
∑ ai (φi − φP ) + ∑ TC(V − φP ) = 0
N,S,W ,E,H,L,T
144424443 1PATCHES 44424443
Internal Links Sources & B.C.

or in a more compact form:


∑ aiφi + ∑ TCV
φP =
∑ ai + ∑ TC
IMPLICATIONS OF TC(V - Φ) PRACTICE
UNICAMP

•This is a flexible procedure in PHOENICS to implement B.C. &


Sources. It involve the following points:
1.PHOENICS always treats a boundary condition as a source of
the entity in question (mass, momentum, energy, chemical
species, turbulence energy, etc). It therefore does NOT insert
boundary values directly.
2.Since sources are inserted at the CENTERS of cells, not at
their walls, "boundary conditions" are not truly inserted at
boundaries. Of course, near-boundary cells can be made small
enough for the shift of location to be unimportant; but
PHOENICS also has other ways of effecting what is want.
3.PHOENICS accepts specifications of sources (and therefore of
boundary conditions) in terms of a geometrical multiplier ´type´
(T), a 'coefficient' (C) and a 'value' (V). The source for variable φ
determined by Cφ and Vφ is then calculated from: Cφ * (Vφ - φP),
SOURCE TERM SPECIFICATION
UNICAMP

• To properly specify SOURCE terms one needs:


(1) define the spatial region (PATCH) where the source will be
applied
(2) define if it is applied in an cell area, cell volume or other
type of geometrical parameter (TYPE)
(3) define the diffusion coefficient (if it exists) (CO)
(4) define the value of φ at the boundary (VAL)

• For short, the specification of B.C. requires two kinds of


information:

a. Where (and when) the boundary is


b. The values of T, C and V
PIL COMMANDS FOR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
UNICAMP

The ´where´ and ´when´ definitions for the B.C. are set thru
PATCH command defined as:

PATCH (name, type, IXF,IXL, IYF,IYL, IZF,IZL, ITF,ITL) where:

- name is a unique patch name for future reference;


- type is T and conveys a geometrical (area, volume) information
- IXF,IXL are the first and last IX in the patch; and similarly for y,
z and t (time)
PIL COMMANDS FOR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS(cont)
UNICAMP

The specification of C and V is done thru COVAL command:

COVAL (name, variable, coefficient, value), where:

- name is the patch name to which the command refers


- variable is a SOLVEd - for variable
- coefficient is C
- value is V
SOME TYPES OF BOUNDARY CONDITION SETTINGS
UNICAMP

The types of boundary conditions which have to be provided


for are:
•Fixed value
•Fixed flux / fixed source
•Linear boundary condition
•Non-linear boundary condition
•Wall conditions
•Inflows and outflows
•General sources

Each of these will now be explained and illustrated with


examples.
FIXED VALUE BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP

• Practical example: we wish to fix the temperature in one corner of a cube to


0.0, and to 1.0 in the diagonally opposite corner.
• Numerical practice: the value of phi can be fixed in any cell by setting C to a
large number, and V to the required value.
• The equation then becomes:

∑ aiφi + TCV small number + TCV TCV


φP = = ≅ =V
∑ ai + TC small number + TC TC

• The PIL variable FIXVAL is provided for this purpose. A typical


PATCH/COVAL would be:
PATCH (FIXED, CELL, IXF,IXL, IYF,IYL, IZF,IZL, ITF,ITL)
COVAL (FIXED, phi, FIXVAL, required_value)
• The PIL variable FIXVAL is a real flag to PHOENICS which is replaced by
2E+10. This value is big enough to prevail over any sum of coefficients and to
fix the desired Value.
FIXED VALUE BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP - Example From The Library Case 100 -
A solid cube of material, in which one corner is held at a low
temperature, and the diagonally opposite corner is held at a high
temperature:

