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GRID CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC

SYSTEM DESIGN
System Power = 5.120 kW

Technical Report

System: 5kW

Responsible Entity: $Empty_COMDESCR$

Location: BHEL Bengaluru - Bengaluru

$Empty_LUOGOSTAMPA$, 02/12/2018
Head Designer
(B.Sc Prashant S B)

________________________

BP ENERGY SYSTEMS
B.Sc S B Prashant
No.81,1st floor ,Castle apt
Bengaluru (India)
8150834562 - $Empty_TECFAX$
bpenergysystems@gmail.com
Copyright ACCA software S.p.A.
GENERAL INFO
System installation site

System identified as 5kW


Address BHEL Bengaluru
Postcode - Town $Empty_IMPCAP$ - Bengaluru

Client

Name and Surname $Empty_COMNOME$ $Empty_COMCOGNOME$


NIN $Empty_COMCF$
VAT reg. nr. $Empty_COMPIVA$
Date of birth $Empty_COMDATANASCITA$
Place of birth $Empty_COMLUOGONASCITA$

Address $Empty_COMIND$
Postcode - Town $Empty_COMCAP$ - $Empty_COMCOMUNE$
($Empty_COMPROV$)

Telephone nr. $Empty_COMTEL$


Fax $Empty_COMFAX$
E-mail $Empty_COMEMAIL$
Role $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_RUOLO$

Company name $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_RAGSOC$


NIN $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_CF$
VAT reg. nr. $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_PIVA$

Address $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_INDIR$
Postcode - Town $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_CAP$ -
$Empty_B_RUOLCOM_COMUNE$
($Empty_B_RUOLCOM_PROV$)
Telephone nr. $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_TEL$
Fax $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_FAX$
E-mail $Empty_B_RUOLCOM_EMAIL$

Designer

Company name BP ENERGY SYSTEMS


Name and Surname Prashant S B
Qualification B.Sc
NIN SRTP/05/2018
VAT reg. nr. UK123456789
Address No.81,1st floor ,Castle apt
Postcode - Town 560071 - Bengaluru (India)
Telephone nr. 8150834562
Fax $Empty_TECFAX$
E-mail bpenergysystems@gmail.com
INTRODUCTION
With the installation of the "5kW" PV system, the main intent is to achieve a significant energy savings for
the served building by using one of the most important renewable energy sources: the Sun.

Use of this technology comes from the need to combine:


- compatibility with architectural requirements and environmental protection regulations;
- no noise pollution;
- saving of fossil fuel;
- production of electricity without emissions of pollutants.

Today most of the world's electricity is produced through various types of power stations such as nuclear,
hydro and thermoelectric. If we consider the estimated energy as the production rate for the first year, 7
988.94 kWh, and the annual loss of efficiency at 0.90 %, the following indicators are valid for the entire
system lifetime which is set at 25 years.

Fuel savings

A very useful indicator to measure the amount of fuel saved when using a renewable energy source is the
Electricity to Primary energy conversion factor [TOE/MWh].
This coefficient identifies T.O.E. (Tons of Oil Equivalent) necessary for the production of 1 MWh of energy,
or the TOEs saved with the adoption of photovoltaic technologies for the production of electricity.

Fuel savings TOE


Electricity to Primary energy conversion factor [TOE/MWh] 0.220

TOE saved in one year 1.76

TOE saved in 25 years 39.51


Data source: World Energy Council 2007

Avoided emissions

In addition, the photovoltaic system allows the reduction of polluting substances into the atmosphere that
contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Avoided atmospheric emissions CO2 CH4 N2O Total GHG


Specific atmospherical emissions [kg CO2e/kWh] 0.46254 0.00044 0.00236 0.46534

Emissions avoided in one year [kg CO2e] 3 695.20 3.52 18.85 3 717.57

Emissions avoided in 25 years [kg CO2e] 83 058.65 79.01 423.79 83 561.44


Data source: 2016 UK Greenhouse gases (GHG) Conversion Factors

Reference standards

Being part of the building’ selectrical systems, all works involved with the installation process must be fully
compliant with the relevant technical standard as prescribed by the regulations in force. The characteristics
of the entire system and its components must be in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations and
in particular must comply with:
- the requirements of local authorities, including fire safety prescriptions;
- the requirements and instructions as issued by National Grid.
INSTALLATION SITE
The energy sizing of the PV system was carried out by taking into account not only the financial aspects, but
also:
- Availability of solar energy.
- Morphological and environmental factors (shading and albedo).

