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o f

N e w

g e n e r a t i o n

r e i n f o r c e m e n t

c o n c r e t e

o f N e w g e n e r a t i o n r

C l a s s

o f N e w g e n e r a t i o n r

C

r e i n f o r c i n g

s t e e l

High ductility reinforcing steel Grade B5000SP according to PN-H-93220 Class C according to Eurocode 2

High ductility reinforcing steel

Grade B5000SP according to PN-H-93220

Class C according to Eurocode 2

el i
el
i

Reinforcing steel

is produced by steel manufactures meeting the requirements

of the certificate program by CPJS

meeting the requirements of the certificate program by CPJS EPSTAL ® certification EPSTAL ® quality mark

EPSTAL® certification

EPSTAL ® quality mark is the property of The Centre for Promotion of Steel Quality -

CPJS - which is responsible for the management and operation of the mark

The objectives of CPJS are the following:

promotion of innovation in the field of concrete reinforcing steel productsof the mark The objectives of CPJS are the following: spreading knowledge on structural concrete promotion

spreading knowledge on structural concretein the field of concrete reinforcing steel products promotion of the certified steel products CPJS activities

promotion of the certified steel productssteel products spreading knowledge on structural concrete CPJS activities scientific researches in cooperation with

CPJS activities

scientific researches in cooperation with technical universities, professionals from steel indu- stry as well as prestigious laboratories and research institutespromotion of the certified steel products CPJS activities organization of trainings, seminars and conferences as well

organization of trainings, seminars and conferences as well as participation in courses organi- zed by technical universities, certification bodies and associations connected with the sectoras well as prestigious laboratories and research institutes preparation of manuals, monographs and technical bulletins

preparation of manuals, monographs and technical bulletinsbodies and associations connected with the sector providing technical supervision of producers The advisory

providing technical supervision of producerspreparation of manuals, monographs and technical bulletins The advisory committee Operations and publications are

bulletins providing technical supervision of producers The advisory committee Operations and publications are

The advisory committee

Operations and publications are supervised and verified by the EPSTAL® advisory committee consisting of top authorities from the fields related to construction, in particular to reinforced concrete constructions, standardi- zation and certification of construction products.

zation and certification of construction products. Properties of EPSTAL® steel: EPSTAL® is identified by the
zation and certification of construction products. Properties of EPSTAL® steel: EPSTAL® is identified by the

Properties of EPSTAL® steel:

EPSTAL® is identified by the configuration of the ribs on the two opposite rows of the bar. In each row of the bar, the ribs form two series with the identical spacing but a different inclination (figure 1).

With conformity to the standard EN-10080 grades of reinforcing steel are identification by thickened ribs (figure 2). EPSTAL® bars in addition to the standard own letter markings enable to easily distinguish them from other grades of steel.

to easily distinguish them from other grades of steel. Figure 1: Rib geometry of EPSTAL® bars

Figure 1:

Rib geometry of EPSTAL® bars of grade B500SP

grades of steel. Figure 1: Rib geometry of EPSTAL® bars of grade B500SP Figure 2: Scheme
grades of steel. Figure 1: Rib geometry of EPSTAL® bars of grade B500SP Figure 2: Scheme

Figure 2:

Scheme of the EPSTAL® letter mark

m
m

means:

high ductility reinforcing steel obtained from a stablem means: and controlled manufacturing process higher level of safety easy identification through the permanent EPSTAL®

and controlled manufacturing process

higher level of safetyobtained from a stable and controlled manufacturing process easy identification through the permanent EPSTAL® mark

easy identification through the permanent EPSTAL®and controlled manufacturing process higher level of safety mark rolled on bars properties meeting the following

mark rolled on bars

properties meeting the following standards:through the permanent EPSTAL® mark rolled on bars • EN 10080:2005 • EN 1992-1-1:2005 - Eurocode

• EN 10080:2005

• EN 1992-1-1:2005 - Eurocode 2

• PN-H 93220:2006

• PN-B 03264:2002

meeting all the requirements of the applicable, compulsory standards qualifying products for usage in the construction industry.- Eurocode 2 • PN-H 93220:2006 • PN-B 03264:2002 Table 1 Basic sizes and weights of

Table 1 Basic sizes and weights of the reinforcing bars in grade

B500SP

B500SP (EPSTAL®)

