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1.

1 Introduction

The acronym "ADDIE" stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement,


and Evaluate. It has evolved several times over the years to become iterative, dynamic, and
user friendly. ISD includes other models, such as the Dick and Carey (2004)
and Kemp (Gustafson, Branch, 1997) models. In this write-up I will focus more on instructional
planning process using the ADDIE design.

1.2 Goals

The ADDIE model is basically a generic, systematic, step-by-step framework used by


instructional designers, developers and trainers to ensure course development and learning
does not occur in a haphazard, unstructured way. It is designed to ensure:

i. learners will achieve the goals of the course,


ii. allows for the evaluation of learner’s needs,
iii. the design and development of training materials, and
iv. evaluation of effectiveness of the training program using processes with specific,
measurable outcomes. (Chuck Castagnolo, 2011)
ADDIE model is used to ensure that the students will get the best outcome out of the design
course.

1.3 ADDIE Instructional Design


1.3.1 Analysis
During the analysis phase, educators gather more information about the knowledge,
skills, or attitudes the learner needs to attain and what needs to be taught to accomplish this
learning. In order to do that there are several things that need to be analyse to get the optimum
result. In my case, the target group for Task 1 is Form 1 students who are mostly Malay who
have difficulty in English vocabulary.

Here are some questions that I used for the Analysis Phase:
Type of Example
question
Who Who are my learners?
What What is the goal of the courseware?
What are the skills that I want to teach for this courseware
When When can the students be expected to complete the courseware?
Where Where can this courseware be used during teaching and learning
activity?
Why Why do the students need to use the courseware?
How How can this courseware improve the learning skills of the students?

Table 1: Examples of questions asked to analyse the target audience


1.3.2 Design
When designing this courseware, it is important to set the learning objectives so that the
students would know about the expectation of this courseware.

 Pupils will be able to spell the natural disasters based on the pictures

 Pupils will be able to match the correct natural disasters to the pictures

 Pupils will be able to listen and answer for specific information about natural disasters

The instruction of the courseware is set to student-friendly version so that they can easily
navigate themselves through the courseware. The standard of the lessons is taken from the
DSKP and the materials used are mostly from their Pulse 2 textbook. The reason for this is to
ensure that they can used the reference book not only on this courseware but they can refer
to their book offline. The lessons are scaffolded for the weaker students so that they can follow
it easily starting with vocabulary enhancement.

1.3.3 Development
The in- depth development of the lesson taken place when the audio and visual part of
the lesson are used heavily to create understanding of the vocabulary learned. It is important
for the students not only to know about basic vocabulary but applying by understanding how
to use the vocabulary. This is where the students have to not only memorize the picture but
also can answer it in a sentence. The storyboard created by heavily putting in images and also
moving graphics to enhance their understanding of the new vocabularies.
The feedback to the questions given will test the understanding of the students’
knowledge about the new vocabulary that they have learned.

1.3.4 Implementation
During the implementation phase the students are required to test out the first few parts
of the courseware. This is considered as the pilot test for the courseware. From there we will
know more about their feedback on the navigation of the page and also the overall content of
the courseware. The implementation, modifications can be made instantaneously to the
course or program to ensure effectiveness. (Peterson, 2003)

1.3.5 Evaluation

The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative (Eoghan, 2018).
Formative evaluation is considered as the survey taken for the courseware about the overall
content, the design and also interactive level for the students to give feedback for the teacher.
Other than formative assessment, summative assessment is taken for the answers
given by student for each stage of the lesson. This can be reviewed with the number of
questions that the students get right as measurement of the effectiveness of the courseware.
This assessment is also compared with other classes that did not use the courseware to
compare the number of correct answers that they get to gauge on their level of understanding.
2.0 Conclusion
In conclusion, the ADDIE module is an important element of creating the courseware
according to the steps taken for each stage. It is useful for the teachers to create an effective
courseware for the students so that the students will get a more purposeful experience while
learning.

3.0 References

Branch, M. 2002, What is Instructional Design, ‘Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and
Technology’, Retrieved from
https://educationaltechnology.net/instructional-
design-models-and-theories/
Branch, R. M. (2009). Instructional design: The ADDIE approach (Vol. 722). Springer
Science & Business Media.

Dempsey, R. 2007, What is Instructional Design?, ‘Instructional Design Central’, Retrieved


from https://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/whatisinstructionaldesign
Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1996). The Systematic Design of Instruction (4th Ed.). New York:
Harper Collins College Publishers.

Eoghan. (2018). ADDIE: 5 Steps To Build Effective Training Programs. Retrieved from
LearnUpon: https://www.learnupon.com/blog/addie-5-steps/

Leshin, C. B., Pollock, J., & Reigeluth, C. M. (1992). Instructional Design Strategies and
Tactics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Education Technology Publications.

Peterson, C. (2003). Bringing ADDIE to Life: Instructional Design at Its Best. Journal of
Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.