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Service Training

MALAGA

Backhoe Loaders

III. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


1. ‘C’ Series - Starting & Charging
2. ‘B’ Series - Starting & Charging
3. Electrical System Tests Procedures

Sara
MARCH 1997
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

"B" Series - Electrical System Checklist


Directions: During a lab exercise, use this sheet as a checklist when identifying components on the
machine and for recording information from the electrical schematic.

Electrical Components

Machine Schematic
Location Part No. Location Description

Starter motor

Alternator

Battery

Fuse holder (main fuse panel)

Engine oil pressure switch

Coolant temperature switch

Coolant temperature sender

Power train oil temperature sender (converter)

Fuel level sender

Engine shutdown solenoid

Key start switch

Start relay

Start aid switch

Start aid coil

Page: III-1
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

"C" Series - Electrical System Checklist


Directions: During a lab exercise, use this sheet as a checklist when identifying components on the
machine and for recording information from the electrical schematic.

Electrical Components

Machine Schematic
Location Part No. Location Description

Starter motor

Alternator

Battery

Fuse holder (main fuse panel)

Engine oil pressure switch

Coolant temperature switch and sender

Power train oil temperature sender (converter)

Fuel level sender

Engine shutdown solenoid

Key start switch

Start relay

Start aid switch

Start aid coil

Page: III-2
Page:

Starting and Charging System Worksheet


Directions: Use the machine electrical schematic to complete this schematic. Label all wires.
III-3

416C-438C STARTING AND CHARGING SYSTEM


TO DIODE BLOCK 309-GY
ASSEMBLY ALTERNATOR
L
G S
B+ P
IG
MTR BAT E
RD-00 TACH
MOTOR POS NEG POS NEG
STARTER

15 A
KEY START
A SWITCH
202-BK

CHAPTER : Electrical System


R

25A 103-RD XSMN LOCK C OFF


START RELAY

BACKHOE LOADERS
ACC
XSMN GROUND S ON
BK UP ALARM B ST
ACCESSORY RELAY PK BRK SW
BK UP ALARM
REV SOLENOID
FWD SOLENOID
START
FWD SOL RTN AID SW
XSMN B+ START AID
REV SOL RTN COIL
KEY SW

10A 112-PU
SHIFT
MAIN CONTROL
RELAY

15A 194-GN
START ENGINE
RELAY SHUTDOWN
CAB RELAY
SOLENOID
Page:

416C - 438C STARTING AND CHARGING SYSTEM


III-4

TO DIODE BLOCK 309-GY


ASSEMBLY ALTERNATOR
L
G S
101-RD B+ P 450-YL
IG
MTR BAT E
RD-00
TACH
MOTOR POS NEG POS NEG
STARTER

15 A 105-RD
KEY START
A SWITCH
303-BR
202-BK
R
308-YL

CHAPTER : Electrical System


25A 103-RD 101-RD XSMN LOCK C OFF
START RELAY ACC
XSMN GROUND S ON
BK UP ALARM B ST
ACCESSORY RELAY

BACKHOE LOADERS
PK BRK SW
BK UP ALARM
REV SOLENOID
FWD SOLENOID
START
FWD SOL RTN AID SW START AID
XSMN B+
REV SOL RTN
COIL
KEY SW 307-OR 310-PU
10A 112-PU 101-RD SHIFT
CONTROL
MAIN
RELAY
308-YL 306-GN
308-YL
101-RD START
RELAY 308-YL
15A 194-GN ENGINE
304-WH SHUTDOWN
SOLENOID
CAB RELAY 308-YL
Page:

B SERIES STARTING SYSTEM


G S
III-5

MTR BAT
RD-00

MOTOR POS NEG POS NEG

STARTER KEY START SWITCH


105-BR
15A
A

308-YL R

CHAPTER : Electrical System


NEUTRAL-START
SWITCH C OFF

307-OR ACC

BACKHOE LOADERS
S ON
B ST
109-OR
306-GN

ENGINE
SHUTDOWN
START RELAY SOLENOID
304-WH

310-PU
START AID START AID
COIL SWITCH
Page:

B SERIES CHARGING SYSTEM


III-6

G S

RD-00
MTR BAT

MOTOR POS NEG POS NEG

109-OR

STARTER 303-BR
A

308-YL R

CHAPTER : Electrical System


C OFF

ACC RELAY S
ACC
105-BR ON
ST
B
TO 15A

BACKHOE LOADERS
ACCESSORIES 103-YL
KEY START SWITCH

MAIN RELAY RESISTOR

TO
112-PU DIODE
ACCESSORIES
309-GY

109-OR D+ 450-YL
B+ W TO TACH AND
194-GN ALT HOUR METER
CAB RELAY
ALTERNATOR
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

June 20, 1988 When maintenance-free batteries are deeply discharged,


they may not recharge if you just jump-start the engine. Cat
Maintenance-Free Batteries Require Different alternators produce 13.8 volts on 12 volt products and 27.5
Troubleshooting Procedures volts on 24 volt products. But 16 volts (32 volts on 24 volt
systems) may be required for charging to begin. Recharge
1401 with a battery charger capable of supplying 16 volts so that
Many new Cat products are now using maintenance free the batteries will accept a charge. Once they accept charg-
batteries. These batteries require different test procedures ing current, indicated by an increase in the charger ammeter
from conventional batteries. Since there are no vent plugs reading, the voltage must then be reduced. lt is important
on maintenance-free batteries, there is no way to check the not to let the charging voltage exceed 16.0 volts, especially
specific gravity of the electrolyte. A hydrometer cannot be as the battery becomes fully charged.
used. Instead, the voltage of the battery must be checked to The Cat maintenance-free battery used in original equip-
determine the state of charge. ment (3T5760) is designed and built to rigid Cat specifica-
Measure the open circuit voltage of the battery. Use a digi- tions. lt can be deeply discharged, such as by leaving the
tal volt meter such as 6V7070 Multimeter Group. Set the lights on over a weekend, and still be a good serviceable
meter on the 20 volt DC scale and touch the probes to the battery when fully recharged. For complete testing and
battery terminals. If the battery voltage is 12.40 or above, charging information, refer to Special Instruction, Form
the battery is ready for use, if below 12.40 volts, it must be SEHS7633, "Battery Procedure."
recharged for satisfactory performance.
If a maintenance-free battery is being considered for war-
ranty, the same voltage check must be done before per-
forming a load test. Maintenance-free batteries below 12.40
volts will fail a load test, but still may be good, serviceable
batteries when recharged.

Page: III-7
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

May 28, 1990 REFERENCE: Special Instruction, SEHS7768, "Use of


6V2150 Starting/Charging Analyzer Group."
Testing The Starter On The Engine
This is a general procedure to help aid the serviceman
1453, 1450, 1401 determine if a starter needs replacement. It is NOT intended
This article replaces the article with the same title on Page to cover all possible problems and conditions, but to serve
12 of the May 4, 1987 Service Magazine. only as a guide. The most common 24V circuit is discussed
and 12V circuits are indicated as applicable. On engines
REFERENCE ARTICLE: Service Magazine; May 4, with a diagnostic connector, the 6V2150 Starting/Charging
1987; Page 10; "Alternator/Generator Output Test On The Analyzer Group helps you to do the following procedure in
Engine." seconds.
Service Magazine; December 10, 1984; "Starters That General Information
Remain Engaged After Engine Is Running."
Starting systems usually have four major components:
Service Magazine; April 24, 1989; "Page 1; "Causes And
Effects Of Low Battery Voltage On Electric Starters." . . .Start switch
. . .Start relay
. . .Starter solenoid
. . .Starter motor