Diameter Nominal cross sectional area Mass 1m *) – Nominal d S mass per metre
Diameter
Nominal cross sectional area
Mass 1m *) – Nominal
d
S
mass per metre
Maximum deviation from
nominal mass
[mm]
[cm
2 ]
[kg/m]
[%]
8
0,503
0,395
0,371 ÷ 0,418
10
0,785
0,617
0,589 ÷ 0,644
12
1,130
0,888
0,848 ÷ 0,928
16
2,010
1,58
1,507 ÷ 1,649
20
3,140
2,47
2,355 ÷ 2,577
25
4,910
3,85
3,680 ÷ 4,027
32
8,040
6,31
6,029 ÷ 6,597

Table 2 Selected standard requirements for the EPSTAL® steel

f yk [MPa] 500 f yd [MPa] 420 f tk [MPa] 575 (f t /f
f yk [MPa]
500
f yd [MPa]
420
f tk [MPa]
575
(f t /f y ) k
1,15 ÷ 1,35
ε uk [%]
8
fatigue
a minimum of two million cycles
cyclic load
a minimum of 3 cycles
weldability
guaranteed C eq ≤0,5%
the modulus
of elasticity E S
200 GPa

The values presented in Table 2 are mini- mum ones and in the process of current production better properties are obta-

ined. A statistical analysis of the actual material research results will be publi- shed in following publications

*) mass calculated on the basis of steel density 7850 kg/m 3 .

calculated on the basis of steel density 7850 kg/m 3 . Reinforcing steel standardization: Eurocode 2
calculated on the basis of steel density 7850 kg/m 3 . Reinforcing steel standardization: Eurocode 2

Reinforcing steel standardization:

Eurocode 2

Eurocode 2 specifies three classes of reinforcing steel, based on ductility criterion (Table 3).

steel class A B C the characteristic yield strength (f yk , f 0,2k )
steel class
A
B C
the characteristic yield strength (f yk , f 0,2k )
[MPa]
400 ÷ 600
≥1,15
the minimuim value of k = (f t / f y )k
≥1,05
≥1,08
<1,35
characteristic strain at maximum force, ε uk
[%]
≥2,5
≥5
≥7,5
strain at maximum force, ε uk [%] ≥2,5 ≥5 ≥7,5 Class A reinforcing steel is class

Class A reinforcing steel

is class C steel

Table 3

The classification of reinforcing steel according to Euro- code 2.

This steel is normally cold rolled steel produced by cold rolling of a plain hot rolled rod in coils. This is generally used in the production of welded fabric and is considered very low ductility

Class B reinforcing steel

This steel is hot rolled steel in which the ribbed bar shape is formed in a hot rolling process. This grade is considered normal ductility

Class C reinforcing steel - EPSTAL® steel

This grade is also hot rolled steel but using processes designed to retain more ductility. This class is considered high ductility

more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for
more ductility. This class is considered high ductility Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for

Figure 3: Comparison of the stress-strain curves for different steel classes

Steel Ductility and Properties of Reinforced Concrete Ductile steel has a higher energy-absorbing capacity in

Steel Ductility and Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Ductile steel has a higher energy-absorbing capacity in critical situations when there is a risk of failure caused by rupture (the area under the graph in figure 4). It also provides higher tensile strength and enables the redistribution of moments in a structure. Therefore, by using this kind of reinforcing steel we can obtain:

higher resistance for repeated variable loadsby using this kind of reinforcing steel we can obtain: early warning of the construction damage

early warning of the construction damage through the deformations, wide cracks and fissures which are easily visible in sub critical stress statewe can obtain: higher resistance for repeated variable loads higher resistance of the construction to the

higher resistance of the construction to the effects of unforeseen stresses caused by such events and catastrophes as: hits, earthquakes or sudden damages of a part of the construction, for example during an explosionwhich are easily visible in sub critical stress state higher resistance of the construction to loads

higher resistance of the construction to loads caused by settlement, creep or increased tem- peraturea part of the construction, for example during an explosion possibility of reinforcing the construction in

possibility of reinforcing the construction in the way which more precisely corresponds to the real distribution of stresses thanks to ductility (plastic hinges)loads caused by settlement, creep or increased tem- perature According to Eurocode 2 plastic analysis method

According to Eurocode 2 plastic analysis method can be employed only for elements reinforced with high ductility steel class B or C (ε uk > 5% ; f tk /f yk > 1,08). EPSTAL® meets these conditions. Employment of plastic analysis method in designing of continuous beams, girders and slabs considerably simpli- fies reinforcement and designing of reinforced concrete elements, because construction flexibility for local structure deformations enables redistribution of moments. In this instance the construction adjusts to the emergent distribution of moments because moments are redistributed to the sections of higher load capacity, reinforced with more bars.