System surface availability

The site of installation is described as follows:


5 kW rooftop solar

Availability of the solar energy source

Average daily solar radiation per month on horizontal plane

The availability of solar energy is verified using the "Meteonorm 7.1" data on a monthly average daily
values of solar radiation on a horizontal plane.
For the location where the system is to be installed, Bengaluru, latitude 12°.9717 N, longitude 77°.5933 E
and altitude 913 m a.s.l., the daily average solar radiation per month on the horizontal plane is estimated to
be as follows:

Average daily solar radiation per month on horizontal plane [kWh/m²]


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
6.46 6.91 6.79 6.72 6.18 4.54 4.29 4.45 4.49 5.23 5.13 6.01
Data source: Meteonorm 7.1

Fig. 1: Average daily solar irradiation per month on the horizontal plane [kWh/m²]- data source: Meteonorm 7.1

Therefore, the values of annual solar radiation on the horizontal plane are 2 041.59 kWh/m² - Data source:
Meteonorm 7.1.

Environmental and morphological characteristics

Shading analysis

The effects of shading due to natural elements (mountains, trees) or artificial (buildings), determine the
reduction of solar gains and the related payback time.
The shading coefficient, function of the site morphology, is 1.00.
Solar energy diagram for Bengaluru:
Fig. 2: Solar diagram

Albedo

In addition, to take into account of surplus radiation due to reflectance of the surfaces of the area where the
system is installed, the monthly mean albedo values, also considering the ISO EN 8477, were estimated as:

Average monthly albedo values


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20

The annual average Albedo value is 0.20.


SYSTEM DESIGN
Calculation procedure

General design criteria

The design principle normally used for a photovoltaic system is to maximize the collection of the available
annual solar radiation.

In most cases, the photovoltaic system must be exposed to sunlight in an optimal way, choosing priority
orientation to the south, so as to avoid excess avoiding shading. In accordance with any architectural
constraints of the structure upon which the system is installed, different orientations can be adopted as long
as they are adequately verified and evaluated.
Energy losses due to such phenomena affect the cost of kWh produced and payback time.

From the architectural point of view, in the case of applications on pitched roofs, the choice of the inclination
and orientation must take into account that it is generally advisable to maintain the plane of the modules in
parallel or even coplanar to that of the roof itself. This in order to not alter the shape of the building and to
not increase the action of wind forces on the modules. This favors the circulation of air between the rear of
the modules and the building surface in order to limit temperature losses.

Produced energy - estimate criteria

The produced energy depends on:


- Installation site (latitude, solar radiation, temperature, surface reflectance of the front of the modules).
- Exposure of the modules: angle of inclination (tilt), angle of orientation (azimuth).
- Shading due to natural or artificial elements.
- Characteristics of the modules: power rating, temperature coefficient, decoupling losses or mismatch.
- B.O.S. (Balance Of System).

The value of BOS can be estimated directly or as a complement to the unity of all losses, calculated using the
following formula:

Total losses [
%]= [
1–(
1–a–b)x(
1–c-d)x(
1–e
)x(
1–f
)]+g

where:
a - losses due to reflections.
b - losses due to shading.
c - mismatching losses
d - losses due to the effects of temperature variations
e - DC circuit losses
f - Inverter losses.
g - AC circuits losses

Electrical verifications criteria

Considering the module minimum and maximum operating temperature points, (-10°C) and (70°C), the
following conditions were verified:

MPPT VOLTAGES
Voltage at maximum power point, Vm at 70 °C greater than the minimum MPPT voltage.
Voltage at maximum power point, Vm at -10 °C less than the maximum MPPT voltage.
These MPPT voltage values represent the maximum and minimum operational range for performance at
maximum power.
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE
Voc (open circuit) at -10 °C less than the maximum inverter voltage.

MODULE MAXIMUM VOLTAGE


Voc (open circuit) at -10 °C less than the maximum module voltage.

MAXIMUM CURRENT
Maximum generated current Isc (short circuit), less than the Inverter's maximum current.

INVERTER SIZING FACTOR


A typical sizing factor is between 70 % and 120 %
The inverter sizing factor is the percentage ratio between the nominal power of the inverter and the power of
the photovoltaic generator connected to it (in the case of MPPT sub-systems, sizing is verified for the MPPT
sub-system as a whole).
System 5kW

The system, identified as "5kW", is a grid-connected system type and is connected to the main grid with a
"Three-phase in low voltage" type connection.
Its rated power is of 5.120 kW and an annual energy production of 7 988.94 kWh (equal to 1 560.34
kWh/kW), resulting from 16 modules, with a surface of 31.07 m², and consists of 1 generator.

