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# Dr.

ME553

Lecture # 25:
MDOF SYSTEM:
MODAL ANALYSIS – DAMPED SYSTEMS
MDOF Department of Mechanical Engineering

## ME553, Advanced Vibrations / Term 162

Lecture’s Objectives

the following:

##  Determine the free- and forced vibration response of damped

systems using modal analysis.
 Use proportional damping to find the response of damped
systems.
 Solve the free- and forced vibration response of damped systems
using MATLAB.

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Forced Vibration of
Viscously Damped Systems
 Modal analysis only applies to undamped systems.

##  In many cases, the influence of damping upon the response of a vibratory

system is minor and can be neglected.

##  However, it must be considered if the response of the system is required

for a relatively long period of time.

##  Damping is of primary importance and must be taken into account if the

frequency of excitation (in case of periodic force) is at or near one the
natural frequencies

## Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 482 / 147

Forced Vibration of
Viscously Damped Systems
 Viscously damped system is opposed by a force proportional to velocity but
in the opposite direction.

##  We shall consider the equations of motion of viscously damped systems

using Lagrange’s equations.

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Forced Vibration of
Viscously Damped Systems
Lagrange’s equation is where Fi is the
force applied to mi

## The EOM of a damped MDOF

system in matrix form

## Proportional damping: linear combination of

the mass and stiffness matrices

Substituting 

## Expressing the solution vector{x(t)} as a linear combination of the natural

modes of the undamped systems

## Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 482 / 149

Forced Vibration of
Viscously Damped Systems
Substituting 

reduces to

that is

## where ωi is the ith natural frequency of the undamped system and

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Forced Vibration of
Viscously Damped Systems
By writing

## where ζi is called the modal damping ratio of the ith normal

mode, the previous equation can be rewritten as

## where each of the n equations is uncoupled from all of the others.

The solution of the obtained equations, when ζi < 1 can be
expressed as

## Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 482 / 151

Forced Vibration of
Viscously Damped Systems
Remarks:
1. The condition given by Eq. is sufficient but not
necessary for the existence of the normal modes in damped systems.
2. The necessary condition is that the transformation that diagonalizes
the damping matrix also uncouples the coupled equations of motion.
3. In general, the damping matrix cannot be diagonalized
simultaneously with the mass and stiffness matrices. In this case, the
eigenvectors of the system are either real and negative or complex
with negative real parts.
4. The complex eigenvalues exist as conjugate pairs: the associated
eigenvectors also consist of complex conjugate pairs.
5. A common procedure for finding the solution of the eigenvalue
problem of a damped system involves the transformation of the n-
coupled second order equations of motion to 2n uncoupled first order
equations (State-Space Representation).
Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 482 / 152

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Example # 01:
EOM of a Dynamic System
Derive the equations of motion of the
system as shown.
 Use Lagrange’s equations with Rayleigh’s dissipation function.

Example # 01
(continued)

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Example # 02:
Steady State Response of a Forced System

SOLUTION

## Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 482 / 155

Example # 02
(continued)
The corresponding [M]-orthonormal mode shapes (See Example
6.12) are given by

## The generalized force vector

where
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Example # 02
(continued)
If the generalized coordinates or the modal participation factors
for the three principal modes are denoted by
Hence, the EOM can be expressed as

Where:

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Example # 02
(continued)
By substituting the values given into the derived equations, we
obtain

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Example # 02
(continued)
Substituting gives (*)

First Modal
Mode

Second
Modal Mode

Third
Modal Mode

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Example # 02
(continued)
The steady state response can be found using the following
Equation:

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## State Space Representation

 As systems become more complex, representing them with
differential equations or transfer functions becomes cumbersome.
This is even more true if the system has multiple inputs and
outputs.
 The state space representation of a system replaces an nth order
differential equation with a single first order matrix differential
equation.
 The state space representation of a system is given by two equations :

Note: Bold face characters denote a vector or matrix. The variable x is more commonly used in
textbooks and other references than is the variable q when state variables are discussed. The
variable q will be used here since we will often use x to represent position.

State equation

Output equation

##  The first equation is called the state equation.

 The second equation is called the output equation.
 For an nth order system (i.e., it can be represented by an nth order differential
equation)
 with r inputs and m outputs the size of each of the matrices is as follows:
 q is n X 1 (n rows by 1 column); q is called the state vector, it is a function of time
 A is n X n; A is the state matrix, a constant
 B is n X r; B is the input matrix, a constant
 u is r X 1; u is the input, a function of time
 C is m X n; C is the output matrix, a constant
 D is m X r; D is the direct transition (or feedthrough) matrix, a constant
 y is m X 1; y is the output, a function of time

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## State Space Representation

The state equation has a single first order derivative of the state vector on the
left, and the state vector, q(t), and the input u(t) on the right.
There are no derivatives on the right hand side.
The output equation has the output on the left, and the state vector, q(t), and
the input u(t) on the right.
For systems with a single input and single output (i.e., most of the systems we
will consider) these variables become (with r = 1 and m = 1):

where
q is nx1 (n rows by 1 column) The notation is very compact. Even large systems can
A is nxn be represented by two simple equations.
B is nx1 Because all systems are represented by the same
u is 1x1 (i.e., a scalar) notation, it is very easy to develop general techniques
C is 1xn
to solve these systems.
D is 1x1 (i.e, a scalar)
Computers easily simulate first order equations.
y is 1x1 (i.e, a scalar)
Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 482 / 163

Example # 03:
State Space Representation of MDOF
Steady State Response of a Forced System

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Example # 03
(Continued)

Example # 03
(Continued)

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Example # 03
(Continued)

Example # 03
(Continued)

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Example # 03
(Continued)

Example # 03
(Continued)

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Example # 03
(Continued)

## Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 482 / 171

State-Space Forms

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State-Space Forms

MATLAB
Implementation