GROUP 13. Boundary conditions and special sources


**Corner at IX=IY=IZ=1
PATCH(COLD,CELL,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1)
**Fix temperature to zero
COVAL(COLD,TEMP,FIXVAL,0.0)
**Corner at IX=NX, IY=NY, IZ=NZ
PATCH(HOT,CELL,NX,NX,NY,NY,NZ,NZ,1,1)
**Fix temperature to 1.0
COVAL(HOT,TEMP,FIXVAL,1.0)
FIXED FLUX/FIXED SOURCE BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP

• Practical example: heat is being generated at a constant (fixed)


rate per square meter (W/m2).
•Numerical practice: a fixed source can be put into the equation
by setting C to a small number, so that the denominator is not
changed, and by setting V to (source/C). T then ensures that the
final source is per cell. The equation then becomes:
 V 
∑ aiφi + T ⋅ tiny ⋅  
∑ aiφi + TCV  tiny  ≅ ∑ aiφi + TV
φP = =
∑ ai + TC ∑ ai + T ⋅ tiny ∑ ai

The PIL variable FIXFLU is provided for this purpose. A typical


PATCH/COVAL setting would be:
PATCH (SOURCE, area, IXF,IXL, IYF,IYL, IZF,IZL, ITF,ITL)
COVAL (SOURCE, phi, FIXFLU, source_per_unit_area)
FIXED FLUX/FIXED SOURCE BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP - Example from Library case 921 -
The PIL variable FIXFLU is a real flag to PHOENICS which is
replaced by 2.0E-10. This value is small enough to be negligible
over any sum of coefficients and to set the desired flux per area
or volume.
Library case 921 concerns the prediction of
the flow and temperature fields in a closed
cavity with one moving wall and a heated
block. The heated block appears as shown:

Heat source in block = 10 MW/m3


PATCH(HEATEDBL,VOLUME,NX/4+1,3*NX/4,NY/4+1,3*NY/4,1,1,1,1)
COVAL(HEATEDBL,TEM1,FIXFLU,1.0E7)
The patch type VOLUME converts the source from (W/m3) to W per
cell, by multiplying by the appropriate cell volumes.
LINEAR BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP

Practical example: One of the domain boundaries is losing


heat to the surroundings. The external heat transfer
coefficient, H , and the external temperature, Text (K), are
both known and constant.
•Numerical practice: The heat source for a cell with area A is:
Q = AH(Text − TP )

This is obviously in TC(V-phi) form if T=A, C=H and V=Text. A


typical PATCH/COVAL would be:

PATCH (HEATL, area, IXF,IXL, IYF,IYL, IZF,IZL, ITF,ITL)


COVAL (HEATL, TEM1, heat_transf_coeff, external_temp)
COMMENT ABOUT THE FIXVAL PRACTICE
UNICAMP

• FIXVAL fix the value of the variable at the center of the cell.
•Considering a scalar (temperature) one may have as b.c. the
temperature value on the west face, not on P. One have two ways
to go:
(1) use a fine grid where the difference between Tw and TP is
negligible and employ the FIXVAL practice;
(2) set the face temperature.

To close the overall energy balance, one has to specify the heat
flux on the west face as:

δwP
 k 
Q = A w  (Tw − TP ) w
{ δ
wP  14243 P
T 123 V − φ
C
x
COMMENT ABOUT THE LINEAR B.C. PRACTICE
UNICAMP

• The linear boundary condition practice for setting a heat transfer


flux is correct if the ´west´ face temperature is close enough to
point P temperature.

Q = AH(Text − TP ) if Tw ≅ TP

or if the cell Biot = δwPH/k <<1 means that the conductivity thermal
resistance is much smaller than the convective resistance. One
can control Bi size by choosing a grid which results in a small δ.
•The other way to fix it is to insert the total heat transfer resistance

 k  Text
Q = A w  H + (Text − TP ) w P
{ δ wP  14243
T 14243 V −φ
C
LAMINAR WALL BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP

The force exerted by the shear stresses on a stationary wall, in laminar flow, is
expressed by:
dU 0 − Uwall
Fwall = − A ⋅ τ = A ⋅ µ = A ⋅ (ENUL ⋅ RHO1) ⋅
dy wall δy
• where area A is the cell face area, δy is the distance from the cell face to the
cell center and Uwall is the velocity on the first node next to the wall.
(ENUL ⋅ RHO1) ,
• This can be put into form TC(V-φ) if : T = A, C = V =0
δy
• The problem with this approach is that the density and laminar viscosity may
be varying, whilst the distance to the wall will change as the grid is refined, and
indeed may change from cell to cell in a BFC grid. This simple method is
therefore not recommended, as all the quantities causing problems to the user
are known to EARTH.
• A special PATCH type is provided which ENUL ⋅ RHO1
T=A
automatically sets: δy
MOMENTUM LAMINAR WALL BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP

• The coefficient, CO, is then a further multiplier, which is usually set to 1.0.
• These special PATCH types are NWALL, SWALL, EWALL, WWALL, HWALL
and LWALL.

Example From The Library: The stationary and moving walls in case 921 are
specified as shown:
Moving wall at South side of domain at –0.1 m/s
PATCH (MOVING,SWALL,1,NX,1,1,1,1,1,1)
COVAL(MOVING,U1,1.0,-WALLVEL)

Stationary wall at North side at 0 deg


PATCH (NORTHW,NWALL,1,NX,NY,NY,1,1,1,1)
COVAL(NORTHW,U1,1.0,0.0)

• Note that the coefficients have all been set to 1.0, and the values to the wall
surface values. This suffices for momentum laminar wall conditions.
ENTHALPY LAMINAR WALL B.C.
UNICAMP

• The wall b.c. deserves special attention when the enthalpy equation is in
use. Two observations apply:
(1) at the wall there is diffusion of heat and not enthalpy. Therefore the heat
flux at the wall is:

Q = A ⋅ k ⋅ [dT dy]wall
(2) the diffusion coefficient in PHOENICS is always:
Γ = RHO1*ENUL/PRNDTL(φ). If PRANDTL(H1) is set to (ν/α), then

T6
in 4
* WALL
447command
4448
dT (ENUL ⋅ RHO1)  1 
Q = Ak = A⋅ ⋅ [Twall − TP ]
dy wall δy  PRNDTL 
k k
= A ⋅ [(Hwall CP ) − (HP CP )] = A ⋅ [Twall − TP ]
δy δy
• Note that the temperature is deduced from the ratio H1/Cp
TEMPERATURE (TEM1) LAMINAR WALL B.C.
UNICAMP

• When solving directly the temperature (TEM1) instead of the


enthalpy (H1), there is no problem with the TYPE *WALL as long
the Prandtl number of TEM1 is set to the thermal condutivity of
the material.
•For example, the thermal cond. of the air, at 20oC, is 2.58E-02
W/moC. This is set in GROUP 9:

Group 9. Properties
RHO1 = 1.189000E+00; CP1 = 1.005000E+03
ENUL = 1.544000E-05 ;ENUT = 1.000000E-03
PRNDTL(TEM1) = -2.580000E-02

PRNDTL(ΤΕΜ1) if negative set the conductivities. See also entry at


ENCYCLOPEDIA
ENTALPHY X TEMPERATURE WALL B.C. (cont)
UNICAMP

•When using H1 and the *WALL command CO = 1/Prandtl provided


that PRNDTL(H1) is positive and equal to the fluid Prandtl
number.
• When using TEM1and the *WALL command CO = 1.0 provided
that PRNDTL(TEM1) is negative and equal to the fluid
conductivity.