System technical datasheet

General Info

Responsible entity $Empty_COMDESCR$


Address BHEL Bengaluru
Postcode - Town $Empty_IMPCAP$ Bengaluru

Latitude 12°.9717 N
Longitude 77°.5933 E
Altitude 913 m

Annual solar radiation on horizontal plane 2 041.59 kWh/m²


Shading coefficient 1.00

Technical Data

Modules total surface 31.07 m²


Total number of modules 16
Total number of inverters 1
Total annual energy 7 988.94 kWh
Total power 5.120 kW
PhaseL1–Power 1.707 kW
PhaseL2–Power 1.707 kW
PhaseL3–Power 1.707 kW
Energy per kW 1 560.34 kWh/kW
Accumulation system Absent
Useful accumulation capacity -
BOS 74.97 %

Produced Energy

The total annual energy produced by the system is 7 988.94 kWh.


The chart below shows the monthly energy values produced by the PV system:
Fig. 3: Monthly energy produced by the system

Other system component specifications

Module distribution and positioning

$Empty_IMPMODULIPOS$

Electrical wiring

$Empty_IMPCABLAGGIO$

Earthing system

$Empty_IMPMESSAATERRA$

Energy storage system

$Empty_IMPSISTACC$

Circuit protections

$Empty_IMPPROTEZIONE$

Notes

$Empty_IMPNOTE$
Generator Generator1

The generator identified as: “Ge ne rat


or1”has a rated power output of 5.120 kW and an annual energy
production of 7 988.94 kWh, deriving from 16 modules occupying a total surface area of 31.07 m².
The generator has a connection three phase .

System technical specifications

General Info

Modules positioning Not parallel to surfaces


Mounting structure Fixed

Module inclination (Tilt) 0°


Module orientation (Azimuth) 0°
Annual solar radiation on module plane 2 041.59 kWh/m²

Number of available surfaces 1


Total available surface 118.12 m²
Total used surface 118.12 m²

Total power 5.120 kW


Total annual energy 7 988.94 kWh

Module

Brand–Model SWLECT ENERGY SYSTEMS LIMITED - 320WP


Total number of modules 16
Modules total surface 31.07 m²

Inverter configuration

MPPT Number of modules Strings per module


1 8 1x8
2 8 1x8

Inverter

Brand–Model SMA Solar Technology AG - STP 5000TL-20


Total number 1
Inverter sizing (between 70 % and 120 %) 97.66 % (VERIFIED)
Phase type Three-phase

Module Positioning

Modules layout is shown in the following illustration:


Fig. 4: Generator modules positioningGenerator1

Electrical checks MPPT 1

Considering the module minimum and maximum operating temperature points, (-10°C) and (70°C), the
following conditions were verified:

MPPT VOLTAGES
Vm at 70 °C (285.20 V) greater than Vmppt min. (245.00 V) VERIFIED
Vm at -10 °C (304.40 V) less than Vmppt max. (800.00 V) VERIFIED

MAXIMUM VOLTAGES
Voc at -10 °C (375.60 V) less than MPPT max. input voltage (1 000.00 V) VERIFIED

MAXIMUM MODULE VOLTAGE


Vocat-
10°
C(375.
60V)les
sthanmodul
e’
smax
.sys
tem vol
tage(
1000.
00V) VERIFIED

MAXIMUM CURRENT
Max. generated current (9.14 A) less than MPPT max. input current (10.00 A) VERIFIED

Electrical checks MPPT 2

Considering the module minimum and maximum operating temperature points, (-10°C) and (70°C), the
following conditions were verified:

MPPT VOLTAGES
Vm at 70 °C (285.20 V) greater than Vmppt min. (245.00 V) VERIFIED
Vm at -10 °C (304.40 V) less than Vmppt max. (800.00 V) VERIFIED

MAXIMUM VOLTAGES
Voc at -10 °C (375.60 V) less than MPPT max. input voltage (1 000.00 V) VERIFIED
MAXIMUM MODULE VOLTAGE
Vocat-
10°
C(375.
60V)les
sthanmodul
e’
smax
.sys
tem vol
tage(
1000.
00V) VERIFIED

MAXIMUM CURRENT
Max. generated current (9.14 A) less than MPPT max. input current (10.00 A) VERIFIED
Circuit diagram

The interface device is external to the DC/AC converters and composed of: Contactor
The reference standard for cable dimensioning is IEC 60364.

