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NANYANG JUNIOR COLLEGE

JC 2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION
Higher 2

CANDIDATE
NAME

TUTOR’S
CLASS
NAME

PHYSICS 9745/02
Paper 2 Structured Questions 25 September 2009
1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your name and class on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Answer all questions.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

For Examiner’s Use

Total

This document consists of 14 printed pages.


2

DATA AND FORMULAE

Data
8 -1
speed of light in free space c = 3.00 x 10 m s
-7 -1
permeability of free space µo = 4π x 10 H m
-12 -1
permittivity of free space εo = 8.85 x 10 Fm
-9 -1
(1/(36π)) x 10 F m
-19
elementary charge e = 1.60 x 10 C
-34
the Planck constant h = 6.63 x 10 Js
-27
unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 x 10 kg
-31
rest mass of electron me = 9.11 x 10 kg
-27
rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 x 10 kg
-1 -1
molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K mol
23 -1
the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 x 10 mol
-23 -1
the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10 JK
-11 2 -2
gravitational constant G = 6.67 x 10 N m kg
-2
acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s

Formulae
2
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + ½ at
2 2
v = u + 2as
work done on/by a gas W = p∆V
hydrostatic pressure p = ρgh
gravitational potential φ = -Gm/r
displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = xosin ωt
velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = vocos ωt

± ω (xo − x 2 )
2
=

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + ....


resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ....
electric potential V = Q/4πεor
alternating current/voltage x = xo sin ωt
transmission coefficient T = exp(-2kd)

8π 2 m(U − E )
where k =
h2
radioactive decay x = xo exp(-λt)
0.693
decay constant λ =
t 1/ 2

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09


3 For
Examiner’s
Use

1 A ball is thrown vertically upwards from the ground and reaches a maximum height h
before returning back to the ground.

(a) Neglecting the effects of air resistance, show that the time taken for the ball to
reach its maximum height is
t = 2h g

where g is the acceleration of free fall.

[2]

(b) By considering the forces acting on the ball, deduce and explain if the
acceleration of the ball is greater than, equal to or less than g in each of the
following cases, if the effects of air resistance are not negligible.
(i) When the ball is ascending to its maximum height.
Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

(ii) When the ball is at its maximum height.


Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

(iii) When the ball is descending from its maximum height.


Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[3]

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For
4 Examiner’s
Use

(c) Hence, deduce and explain if the time taken for the ball to ascend from the
ground to its maximum height is larger than, equal to or less than that for it to
descend from its maximum height to the ground.
Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.


[2]

2 A satellite of mass m is launched into a circular orbit about the Earth of mass ME,
separated by a distance r, as shown in Fig. 2.1. Assuming the Earth to be at rest, the
total energy of the Earth-satellite system is the sum of the kinetic energy and the
gravitational potential energy of the satellite.
satellite
v
m

Earth, ME

Fig. 2.1
(a) State what is meant by the gravitational potential energy of the satellite.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.


[1]

(b) Applying Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion, show that the kinetic energy of the
GME m
system can be represented by the expression .
2r

[2]

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09


For
5 Examiner’s
Use

(c) Hence, show that the total energy of the system can be represented by the
GME m
expression − .
2r

[2]

(d) Explain why the total energy of the Earth-satellite system is negative.
Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.


[2]

3 (a) A small sphere of mass 0.50 kg suspended by a string of length 0.600 m forms
a pendulum which oscillates freely with a horizontal amplitude of 0.012 m.

0.600 m

Fig. 3.1

1 g
[Frequency of the pendulum oscillation, f = , where L is the length of
2π L
the pendulum.]

(i) Explain what is meant by oscillating freely.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[1]

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For
6 Examiner’s
Use

(ii) Determine the period of oscillation.

period =……………………… s [2]

(iii) Determine the speed of the sphere as it passes through the equilibrium
point.

speed =……………………… m s-1 [2]

(b) An obstacle is now placed directly beneath the point of suspension, so that only
the lowest one third of the string can follow the sphere when it swings to the left
of its resting position as shown in Fig. 3.2 below.

0.400 m
0.600 m

Rest Position

Fig. 3.2
Calculate the time for one complete oscillation.

time = …………………………… s [3]

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09


For
7 Examiner’s
Use

4 (a) “The principle of superposition states that when two or more waves of the same
kind cross each other at a point, the resultant displacement is the vector sum
of the individual wave displacements at the point. … “

(i) Explain what is meant by vector sum.


Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[1]

(ii) Complete the above statement on the principle of superposition of


waves.
Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[1]

(b) Two coherent wave sources A and B, are arranged to direct identical sound
waves of 0.50 kHz toward each other along line AB. The midpoint of AB is P.

A student at P hears a loud sound. But as he moves along the line AB away
from P, the sound intensity decreases to near zero at a point Q. As he moves
still farther beyond Q, the intensity again increases.

(i) Explain what is meant by coherent in describing the sources.


Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.
[1]

(ii) Determine the distance of Q from P if the speed of sound is 340 m s-1.

distance = …………………. m [2]

(iii) Explain why the intensity at Q is not exactly zero.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[2]

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09 [Turn over


For
8 Examiner’s
Use

5 (a) Use the band theory to compare the electrical properties of metals, insulators
and intrinsic semiconductors.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.


[3]

(b) Describe how the energy bands of an intrinsic semiconductor are affected by
p-type doping and n-type doping.
p-type n-type

[4]

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09


For
9 Examiner’s
Use

6 (a) (i) State what is meant by the binding energy per nucleon of a nucleus.
Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[1]

(ii) Hence, explain why light nuclei tend to fuse to form a heavier nucleus.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[2]

(b) Beryllium nuclei when bombarded by alpha particles may undergo nuclear
reactions. One such reaction is

9
4 Be + 42 He → 126 C + X

(i) Identify the particle X.

[1]

(ii) The binding energy per nucleon of Beryllium-9 and Helium-4 are
approximately 6.4763 MeV and 7.0819 MeV respectively and that of
Carbon-12 is 7.6885 MeV. Calculate the energy released during this
process. (Give your answer to three significant figures.)

energy = ……………………… J [3]

(iii) Explain why does particle X not have to be taken into account in the
calculation in (b)(ii).
Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[1]

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09 [Turn over


For
10 Examiner’s
Use

7 Theoretically, the velocity of a body traveling in a circular orbit around another body
situated at the centre of the circle, is given by

GM
v=
r

where G is the universal gravitational constant, M is the mass of the central body,
and r is the radius of the orbit.

If the planets describe circular orbits around the Sun, they should conform to this
relationship. The mass, distances of the planets from the Sun, and their orbital
velocities, have been measured and are given in Table 7.1.

Mass of planet, Distance from the Orbital velocity,


Planet
M / 1021 kg Sun, r / 107 km v/ 104 m s-1

Mercury 330 5.7 4.70


Venus 4869 10.6 3.44
Earth 5974 14.7 2.92
Mars 642 22.3 2.37
Jupiter 1898600 71.3 1.28
Saturn 568460 137 0.95
Uranus 86832 282 0.66
Neptune 102430 440 0.54
Pluto 13 573 0.46

Table 7.1

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09


For
11 Examiner’s
Use

(a) Using data from Table 7.1, the following graph has been plotted to aid in the
estimation of the Sun’s mass.

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5
v / 104 m s-1

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

1
/ 10-7 m-1/2
r

Fig. 7.1

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For
12 Examiner’s
Use

(i) With the help of the graph, estimate the mass of the Sun.

mass = ……….………… kg [2]


(ii) Suggest 2 reasons why the value in (a)(i) is an estimate.

Air resistance is acting upwards as ball is moving down.

[2]

(b) (i) As the planets orbit about the Sun, they experience an acceleration
towards the centre of the Sun. Using the knowledge of orbital motion,
complete Table 7.2. Show your working clearly.

Distance
Mass of Orbital
from the Acceleration,
Planet planet, velocity,
Sun, a / 10-4 m s-2
M / 1021 kg v / 104 m s-1
r / 107km
Mercury 330 5.7 4.70 388

Venus 4869 10.6 3.44

Earth 5974 14.7 2.92 58.0


Mars 642 22.3 2.37
Jupiter 1898600 71.3 1.28 2.30

Table 7.2

[1]

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09


For
13 Examiner’s
Use

(ii) To estimate the change in potential energy of objects as they are moved
between the planets’ orbits, the acceleration vs radius graph has been
plotted using data from Table 7.2. In Fig. 7.2, plot in the 2 missing points
and draw the curve of best fit. [2]
400.0

350.0

300.0

250.0
a / 10-4 m s-2

200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0
7
r / 10 km

Fig. 7.2

(iii) Use the graph drawn to estimate the change in potential energy of a mass
of 100 kg when it is moved from Earth’s orbit to Jupiter’s orbit.

change in potential energy = …………………….. J [3]


(iv) Hence, state and explain whether the mass gains or loses potential
energy in the process.

[2]

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09 [Turn over


For
14 Examiner’s
Use

(c) Saturn, the sixth planet from the Sun, has 61 known moons orbiting around it,
of which, two of them are Phoebe and Iapetus.

Phoebe
Mass= 8.3 x 1018 kg
Diameter = 220 km
Distance from Saturn = 12,952,000 km
Period of revolution = 551 days

Iapetus
Mass= 18.1 x 1020 kg
Diameter = 1460 km
Distance from Saturn = 3,561,300 km

(i) Calculate the period of Iapetus’ orbit around Saturn.

period = ………………….. days [2]

(ii) Most planets and moons in the universe rotate in the same direction.
Rotation in the opposite direction is call retrograde motion, and
Phoebe is one such example. Suppose that Phoebe and Iapetus are
at 2 opposite sides of Saturn. Determine the time taken before they
first meet.

time taken = …………………….days [2]

END OF PAPER

© NYJC 2009 9745/02/PRE/09