***********GROUP 13******************* ********GROUP 9************


PATCH (MOVING,SWALL,1,NX,1,1,1,1,1,1)
COVAL(MOVING, H1, 1.0/PRNDTL(H1), 100); PRNDTL(H1) = 0.715
COVAL(MOVING, TEM1, 1.0, 100) ; PRNDTL(TEM1) = -2.58E-02

•In both statements the temperature is set to 100 despite of the


fact that for the 1st case what is solved is H1.
TURBULENT WALL BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP

In a turbulent flow, the near-wall grid node normally has to be


in the fully-turbulent region, otherwise the assumptions in the
turbulence model are invalid. The wall shear stress and heat
transfer can no longer be obtained from the simple linear
laminar relationships.
•Unless a low-Reynolds number extension of the turbulence
model is used, the normal practice is to bridge the laminar
sub-layer with wall functions. These use empirical formulae for
the shear stress and heat transfer coefficients.
•Three types of wall function are available, selected by the
COVAL settings:
CO = GRND1 for Blasius power law
CO = GRND2 for equilibrium Logarithmic wall function
CO = GRND3 for Generalized (non-equilibrium) wall function
TURBULENT WALL BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP - Example From The Library Case 172 -
•Library case 172 concerns the prediction of developing flow in a
channel. The k-epsilon turbulence model is used.

•The channel surface at the north side is represented as:


GROUP 13. Boundary conditions and special sources
** North-Wall Boundary
PATCH (WFUN, NORTH, 1, 1, NY, NY, 1, NZ, 1, 1)
COVAL( WFUN, W1, GRND2, 0)
The GRND2 in the coefficient slot activates logarithmic wall
functions
SETTING MASS INFLOW &
UNICAMP THE PRESSURE EQUATION

• Mass inflow into the domain have to be set in the Pressure


Correction equation, (P1).
• For example, suppose a mass inlet at west boundary. There will
be no ´west´ link, therefore the term (P’P-P’W) does not exist
neither the velocity correction for U´W.
• In fact Uw is known and it will define the mass flux
does
644not
74 exist
4
8
( ) (
− D* = aE PP´ − PE´ − a W PP´ − PW
´ ) (
+ aN PP´ − PN
´ ) (
− a S PP´ − PS
´ )
west face mass

[( )( )]
flux set as b.c.
D* = ρVn* An − ρVs* A s + ρUe* A e − ρU*w A w Type T = Area
Coefficient CP
These velocities are
evaluated internally
INFLOW BOUNDARY CONDITION TC(V-φ) FORM
UNICAMP

• All mass flow boundary conditions are introduced as linearized


sources in the continuity equation, with pressure (P1) as the
variable. A mass source is thus:

SMASS = (AREA)*(RHO1)*(INLET VELOCITY)

• At an inflow boundary, the mass flow is fixed irrespective of the


internal pressure. This effect is achieved by setting C to FIXFLU,
and V to the required mass flow per unit area: (RHO1)*(INLET
VELOCITY) .

• The sign convention is that inflows are +ve, outflows are -ve. A
fixed outflow rate can thus be fixed by setting a negative mass
flow.
INFLOW BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP - Example from the Library Case 274 -
Library case 274 concerns the flow over a
simplified van geometry. The inflow
boundary at the low end of the solution
domain is represented as:

GROUP 13. Boundary conditions


** Upstream boundary: RHOIN = 1.0 kg/m3 & WIN = 14.0 m/s
PATCH(UPSTR, LOW, 1, NX, 1, NY, 1, 1, 1, 1)
COVAL(UPSTR, P1, FIXFLU, 14.0); COVAL(UPSTR, W1, 0, 14.0)
COVAL for P1 sets the mass flux to 14.0, which is (inlet density)*(inlet velocity).
The coefficient is FIXFLU because it causes an inlet of mass into domain.
The mass flux is fixed, and the in-cell pressure is allowed to float.
COVAL for W1 sets only the convective flux of W momentum (mwWIN). The zero
for CO means that there is no momentum diffusion from the inlet, and it applies
to Cφ, CP is transmitted directly from P1 equation.
S = TCφ ⋅ [V − φP ] + TCP ⋅ [V − φP ] = A w 0(Win − WP ) + A w (ρinWin )(Win − WP )
INFLOW BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP - Example from the Library Case 274 (cont) -
The previous PATCH and COVAL statements are correct and are the ones
echoed in the RESULT file.
To avoid mistakes setting inlet properties there are two equivalent commands
named INLET and VALUE for this purpose. The advantage relies on the more
straight settings