START
TP1 RELAY TP2 START
SWITCH

C OFF
S ON
B ST

W X TP3
TP4
TP6

TP7 TP8
STARTER TP10 POS NEG POS NEG
MOTOR

BATTERIES
TP5 DISCONNECT
SWITCH
TP9

Page: III-8
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

The only exception to this typical cranking circuit is that Chart B shows maximum allowable voltage drops in the
some small engines do not require the start relay. In this high current battery circuit to the starter. These values are
case, the start switch is connected directly to the starter maximums for engines with more than about 2000 SMH.
solenoid. Newer engines have less voltage drops .
Start switches are relatively low current devices. They are
rated to switch approximately 5 to 20 amps. Because the
Chart B-Maximum Allowable System
coil of a start relay between TP2 (Test Point 2) and TP1 in
Voltage Drops During Cranking
Illustration 1 draws about 1 amp, the start switch can easily
turn on the start relay and have long life. Absolute Maximum
Voltage Reading
The switch contacts of a typical start relay are rated to Circuit 24V 12V
switch between 100 and 300 amps. Because a starter sole- Batt. Pos. Post to Starter 0.5V 0.3V
noid requires only 5 to 50 amps, the start relay can easily Pos. Post (TP10 to TP6)
switch this load. Batt. Neg. Post to Starter 1.4V 0.7V
The starter solenoid has two functions: it engages the pin- Neg. Post (TP7 to TP5)
ion with the flywheel, and it is a high current switch rated Drop Across Only 1.0V .5V
about 1000 amps that actually turns on the starting motor. Disconnect Switch
(TP8 to TP9)
The starter solenoid has two coils: the pull-in coil (W) Start Relay Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
draws about 40 amps and hold-in coil (X) requires about 5 (TP3 to TP6)
amps. The instant the start relay closes, both coils (W and
Solenoid Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
X) receive power. Battery voltage is applied to the high end
(TP6 to TP4)
of both coils, at Test Point (3) which is the "start" terminal
(S). The low end of hold-in coil (X) is permanently con-
nected to the ground post of the starter motor. Grounding
for the low end, Test Point (4), of pull-in coil (W) is
momentary, and takes place through the DC resistance of Voltage drops greater than those listed are usually caused
the starter motor. When magnetic force builds in both coils, by loose and/or corroded connections or bad switch con-
the starter pinion is moved to engage the ring gear. Only tacts.
then will the solenoid contacts close to power the starter The entire diagnostic procedure can be reduced to:
motor. This temporarily removes the ground from pull-in
coil (W), and puts battery voltage on both ends of it while . . .confirming that batteries are within specifications
the motor cranks. During this period, the pull-in coil is out . . .switches and cables/wiring from the batteries to the
of the circuit and draws no current. Cranking continues starter are not causing too much voltage loss.
until power to the motor solenoid is turned off by the start The flow chart in Illustration 2 shows the entire procedure .
switch.
NOTE: If the engine is equipped with the diagnostic con-
The result of these switches and relays is to permit a 5 amp nector, the 6V2150 Analyzer Group can quickly be used in
dash-mounted switch to turn on a 500 to 1000 amp motor place of this entire procedure.
for cranking an engine.
Battery voltage (power) available during cranking depends
on the temperature of the batteries. See Chart A. This chart
is only a GUIDE as to what to expect from a NORMAL
system.

Chart A-Typical System Voltage During


Cranking Versus Ambient Temperature

-23°C To-7°C -7°C To 10°C 10°C To 27°C


Temp. (-10°F To 20°F) (20°F to 50°F) (50°F To 80°F)
24 Volt 12V to 16V 14V to 18V 16V to 20V
System
12 Volt 6V to 8V 7V to 9V 8V to 10V
System

Page: III-9
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

TEST (A) TEST (B) TEST (C)

STARTER SLUGGISH TEST OF WIRING TEST OF ENGINE


SLOW OR NOT TO STARTER
CRANKING

READ MOTOR CHECK ENGINE


VOLTAGE TP4 TO • LOCKED UP?
TEST BATTERY • OIL VISCOSITY?
TP5 WHILE
CRANKING ENGINE • PARASITIC LOADS?

READ VOLTAGE AT NO YES ENGINE YES


BATTERY POST VOLTAGE
LOCKED UP OR REPAIR
WHILE CRANKING MORE OR = TO
HARD TO PARTS
ENGINE CHART (A) ?
TURN?
OPTIONAL
NO
YES
READ VOLTAGE DOES
STARTER REPLACE
TEST FOR YES DROPS IN
NO VOLTAGE CRANK? STARTER
SHORTED CRANKING CIRCUIT
MORE OR = TO CHART (B)
STARTER
WITH 8T900 CHART (A) ?
OPTIONAL
AMMETER NO
YES
YES HAS BUTT TRY TO
VOLTAGES ENGAGEMENT CRANK
TEST BATTERY PER OK? CHART (B) OCCURRED? AGAIN
SPEC INSTRUCTION
SEHS7633
NO NO