Cables

Results
Thickne Cable
Leng. Current Voltage
Description Description ss Capacit
(M) (A) drop (%)
(mm²) y (A)
Grid - Main switch panel FG7R 0.6/1 kV 10.0 1.00 7.39 60.35 0.01
Main switch panel - Photovoltaic
FG7R 0.6/1 kV 10.0 1.00 7.39 60.35 0.01
panel
Photovoltaic panel - I 1 FG7R 0.6/1 kV 10.0 1.00 7.39 60.35 0.01
I 1 - MPPT 1 6.0 1.00 8.65 39.10 0.02
I 1 - Field Switch panel 1 H1Z2Z2-K 6.0 1.00 8.65 45.00 0.02
Field Switch panel 1 - S 1 H1Z2Z2-K 6.0 1.00 8.65 45.00 0.02
I 1 - MPPT 2 6.0 1.00 8.65 39.10 0.02
I 1 - Field Switch panel 2 H1Z2Z2-K 6.0 1.00 8.65 45.00 0.02
Field Switch panel 2 - S 2 H1Z2Z2-K 6.0 1.00 8.65 45.00 0.02

Switchboards

Main switch panel


SPD present output
Input Protection
Input Device
Photovoltaic panel Circuit Breaker
Fig. 5: Single-line diagram for switch panel "Main switch panel"
Photovoltaic panel
SPD present output
Input Protection
Input Device
I1 <Absent>

Fig. 6: Single-line diagram for switch panel "Photovoltaic panel"


Field Switch panel 1
Output protection: Thermal-magnetic circuit breaker
SPD present output
Input Protection
Input S 1 : Thermal-magnetic circuit breaker
SPD present

Fig. 7: Single-line diagram for switch panel "Field Switch panel 1"
Field Switch panel 2
Output protection: Thermal-magnetic circuit breaker
SPD present output
Input Protection
Input S 2 : Thermal-magnetic circuit breaker
SPD present

Fig. 8: Single-line diagram for switch panel "Field Switch panel 2"
Single-line diagram

The following diagram illustrates the single-line diagram of the entire PV system, in which its subsystems
and components are highlighted.
Fig. 9: System single-line electric diagram

Summary for power stage


Generator / sub-system L1 L2 L3
Generator1 1.707 kW 1.707 kW 1.707 kW
Totale 1.707 kW 1.707 kW 1.707 kW

The power difference between the phases with highest and lowest power generation levels is equal to: 0.000
kW.
MODULES TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Module HST72F320P

GENERAL DATA
Brand SWLECT ENERGY SYSTEMS LIMITED
Model 320WP
Material Type Polycrystalline Si
Price €0. 00

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN STC


Peak Power 320.0 W
Im 8.65 A
Isc 9.14 A
Efficiency 16.80 %
Vm 37.00 V
Voc 45.90 V

OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS


Voc thermal coeff. -0.0300 V/°C
Isc thermal coeff. 0.050 %/°C
NOCT 45.0 °C
Vmax 1 000.00 V

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Length 1 968.00 mm
Width 987.00 mm
Area 1.942 m²
Thickness 40.00 mm
Weight 21.00 kg
Number of cells 72

NOTES
Notes
INVERTER TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Inverter I.2443

GENERAL DATA
Brand SMA Solar Technology AG
Model STP 5000TL-20
Phase Type Three-phase
Price €0.00

MPPT INPUTS
N VMppt min [V] VMppt max [V] V max [V] I max [A]
1 245.00 800.00 1 000.00 10.00
2 245.00 800.00 1 000.00 10.00

Max power [W] 5 100

ELECTRICAL OUTPUT PARAMETERS


Nominal power 5 000 W
Nominal voltage 230 V
Max. Efficiency 98.00 %
Current distortion factor 3%
Frequenzy $Empty_B_INV_FREQ$
European Eff. 97.10 %

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Dimensions W x D x H 470x730x240 mm
Weight 37.00 kg

NOTES
Notes
INDEX
GENERAL INFO 2
System installation site 2
Client 2
Designer 2
INTRODUCTION 3
Fuel savings 3
Avoided emissions 3
Reference standards 3
INSTALLATION SITE 4
System surface availability 4
Availability of the solar energy source 4
Average daily solar radiation per month on horizontal plane 4
Environmental and morphological characteristics 4
Shading analysis 4
Albedo 5
SYSTEM DESIGN 6
Calculation procedure 6
General design criteria 6
Produced energy - estimate criteria 6
Electrical verifications criteria 6
System 5kW 8
System technical datasheet 8
Produced Energy 8
Other system component specifications 9
Module distribution and positioning 9
Electrical wiring 9
Earthing system 9
Energy storage system 9
Circuit protections 9
Notes 9
Generator Generator1 10
System technical specifications 10
Module Positioning 10
Electrical checks MPPT 1 11
Electrical checks MPPT 2 11
Circuit diagram 13
Cables 13
Switchboards 13
Single-line diagram 18
MODULES TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 21
Module HST72F320P 21
INVERTER TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 22
Inverter I.2443 22
INDEX 23