GROUP 13. Boundary conditions and special sources


** Upstream boundary
INLET(UPSTR, LOW, 1, NX, 1, NY, 1, 1, 1, 1)
VALUE(UPSTR, P1, 14.0); VALUE(UPSTR, W1, 14.0)

Note that for an INLET, the VALUE command for P1 sets the mass flux. This is
often set as RHOIN*VELIN, the (inlet density) * (inlet velocity).
The mass flux is fixed, and the in-cell pressure is allowed to float.
The VALUE command for W1 sets the velocity of the inflowing stream. In this
case all other variables are taken to be 0.0 at the inlet. If they are not, then
VALUE commands would have to be added.
FIXING PRESSURE &
UNICAMP THE PRESSURE EQUATION
• For example, suppose one wants to fix pressure at the east boundary. There
will be no ´east´ link, therefore the term (P’P-P’E) does not exist neither the
velocities U*E and U´E.
• In fact UE is expressed in terms of the pressure difference:
ρUe = CP*(PEXT – PP)
• Observe, ρUe is determined in terms of the Pressure difference (external
minus pressure point P) not its correction, P´.
does not exist

( ) (
− D* = aE PP´ − PE´ − a W PP´ − PW
´ ) (
+ aN PP´ − PN
´ ) (
− a S PP´ − PS
´ )
= CP(Pext-PP)Ae

[( )(
D* = ρVn* An − ρVs* A s + ρUe* A e − ρU*w A w )]
These velocities are
evaluated internally
FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP

• This is the case of a mass flow boundary where the pressure is


fixed irrespective of the mass flow.

• As with any other variable, the pressure is fixed by putting a


large number for CP, and the required external pressure for V.

• For numerical reasons, FIXVAL tends to be too big. A Cp of


about 1E3 usually suffices.

•The direction of flow is then determined for each cell in the


PATCH by whether Pp>Pext, or Pp< Pext. The first produces
local outflow, the second local inflow.

• For further guidance see encyclopedia under COVAL.


FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP - Example from the Library Case 274 -
The exit boundary in case 274 is a fixed pressure B.C., set as:
** Downstream boundary
PATCH(DWSTR,HIGH, 1, NX, 1, NY, NZ, NZ, 1, 1)
COVAL(DWSTR, P1, 1000, 0.0)
COVAL(DWSTR, W1, ONLYMS, 0.0)
In this case, the in-cell pressure is fixed by the COVAL for P1 =
0, and the mass flux is adjusted to satisfy continuity. The
direction of flow is determined by whether the in-cell pressure is
> or < the fixed value.
The COVAL for W1 are supplied in case part of the boundary
should be an inflow - they specify velocities to be brought in.
They are not used in cells where in-cell pressure > external.
GENERAL SOURCE TERMS: IMPLEMENTATION
UNICAMP

• Boundary conditions (or sources) cannot always be specified


through a constant coefficient and a constant value.
• In many instances, the coefficient and/or the value are
functions of one or several solved-for variables, the value of
which cannot be foreseen at the time of data input.
• As we have already seen, PHOENICS copes with these complex
relationships through the insertion of FORTRAN coding in the
GROUND module.
• To do so, special flags (GRND, GRND1, ... GRND10) can be
specified as coefficients and/or values in the COVAL command.
These instruct EARTH to visit special sections of GROUND,
where coefficients and/or values can be computed and set back
into EARTH.
• Nearly all the conditions specified in GREX are of this type.
NON-LINEAR BOUNDARY CONDITION
UNICAMP

• In the previous example, either or both the heat transfer


coefficient and external temperature are likely to be a function of
some solved-for variable or other suitable expression.
• The non-linear source can always be linearized into TC(V-phi)
form by arranging to update C and/or V during the course of the
calculation.
• The updating of C and V is signaled to EARTH by setting C or V
to one of the 'ground flags' - GRND, GRND1, GRND2, ...,
GRND10.
• Thus the following COVALs may be seen:

COVAL (HEATLOSS, TEM1, GRNDn, external_temp) or


COVAL (HEATLOSS, TEM1, heat_transf_coeff, GRNDn) or
COVAL (HEATLOSS, TEM1, GRNDn, GRNDn)
EXAMPLES OF NON-LINEAR SOURCES
UNICAMP

Example 1: The pressure drop through a porous medium can


frequently be written in the form:

This can be turned into a momentum source (force):

where vol is the cell volume.The source is proportional to


velocity squared.
TREATMENT OF NON-LINEAR SOURCES
UNICAMP

• Non-linear and interconnected sources will normally allow


several representations in the linear form.