REPLACE
REPAIR OR STARTER
REPLACE
PART

Testing The Starter NOTE: Chart C lists the maximum current draw for differ-
ent families of engines.
Testing Equipment Required:
6V7070 Digital Multimeter (or 6V7800 or 6V3030 or Chart C
equivalent)
Family Of Maximum Rated
8T0900 Clamp-on Ammeter (optional) Engines System Voltage Starter Cranking Amps

NOTE: This procedure covers a problem where the starter 3200/3300 12 1200-1400
cranks either sluggishly (unusually slow) or not at all.
3200/3300 24 750
Test A. Check battery voltage at the battery posts while 3400 12 1200-1400
cranking, or attempting to crank.
3400 24 750
NOTE: Use the posts representing 12 or 24 Volts. Do not
check voltage on the cable post clamps. 3500 24 750

1. Is voltage equal to or greater than what is shown in 3500 32 700


Chart A?
. . . Yes - Go to Test B. Test B. Measure starter motor voltage from TP4 to TP5
while cranking, or attempting to crank.
. . . No - Voltage at batteries is too low. Test batteries per
Special Instruction SEHS7633. 1. Is voltage equal to or greater than that shown in Chart
A?
NOTE: Low batteries can be caused by the battery condi-
tion or a shorted starter. . . . Yes - Batteries and starter cables down to motor are
electrically within specifications. Go to Test C.
. . . Optional: Check for shorted starter with 8T0900
Clamp-on Ammeter. (If voltage at battery post is within . . . No - Voltage drop (loss) between batteries and starter is
approximately two volts of the lowest value in the applica- too great. Go to next step.
ble temperature range of Chart A, and if larger starter . . . Optional: Check for shorted starter with 8T0900
cables get hot, this suggests a shorted starter without using Clamp-on Ammeter. (If voltage at battery post is within
an 8T0900 Ammeter). about two Volts of the lowest value in Chart A, large starter
cables will get hot and confirm a shorted starter without
using an 8T0900 Ammeter). Go to next step.

Page: III-10
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

2. Measure voltage drops in cranking circuit per Chart B. NOTE: Butt engagement and open starter solenoid contacts
Are all voltages within specifications? give the same electrical readings. That is, the solenoid is
activated, but the solenoid contacts can not close to turn on
. . . Yes - Check engine. Go to Test C. the starting motor because the pinion has struck the edge of
. . . No - Repair and/or replace faulty electrical component . the ring gear. If a butt engagement has occurred, the engine
will crank on the second attempt 90% of the time.
Test C. "Bar over" the engine to be sure it is not locked
up. Check engine oil viscosity (weight), parasitic loads, 3. Has butt engagement occurred?
etc. . . . Yes - Attempt to crank again.
1. Is engine locked up and/or hard to turn? . . . No - Replace starter.
. . . Yes - Repair engine as required.
. . . No - Go to next step.
2. Does starter crank? (Probably acts sluggish.)
. . . Yes - Replace starter.
. . . No - Listen for butt engagement (a clicking sound
caused by the pinion hitting, but not engaging the ring
gear). If this occurs, turn off the key switch. Then turn the
switch back to crank, and most likely the pinion will
engage the ring gear and crank the engine.