Figure 4 shows graphs illustrating relationships between stress and strain for low and high ductility steel.

between stress and strain for low and high ductility steel. Figure 4: Diagrammatic graphs illustrating relationships

Figure 4: Diagrammatic graphs illustrating relationships between stresses and deformations for a) low ductility steel, and b) high ductility steel, f tk – the char- acteristic tensile strength, f yk - the characteristic yield strength, ε uk - character- istic strain at maximum force, E 1 , E 2 – the value of energy absorbed

force, E 1 , E 2 – the value of energy absorbed Fatigue and Cyclic load

Fatigue and Cyclic load test

The producers of the EPSTAL® steel are obligated to perma- nently determine its fatigue and cyclic load resistance. EPSTAL® steel undergoes continuous monitoring of these two parameters according to the standard PN-H 93220 (national standard based on EN 10080).

standard PN-H 93220 (national standard based on EN 10080). 1 stress cycle Figure 5: Fatigue test
1 stress cycle
1 stress cycle

Figure 5: Fatigue test

PN-H 93220 (national standard based on EN 10080). 1 stress cycle Figure 5: Fatigue test 06

06

Figure 6: Cyclic load test

Advantages of EPSTAL® steel Safety Enhancement of strength of reinforcing steel can be reached in

Advantages of EPSTAL® steel

Safety

Enhancement of strength of reinforcing steel can be reached in several ways. One of them is increasing carbon content in steel. Unfortunately, this causes undesired side effects in the form of an increased brittleness of steel and low weldability. One of the other ways is enhancement of strength by cold rolling. However, this process drastically reduces the ductility to the dangerous level of total strain at maximum force (uk )2,5%. This is the absolute minimum value specified in all standards for these kinds of products. The further away from this borderline, the steel is safer.

The behavior of reinforced concrete constructions largely depends on the parameters of steel. The enlargement of a construction safety is achieved by application of high ductility steel

Ductility of steel is its ability to achieve strain without significant increase of stresses in a loading phase called yielding after having exceeded the upper limit of the yield strength of steel. What does it mean in practice?

Ductile steel has a higher energy-absorbing capacity in critical situations when there is a risk of damage caused by rupture, so through the use of this grade of reinforcing steel we can obtain:

early warning of the construction damage through the deformations, wide fissures, cracks and fractures which are visible to the naked eye in subcritical loads statethe use of this grade of reinforcing steel we can obtain: higher resistance of the construction

higher resistance of the construction to the effects of unforeseen loads caused by such events and catastrophes as: hits, shakings or sudden damages of a part of the construction, for example during an explosionare visible to the naked eye in subcritical loads state higher resistance of the construction to

higher resistance of the construction to acquired deformations (temperature, settlement, creep etc.)a part of the construction, for example during an explosion Ductility of steel is defined by

Ductility of steel is defined by the following parameters and relationships:

ratio between tensile strength and yield strength, f t /f y (R m /R e ) t /f y (R m /R e )

characteristic strain at maximum force, ε u k (A g t ) uk (A gt )

plastic energy gain coefficient, I d d

Table 4 The requirements of the standards determining tensile strength and yield strength

Class C - EPSTAL® Class B Class A 8% 5% 2,5%  uk (f t
Class C - EPSTAL®
Class B
Class A
8%
5%
2,5%
 uk
(f t /f y ) k
1,15 ÷ 1,35
1,08
1,05
5% 2,5%  uk (f t /f y ) k 1,15 ÷ 1,35 1,08 1,05 The

The ratio between tensile strength and yield strength (f t /f y ) k is an indicator of the steel resistance margin after achieving the upper limit of the yield strength. The higher the ratio, the greater the“safety margin”. High ductility steels show the (f t /f y ) k ratio higher than the grades of steel currently used (Table 4). The high ductility enables redistribution of loads due to the greater possibility of cross-section turning and therefore the rise of plastic joints.

Characteristic strain at maximum force uk (%) is the elongation of steel sample during the tensile test at maximum load. It is expressed as the percentage relation between the elongation and the the original length.

