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A Project Plan



Submitted to

Amity University Uttar Pradesh

in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology


Computer Science &Engineering


Manu Dwivedi( A2305215469)

B-tech (CSE7 X)

under the guidance of

Dr. S.K Dubey






I, Manu Dwivedi, student of B.Tech (CSE) hereby declare that the project titled “E-
AGRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM” which is submitted by us to Department of Computer
Science and Engineering, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity
University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, in partial fulfilment of requirement for the
award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in CSE has not been previously
formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma or other similar title or

Date Name and signature of



On the basis of declaration submitted by Manu Dwivedi, student of B. Tech CSE, I

hereby certify that the project titled “E-AGRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM” which is
submitted to Department of Computer Science and Technology, Amity School of
Engineering and Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of
Technology in CSE, is an original contribution with existing knowledge and faithful
record of work carried out by him/them under my guidance and supervision.

To the best of my knowledge this work has not been submitted in part or full for
any Degree or Diploma to this University or elsewhere.


Date Dr. S.K Dubey

Department of CSE

Amity School of Engineering and


Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida



Declaration..………………………………………………………………..... i


Certificate………..………………………………………………………… ii


Contents…………………………………………………………………… iii


1.1. Objective..................................................................................................
1.2. Need for
1.3.Hardware and Software


2.1 Description about
2.2 Description about Component


3.1. Block
3.3 Software and Final PCB
3.4 Android

4.1 Result ………………………………………………………………..
4.2 Advantages………………………………………………………………..


5.1 Development of the Smart irrigation system………………………………
5.2 Software Development
5.3 System Evaluation



The project is designed to develop an automatic irrigation system which switches the
pump motor ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content of the soil. In the field of
agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important. The advantage of using
this method is to reduce human intervention and still ensure proper irrigation. The
project uses an 8051 series microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input
signal of varying moisture condition of the soil through the sensing arrangement. This
is achieved by using an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface between the
sensing arrangement and the microcontroller. Once the controller receives this signal,
it generates an output that drives a relay for operating the water pump. An LCD
display is also interfaced to the microcontroller to display status of the soil and water
pump. All Devices Controlled By Aurdino. Proposed design is fully automated. No
need of monitoring always. Soil sensor is for moisture sensing, it will send signal to
aurdino . Aurdino based device will turn on irrigation system. Moisture sensor senses
the water-level and it sends information to aurdino and aurdino initiate Bluetooth-
module for transmitting message to owner and give the current status of soil-moisture.
After receiving message user can send back message to turn on motor. If tank is full
then water sensor gives signal to aurdino and it turn off motor.”



1.1Objective “

“The objective of the project is to provide smart crop irrigation system which can
interact with farmers by a mean of Smart Device based on microcontroller
ATMEGA8L.“(Here we used Laptop). In India, agriculture plays an important role
for development in food production. In our country, agriculture are depends on the
monsoons which is not sufficient source of water. So the irrigation is used in
agriculture field. In Irrigation system, depending upon the soil type, water is provided
to plant. System was found to be feasible and cost effective for optimizing water
resource for agriculture production. These system can adjusted to variety of crop and
improve the maintenance .This system is feasible for all type of crop. We can use
these system for large scale up green house and open“field.”

“Agriculture plays the major role in economics and survival of people in India. Nowadays
Indian agriculture faces a two major problem. They are as follows we know government
has promoted a free supply of electricity for farmers to run their motors and pumps for
irrigation purpose. But it is found that the farmers misusing the electricity to run their
home appliances such as radio, TV, fans, etc. This misuse of electricity has brought a
considerable problem for government to supply free electricity. The main aim of this
project is to design low cost Automated Irrigation System using a Wireless Sensor
Network and GPRS Module. The Purpose of this project is to provide embedded based
system for irrigation to reduce the manual monitoring of the field and get the information
in the form of GPRS. This proposed system recognizes whether the free electricity has
been used other than electric motors for pumping water and if so electricity is being
misused, it shuts the total supply for the farmers through a tripping circuit. By using
wireless networks we can intimate the electricity board about these mal practices. The
development of this project at experimental scale within rural areas is presented and the
implementation was to demonstrate that the automatic irrigation can be used to reduce
water use.”