Page: III-11
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

May 4, 1987 3. Start the engine and run at approximately 1/2 throttle.
Alternator/Generator Output Test On The 4. Immediately check output current. This initial charging
Engine current should be equal to or greater than the full output
current shown in the Service Manual. The most common
1401, 1404, 1405, 1406 alternators are:
All Caterpillar Engines 24V Systems
REFERENCE ARTICLE: 'Testing The Starter On The 6N9294 - 35A
Engine', in this issue. 5S9088 - 50A
8N999 - 75A
Servicemen often need a procedure to follow to determine 6T1395 - 35A
if an alternator or generator is working, or if it needs to be 7T2095 - 35A
replaced. This general procedure is valid for any type of
system. voltage, or charge rating. 12V Systems
7N4784 - 40A
Tools Needed: 6T1396 - 55A
. . . 6V7070 Digital Multimeter (or 6V/800 or 6V3030 or 7T2096 - 55A
equivalent 5. Within approximately 10 minutes at 1/2 throttle (possibly
. . . 8T900 AC/DC Clamp-on Ammeter or equivalent longer. depending upon battery size, condition and alterna-
tor rating), the alternator output voltage should be 27.5 plus
1. Put the multimeter positive (+) lead on the B+ terminal or minus 1 Volt- indicating the alternator is performing
of the alternator. Put the negative (-) lead on the negative (- within spec. See Fault Condition Chart.
) terminal of the alternator. Put the clamp-on ammeter
around the positive output wire of the alternator. •12V System - 13.8 ± .5V
•30V System - 34.4 ± 1.3V
2. Turn off all electrical accessories. With the fuel off, •32V System - 36.7 ± 1.3V
crank the engine for 30 seconds. Wait two minutes to let
the starter cool. If the system appears to be up to specifica- 6. The charging current during this period should taper off
tions, crank the engine again for 30 seconds. to less than approximately 10 Amps, depending again upon
battery and alternator capacities. See chart.
NOTE
Cranking the engine for 30 seconds partially discharges the
batteries in order to do a charging test. if batteries are
already low in charge, skip this step. Jump-start engine or
charge batteries as required.

Fault Conditions and Possible Causes


Voltage After About Voltage After About Voltage After About
10 Min. is Below Spec. 10 Min. is In Spec. 10 Min. is Above Spec.

Current at Startup Replace alternator (defective regula- Turn on all accessories. If voltage drops
Below Specification tor, open stator phase, and/or rectifi- below spec., replace alternator (open recti-
er) fier and/or stator phase

Current at Startup Replace alternator (defective regula- Alternator and batteries in spec. Turn on Replace alternator
Reached spec. and tor all accessories to verify. Voltage must stay (shorted regulator)
then tapered off in spec

Current at Startup Check batteries per Form SEHS7633. Check batteries per Form SEHS7633. Do Replace alternator
Exceeds spec. and Do alternator test again if necessary alternator test again if necessary (shorted regulator)
stays high
Check batteries for
possible damage

English SEHS 7633 is also available in French (SFHS7633) , Spanish (SSHS7633), and German (SGHS7633)

Page: III-12
BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Electrical System

I. Battery Test: Reference - Batteries - SM 6/20/88

Voltage

II. Starter Tests: Reference - Starter - SM 5/28/90

Test A. Check battery voltage at the battery posts while cranking, or attempting to crank.
NOTE: Use the posts representing 12 or 24 Volts. Do not Chart A-Typical System Voltage During
check voltage on the cable post clamps. Cranking Versus Ambient Temperature
1. Is voltage equal to or greater than what is shown in -23°C To-7°C -7°C To 10°C 10°C To 27°C
Chart A? Temp. (-10°F To 20°F) (20°F to 50°F) (50°F To 80°F)
24 Volt 12V to 16V 14V to 18V 16V to 20V
Record Voltage ___________
System
. . . Yes - Go to Test B. 12 Volt 6V to 8V 7V to 9V 8V to 10V
System

Test B. Measure starter motor voltage from TP4 to TP5 while cranking, or attempting to crank.
1. Is voltage equal to or greater than that shown in Chart
A? Chart B-Maximum Allowable System
Voltage Drops During Cranking
Record Voltage ___________
Absolute Maximum
. . . Yes - Batteries and starter cables down to motor are Voltage Reading
electrically within specifications. Go to Test C. Circuit 24V 12V
Batt. Pos. Post to Starter 0.5V 0.3V
. . . No - Voltage drop (loss) between batteries and starter
Pos. Post (TP10 to TP6)
is too great. Go to next step.
Batt. Neg. Post to Starter 1.4V 0.7V
NOTE: For this exercise, assume your answer is "NO" Neg. Post (TP7 to TP5)
and then perform the next step. Enter results in CHART Drop Across Only 1.0V .5V
B. Disconnect Switch
(TP8 to TP9)
2. Measure voltage drops in cranking circuit per Chart B. Start Relay Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
Are all voltages within specifications? (TP3 to TP6)
. . . Yes - Check engine. Go to Test C. Solenoid Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
(TP6 to TP4)
. . . No - Repair and/or replace faulty electrical component
.

III. Alternator Tests: Reference - Alternator - SM 5/4/87

Initial Amperage (step 4.)

Voltage (step 5)

Amperage (step 6)

Page: III-13