The greater the strain, the more ductile the steel.

Plastic energy gain coefficient I d is an undimensional coefficient used for the determination of steel ductility. It expresses the relation between the value of the total energy (elastic and plastic), the energy absorbed during the straining of steel (up to the moment of rupture), to the elastic energy.

I d =

EE + EP

EE

= (1+

f

f

f

y

)(

ε

u

ε

y

-1)

Where:

EE – elastic energy in N/mm 2 EP – plastic energy in N/mm 2

energy in N/mm 2 EP – plastic energy in N/mm 2 Figure 7: Plastic and elastic

Figure 7: Plastic and elastic energy on stress- strain curve of a steel

The ductility of steel grows along with the growth of the I d coefficient.

High ductility enables the redistribution of internal forces due to the cross-sec- tion rotation capacity and consequently development of yield hinges in statically indeterminable constructions.

Advantages of EPSTAL® steel Quality EPSTAL® steel products meet all the applicable, compulsory standards qualifying

Advantages of EPSTAL® steel

Quality

EPSTAL® steel products meet all the applicable, compulsory standards qualifying products for usage in the construction industry. They meet the requirements of the following European stan- dards: EN 10080:2005, EN 1992-1-1:2005 (Eurocode 2) as well as the national standards (in case of Poland: PN-B-03264:2002, PN-H 93220). According to the Eurocode 2 classification of reinforcing steel, EPSTAL® belongs to the class C of increased ductility. According to this classification the grades of reinforcing steel hitherto available on our market are ranked as class A or B. These classes are characterized by lower ductility. The certificate for the EPSTAL® mark issued by CPJS assures high quality of products supplied by the manufacturers (according ISO 9001:2000), additionally controlled by CPJS.

(according ISO 9001:2000), additionally controlled by CPJS. Advantages of EPSTAL® steel Guarantee EPSTAL® quality mark

Advantages of EPSTAL® steel

Guarantee

EPSTAL® quality mark reinforcing steel have the producer’s guarantee and civil liability insur- ance, which covers possible damages caused by products with this trademark.

The insurance covers:

civil liability for material and personal damages to a third party in connection with the issue of products with the EPSTAL® quality mark.by products with this trademark. The insurance covers: civil liability for damages incurred by the producer

civil liability for damages incurred by the producer of the final product according to the so- called clause of mixing and connection.with the issue of products with the EPSTAL® quality mark. civil liability for damages incurred by

civil liability for damages incurred by the producer of the final product according to the so- called clause of further processingaccording to the so- called clause of mixing and connection. civil liability for the costs removal

civil liability for the costs removal and replacement of the defective product according to the so-called clause of assembly and disassemblyaccording to the so- called clause of further processing Advantages of EPSTAL® steel Innovation One of

to the so-called clause of assembly and disassembly Advantages of EPSTAL® steel Innovation One of the

Advantages of EPSTAL® steel

Innovation

One of the fields in which CPJS is engaged is the support of the undertakings, researches and the development of products aimed at improvement and providing assurance of the qu- ality. One of the most advanced researches is determining the characteristic stress-strain curve for reinforcing steel. It is determined on the basis of thousands of results of material research carried out by the domestic producers of EPSTAL® steel, in statistical terms.

The calculated curve will enable to guarantee the parameters of the steel in every stage of loading. The especially interesting part of the curve is its stretch beyond the yield strength. This part of the curve determines the real safety margin in the plastic analysis of elements of reinforced steel constructions.

Concurrently with the research on steel in the form of tensile tests there will also be carried out fatigue load tests in high-tech labo- ratories using resonance machines with frequencies up to 100Hz as well as cyclic tests (the hysteresis cycle).

Results

Research will result in the shape of the equation of the guaranteed stress-strain curve.

shape of the equation of the guaranteed stress-strain curve. Advantages of EPSTAL® steel Identification In addition

Advantages of EPSTAL® steel

guaranteed stress-strain curve. Advantages of EPSTAL® steel Identification In addition to the standard marking, every
guaranteed stress-strain curve. Advantages of EPSTAL® steel Identification In addition to the standard marking, every

Identification

In addition to the standard marking, every bundle of rein- forcing bars with the EPSTAL® mark is provided with the label identifying the logo of the mark, grade of steel according to

appropriate standard and also details of a producer. There is also the permanent EPSTAL letter signs replace 6 consecutive ribs.

