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1 Ester extraction from the chicken fat

2 Wladimir Rubioa, Pamela Avilésa and Gaira Molinaa


a
3 Equinoccial Technological University. Faculty of Sciences of Engineering and Trains. Race of
4 Environmental Engineering and handling of natural risks. Quito - Ecuador

5 1 ABSTRACT
6 A process was made to produce biodiesel from remainders of chicken for this study. The
7 chicken fats often contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA).
8 The fuels are the source of greater energy and due to the great demand of vegetal oils
9 the necessity is required to look for alternating routes for its obtaining, a very singular
10 process of all the processes that we will see in this study was the fat obtaining by means
11 flour of chicken pens that consist of processing the pens, which are gotten to obtain until
12 the 12% of fat, that could be used for the production of Biodiesel. [1]

13 2 INTRODUCTION
14 The demand of energy and its resources increase to every day due to the fast expansion
15 of the population and the urbanization. The production of biodiesel has its environmental
16 advantages for being biodegradable, nontoxic, with low profiles of emission, in addition
17 it is an alternative fuel made of renewable biological sources like vegetal oils and greasy
18 animals. In the last years a series of investigations for the obtaining of bio combustibles
19 from the fat of the chicken has been made, these methods have been very satisfactory in
20 their processes. In first metodología1 °C was obtained esters by means of a heating to
21 110. It was used sulfuric acid and other acids like. In the second método2 implemented
22 an acid esterification. In third método3 biodiesel from remainders of fresh chicken was
23 synthesized. The characterization of the chicken oil was obtained measuring the number
24 of saponification. [2]. in método4 four to alquílicos fatty acid esters and glycerol by means
25 of methanol were obtained and the hydroxide one of potassium (98%). And in the last
26 método5, was extracted fat from the pens of the chicken and having obtained a yield of
27 biodiesel between 62% and 75% optimizing the concentration and the temperature of
28 pH. [3].
29 3 METHODOLOGIES