Automatic irrigation is the use of a device to operate irrigation structures so the

change of flow of water from one bay, or set of bays, to another can occur in the
absence of the irrigator.

Automation can be used in a number of ways:

● to start and stop irrigation through supply channel outlets,

● to start and stop pumps,
● to cut off the flow of water from one irrigation area – either a bay or a section
of channel and directing the water to another area.

These changes occur automatically without any direct manual effort, but the irrigator
may need to spend time preparing the system at the start of the irrigation and
maintaining the components so it works properly.”


Almost every irrigation system can be automated. It makes sense in every region of
the world as it saves time and water. Furthermore, high-tech designs allow for very
efficient irrigation i.e. metering the water volumes more precisely. Once the system is
optimised, labourers do not have to worry about the irrigation process and can
concentrate on more important tasks.

Automation Can be done in two ways:

An irrigation layout can be automated at one of two places; in sections of channel or

at individual bay outlets.

Automation of channel sections

In this system the channel structures are automated allowing the channel level to be
changed. The bay outlets do not have opening or closing structures rather each set of
outlets is set at a specific level eg a set of sills.

This method of automation requires a larger amount of fall to be available in the

channel system to allow for a change in water level between different areas. This
change in water level is required to prevent water flowing onto bays previously
irrigated, when another section is to be irrigated. On many farms this fall is not
available, so this method of automation in many cases is not suitable.

Automation of individual bay outlets

This method of automation involves control of the bay outlets to change the flow of
water onto the areas being irrigated. This system of automation is the most frequently
used in areas where there is insufficient fall to automate channel sections.

The same type of automatic devices available can be set up to operate either
automation of channel sections or automation of bay outlets.

Which of the system is best??

All systems of automation have advantages and disadvantages that need to be

considered when deciding which system will suit the irrigation layout for a particular
property. There is no system that will be the "best" system for all properties.

The methods of irrigation used by the irrigator need to be considered. If a system that
can be moved around the property and perhaps used on other properties is required,
then the irrigator needs to consider those systems that are portable. If the irrigator
wants a system where the components are fixed and can follow the same irrigation
sequence each irrigation, then a fixed system would be more appropriate.

In determining the best system for a property, the irrigator will need to consider the
cost of the system, back up servicing of the system and which system will best suit the
property and irrigation layout.”

Considerable variability can exist not only in the field’s terrain and soil composition
but also in the individual plants’ water needs. Applying too much water can
encourage leaching of nutrients below the root zone, putting them beyond the plants’
reach and closer to underground stores of water. Above ground, surplus water creates
conditions for weeds and pests to thrive. Overwatered plants are prone to lodging
(falling over) and are more vulnerable to rot and other diseases.

“Variable-rate irrigation can make it easier to spread water, without undue risk of
underwatering, or to concentrate water with less risk of overwatering.”

Although VRI technology is commercially available, there are still costs, learning
curves, and other issues associated with adopting it, the researchers note.

These barriers include the need for high-speed rural internet and cellular service,
advanced soil-plant-atmosphere models, appropriate decision-support systems,
sufficiently powerful handheld computers, and wireless sensors that can survive harsh
field conditions.These have been perhaps the most intractable technical barriers so far.

Simple Automatic Irrigation with Sprinkler System

The sprinkler irrigation system is a crop irrigation method similar to rainfall. The
system distributes water over the field surface by spraying it into the air and allowing
it to fall on the soil like, similar to that of rain.

By spraying the water through small nozzles on the lateral pipe, the system provides a
water rate according to crop needs. Moreover, the main purpose of a sprinkler system
is to uniformly apply water by broadcasting in well-defined patterns.

There are many sprinkler irrigation systems available on the market today. They
mainly differ in design and irrigation capacity. According to the system’s components
and the way they are used, the sprinkler system can be classified into the following

● Portable lateral with sprinklers - moved as a whole

● Semi-solid set - only sprinklers are moved
● Dragline - only sprinklers and hoses are moved

If designed and operated properly, application efficiency of a sprinkler system can be

50-95 %. To provide the full system’s performance, a farmer needs to consider
important parameters prior to the establishment. The sprinkler system a farmer will
establish on his farmland depends not only on his financial ability but also on crop
type, as well as several other aspects:

● The field’s size, slope and shape

● Cultural practices
● Crop production management
● System type
● The amount and time needed to operate the system.