On request of the client the producer can display the EPSTAL® y certificate and attestation
On request of the client the producer can display the EPSTAL®
y
certificate and attestation of the insurance for products.
certificate and attestation of the insurance for products.
certificate and attestation of the insurance for products. certificate and attestation of the insurance for products.
certificate and attestation of the insurance for products. certificate and attestation of the insurance for products.
Diameter Nominal cross sectional area Mass 1 m *) - Nominal mass Permissible range of
Diameter
Nominal cross sectional area
Mass 1 m *) - Nominal mass
Permissible range of mass
d
S
per metre
[mm]
[cm
2 ]
[kg/m]
[%]
8
0,503
0,395
0,371 ÷ 0,418
10
0,785
0,617
0,589 ÷ 0,644
12
1,130
0,888
0,848 ÷ 0,928
16
2,010
1,580
1,507 ÷ 1,649
20
3,140
2,470
2,355 ÷ 2,577
25
4,910
3,850
3,680 ÷ 4,027
32
8,040
6,310
6,029 ÷ 6,597
Cross-sec- Nominal Diameter tion mass The cross-section of the reinforcement in cm 2 / m,
Cross-sec-
Nominal
Diameter
tion
mass
The cross-section of the reinforcement in cm 2 / m, dependent
on the spacing of bars
mm
cm 2
kg/m
10 cm
15 cm
20 cm
25 cm
30 cm
8
0,503
0,395
5,03
3,35
2,51
2,01
1,68
10
0,785
0,617
7,85
5,24
3,93
3,14
2,62
12
1,131
0,888
11,31
7,54
5,65
4,52
3,77
16
2,011
1,578
20,11
13,40
10,05
8,04
6,70
20
3,142
2,470
31,42
20,94
15,71
12,57
10,47
25
4,909
3,850
49,09
32,72
24,54
19,63
16,36
32
8,042
6,310
80,42
53,62
40,21
32,17
26,81
Nominal The cross-section of the reinforcement in cm 2 , dependent on the number of
Nominal
The cross-section of the reinforcement in cm 2 , dependent on the number of bars
Diameter
mass
mm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
kg/m
8
0,395
0,50
1,01
1,51
2,01
2,51
3,02
3,52
4,02
4,52
5,03
10
0,617
0,79
1,57
2,36
3,14
3,93
4,71
5,50
6,28
7,07
7,85
12
0,888
1,13
2,26
3,39
4,52
5,65
6,79
7,92
9,05
10,18
11,31
16
1,578
2,01
4,02
6,03
8,04
10,5
12,06
14,07
16,08
18,10
20,11
20
2,470
3,14
6,28
9,42
12,57
15,71
18,85
21,99
25,13
28,27
31,42
25
3,850
4,91
9,82
14,73
19,63
24,54
29,45
34,36
39,27
44,18
49,09
32
6,310
8,04
16,08
24,13
32,17
40,21
48,25
56,30
64,34
72,38
80,42
Nominal Load capacity in kN, dependent on the number of bars for γ s =
Nominal
Load capacity in kN, dependent on the number of bars for γ s = 1,15
Diameter
mass
mm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
kg/m
8
0,395
21,85
43,71
65,56
87,42
109,27
131,13
152,98
174,84
196,69
218,55
10
0,617
34,15
68,30
102,44
136,59
170,74
204,89
239,03
273,18
307,33
341,48
12
0,888
49,17
98,35
147,52
196,69
245,86
295,04
344,21
393,38
442,55
491,73
16
1,578
87,42
174,84
262,25
349,67
437,09
524,51
611,93
699,35
786,76
874,18
20
2,470
136,59
273,18
409,77
546,36
682,95
819,55
956,14
1092,73
1229,32
1365,91
25
3,850
213,42
426,85
640,27
853,69
1067,12
1280,54
1493,96
1707,39
1920,81
2134,23
32
6,310
349,67
699,35
1049,02
1398,69
1748,36
2098,04
2447,71
2797,38
3147,06
3496,73
1748,36 2098,04 2447,71 2797,38 3147,06 3496,73 Office: 00-675 Warszawa, ul. Koszykowa 54 tel. +48 22 630

Office:

00-675 Warszawa, ul. Koszykowa 54 tel. +48 22 630 83 75, fax +48 22 625 50 49 e-mail: biuro@cpjs.pl www.cpjs.pl