30 3.1 Methodology 1
31 The chicken fat was put under a heating to 110 °C during 1h to eliminate water and to
32 retire the insoluble materials. The used fat of chicken had an acid value of 26.89 mg
33 KOH/g that corresponds at level of FFA of approx. 13, 45%. Sulfuric acid, acid was used
34 hydrochloride and acid sulfámico as catalytic and methanol is used like alcohol for pre
35 chicken fat treatment. When the temperature reached to 60 °C, the catalytic alcohol
36 mixture was added/in the fat. The final mixture was shaken during the wished time of
37 reaction to 60 °C. The final stage is made up of a mixture of methanol, sulfuric acid and
38 water, whereas the inferior phase is made up mainly of fat of esterified. Chicken and AGL.
39 Se retiró la fase superior. Después de este paso, la fase inferior se somete a un
40 calentamiento a 110 °C durante 1h para eliminar cualquier alcohol restante y agua. Y
41 entonces, se midió y registró el valor ácido de la mezcla de grasa-éster.
42 3.2 Methodology 2
43 Pretreatment by acid esterification
44 The chicken fat was heated at 120 °C for 1 hour in order to eliminate moisture and
45 volatiles. A solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol was heated to 60 °C and added to the
46 melted oil. The separation of the esterified oil from ethanol and sulfuric acid was visible,
47 the esterified oil was in the lower part of the separating funnel, while the ethanol and the
48 sulfuric acid suspended in the upper layer. The amount of biodiesel (ethyl ester) collected
49 was filtered, washed and dried by heating to 110 °C to remove excess alcohol and water.
50 3.3 Methodology 3
51 3.3.1 Extraction and separation of chicken fat
52 Biodiesel was synthesized from fresh chicken waste, which was obtained from local
53 markets as processing by-products and these are mainly composed of chicken skin, fat
54 and some other tissues. The chicken waste was frozen, stored and then thawed at room
55 temperature just before use. The characterization of the chicken oil was achieved by
56 measuring the number of saponification, the acid number and the composition of fatty
57 acids [2].
58 3.3.2 Fatty acid composition
59 The fatty acid composition of chicken was analyzed [4] by gas chromatography equipped
60 with a capillary column, in addition helium was used as gas.
61 3.3.3 Transesterification of chicken oil
62 3.3.3.1 Methyl esters of fatty acids
63 The preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids was modified from the methods of [5] and
64 [1]. The frozen chicken oil was pre-thawed at room temperature and homogenized at 50
65 °C. The methyl esters of fatty acids were synthesized from the methanol and oil
66 substrates in a molar ratio with 1% potassium hydroxide (p. / p) as a catalyst. 40 g of
67 chicken oil was charged into the thermostatic reactor at 60 °C with much stirring. Then,
68 7.69 g of methanol with 0.4 g of dissolved potassium hydroxide were added to the reactor
69 and left for 2 hours.
70 3.3.3.2 Ethyl esters of fatty acids
71 The preparation of ethyl esters of fatty acids was similar to the previous method of [5]
72 The frozen chicken oil was pre-frozen and homogenized. The ethyl esters of fatty acids
73 were synthesized from the ethanol and oil substrates in a molar ratio with sodium
74 ethoxide at 1% (w / w) as a catalyst. The lower layer consisted mainly of glycerol and the
75 upper layer consisted of ethyl esters of fatty acids (biodiesel) and unreacted residues.
76 3.3.3.3 Mixture of methyl / ethyl esters of fatty acids
77 The preparation of methyl / ethyl esters of fatty acids was slightly modified.
78 The chicken oil stored temporarily was pre-frozen and homogenized. The methyl / ethyl
79 esters of fatty acids were synthesized from the substrates of methanol, ethanol and oil in
80 ratios. 1% potassium hydroxide (w / w) was used. The reacted products were separated
81 by a separating funnel. The lower layer consisted mainly of glycerol and the upper layer
82 consisted of methyl / ethyl esters of fatty acids (biodiesel) and unreacted residues.
83 3.3.4 Characterization of biodiesel
84 Methyl esters of fatty acids, ethyl esters and mixtures of methyl / ethyl esters were
85 analyzed according to the modified method [4]. The fatty acid profiles were established
86 by a gas chromatograph.
87 3.4 Methodology 4
88 The chicken waste fats that melted slowly heating. The transesterification reaction is the
89 displacement of the alcohol from one ester by another to produce alkyl esters of fatty
90 acids and glycerol. [6] Transesterification of chicken fat with methanol over the potassium
91 hydroxide catalyst. It was carried out by means of a discontinuous type reactor. 50 g of
92 chicken fat was reacted; the various amounts of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 11 g of
93 methanol were added and stirred in a 250 ml round bottom flask. At the end of the
94 transesterification reaction, the glycerin and the biodiesel were separated according to
95 the differences in their density by means of a separating funnel. For the purification of
96 biodiesel (elimination of catalysts and the remaining glycerin), the washing operation was
97 carried out with hot water (70ºC).
98 3.5 Methodology 5
99 3.5.1 Biodiesel from chicken feather meal
100 3.5.1.1 Extraction of fat from chicken feather meal:
101 The feather meal was washed several times with distilled water to remove dirt and
102 impurities. 100 g of feather meal in 1000 ml of distilled water was stirred at 90 °C in 30
103 min on a magnetic stirrer and then cooled to room temperature. The fat extracted in the
104 upper layer of the bottom water layer was separated by centrifugation at 10000 rpm / 30
105 minutes.

106 3.5.1.2 Biodiesel production


107 The fat layer was mixed with 10 ml of 1% potassium hydroxide solution and centrifuged
108 at 10,000 rpm for 30 minutes to remove the free fatty acids and then heated to 80 °C to
109 remove the water.

110 3.5.1.3 Purification of biodiesel


111 The crude biodiesel was placed in a rotary evaporator at 50˚C to evaporate the methanol.
112 Then, it is washed to remove excess catalyst by adding 50 ml of a solution of 0.1 N HCL,
113 followed by distilled water and heated to 80 °C to evaporate the water present and the
114 identification of the functional groups [8]

115 4 RESULTS
116 The oil from chicken fat was used without the need for refining to obtain biodiesel. The
117 properties of this fat were also used to determine the accuracy for the production of
118 biodiesel. The chicken fat used by heating at 110 °C gave an acid value of 26.89 mg KOH
119 / g corresponding to the FFA level of approximately 13.45%. The silica type catalyst
120 resulted in an optimum performance at a temperature of 100 °C. Chicken fat is ideal for
121 the production of biodiesel used in diesel motor vehicles. [9]

122 5 CONCLUSION
123 The production of biofuels from chicken fat in its various methodologies has proven to
124 be a process with favorable results for obtaining a friendly product. Bio-diesel can be
125 mixed with 20 percent diesel with 80 percent diesel to meet current needs. It will become
126 an important fuel resource in the near future.

6 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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