• Practice 1: The source can be introduced as a fixed flux


(FIXFLU) source, with the value of the source computed from in-
store values.

• This practice is not recommended, as it tends to be numerically


unstable. However, in some cases it is the only way.

• Practice 2: If at all possible, the source should be linearized.

• Frequently, there will be more than one way to linearize a


source. Only experience will show which is the most stable.
EXAMPLES OF SOURCE LINEARIZATION
UNICAMP

The quadratic momentum source can be written as:

where v* is the current in-store velocity. In the converged


solution, v = v*, and the source is the required one.

This is in form if:


THE PIL IMPLEMENTATION
UNICAMP

The PIL implementation for, say, the W1 equation is:

PATCH (PDROP, PHASEM, 1,NX, 1,NY, 1,NZ, 1,LSTEP)


COVAL (PDROP, W1, GRND, 0.0)

• Note that the type PHASEM sets T to

• The GROUND code would set .


NON-LINEAR SOURCES FROM Q1
UNICAMP

So far, it has been stressed that linear sources can be specified


directly from Q1, but that non-linear sources need additional
coding in GROUND. Many such sources have already been
provided by CHAM.
In addition to the GROUND code already supplied in GREX, a wide
range of non-linear sources CAN be introduced directly from Q1
without the need for any GROUND coding. A range of these will
now be described. A full list can be found in the Encyclopedia,
under the PATCH entry. The following non-linear Q1-set sources
will be exemplified:
• Stagnation Pressure Condition
• Quadratic Source
• Power Law Source
• Radiative Heat Loss to the Surroundings
These sources can also all be set from the Menu, using the User-
Declared Source option of the Boundary Conditions submenu.
SUMMARY OF MAIN POINTS
UNICAMP

Boundary conditions and sources are treated in PHOENICS as


linearized sources having the form .
• Two PIL commands convey the information required: a PATCH
command which sets "where", "when" and T, and a COVAL
command which sets the values of C and V.
• For a variable φ, the main kinds of boundary conditions are:
Fixed-value boundary condition (coefficient = FIXVAL)
Fixed-flux boundary condition (coefficient = FIXFLU)
Wall-type boundary condition (patch type = *WALL)
Linear boundary condition (coefficient = proportionality
constant)
SUMMARY OF MAIN POINTS (cont)
UNICAMP

•Boundary conditions for mass and pressure are both treated as


linearized sources in the continuity equation, with pressure as the
variable in the linear source: . FIXFLU is used as coefficient for
the specification of mass fluxes, and FIXVAL or FIXP for fixing the
pressure.
•Boundary conditions must be supplied for all the variables when
there is an inflow mass into the domain. This is done by using
ONLYMS as coefficient in the COVAL command for the property,
and the inflowing value as value.
•Linear sources, and certain non-linear sources can be introduced
directly from the Q1 or Menu, by appropriate settings of
coefficient and/or value.
•Non-linear sources have to be linearized, and the non-constant
part programmed in GROUND. This is flagged by using GRND,
GRND1 ... GRND10 for coefficient or value. Many such sources
are already provided in GREX.
FURTHER INFORMATION
UNICAMP

• POLIS -> ENCYCLOPEDIA under the entries:


9PATCHES,
9TYPE settings for PATCHes,
9COVAL and
9BOUNDARY CONDITIONS.

• POLIS -> DOCUMENTATION -> LECTURE ON PHOENICS ->


General Lectures for Version 2.2.