All of the above-mentioned parameters are important in considering prior to the

establishment of a sprinkler system in order to provide successful irrigation

management. Moreover, a farmer’s knowledge about crop needs and system operation
are a great contributor to the overall crop production success.

Poor management (irrigating too soon or applying too much water) is the greatest
cause of reduced water application efficiency when using sprinklers.

Advantages of a Sprinkler Irrigation System:

A sprinkler system is one of the most used and efficient irrigation systems, along with
the drip system. Applying water through a sprinkler system has many advantages. Just
some of them include:

● Suitable for all soil types and slope terrains

● Suitable for irrigation of nearly all crop types (cereals, vegetables, small
fruits), except crops such as paddy and jute
● Simple to install and maintain
● Mobile system which can operate over the entire field surface
● Easy control of applied water
● Possibility of split fertilizer and pesticide application
● Decreased likelihood of clogging the nozzles due to particles in soil or
water for irrigation
● Reduced cost of overall farm labor
● Reduced erosion of soil cover.

Among its benefits, the most important is water conservation, which can be achieved
up to 50% compared to that of surface irrigation. Additionally, crop productivity
increases by about 15-25 %.

Disadvantages of a Sprinkler Irrigation System:

Despite its numerous advantages, sprinkler systems have some constraints as well.
The main constraints which limit sprinkler use are:

● Uneven water distribution due to high winds

● High evaporation loss when irrigating under high temperature
● High water pressure is required
● Not suitable for tall crops (fruit trees) and crops susceptible to foliar
● High initial cost for some sprinkler types”

“Every irrigation system is designed to maximize efficiency and minimize labor and
capital requirements. In this regard, effective management practices for sprinkler
irrigation system depend on the design, establishment practices, and farmer’s ability
to manage the system properly.

Unlike other systems, sprinklers have the advantage to uniformly apply water at a rate
lower than the infiltration rate of the soil, thereby preventing runoff and resulting
damage to soil and crops.”

“Before the start of the Project we had conducted the following survey on different
things. They are as follows:”

a) A Crop Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Network.

Wireless sensor network crop monitoring application is useful to farmer for precision
agriculture. The application monitors the whole farm from remote location using IOT
(Internet of Things). Application works on sensor network and two types of nodes.
Energy saving algorithm is used in node to save energy. System having two nodes
sensor node which collect all environmental and soil parameters value soil moisture,
temperature, air, humidity, light, etc. and second node consist of cam to capture
images and monitor crops. Crop monitoring application consists of two sensor node
image sensor and environment parameter collector. These two sensors collect the

information about crops. Image sensor collect crop growth, height and second sensor
node collect data about humidity, soil condition, etc. and this information is collected
at base station and then get transfer to internet (web application). Data analysis is get
done at server side.”

b) Automatic Drip Irrigation System using Wireless Sensor Network and Data Mining

Data mining algorithm are used to take decisions on drip irrigation system.
Automated drip irrigation system having WSN placed in all over farm and different
type of sensors like soil moisture sensor, wind direction, wind speed, soil temperature
gives reading to control station and base station. WSN uses ad hoc network which
gives self-configuration and flexibility. Sensor data is given to base station and data is
received using ZigBee. Data processing is done at base station for decision making.
Data mining algorithm is used to take decision on data from sensor to drip. All
observation are remotely monitor through web application. Data mining Naïve Bayes
algorithm is used for decision making on data set which is real time feed from field
sensor. Algorithm check probability of each attribute. Drip irrigation on and off
decision are made. Previous data set of agriculture is provided to take decision. All
data of field is given to web application for observation.”

c) Wireless sensor network with irrigation valve control.

Wireless sensor network with valve control unit is developed with actuator hardware
and software. Irrigation is control by actuator. Web application is used for manual
control and schedule irrigation timing. Water meter indicate the requirement of water.
Node unit contain soil moisture sensor and actuator. Two way communications take
place from actuator to node and base station. Packet with control commands are sent
between node and actuator. Actuator control solenoid valve depending upon water
meter value and scheduling timing for water supply. Packet loss between node and
actuator communication degrade performance of system. Power requirement for
actuator and node unit is high. Water requirement for different crop is different also
depends on other factor like soil type, temperature, etc. This system measures only
soil moisture parameter to take irrigation decision.”

“d) Wireless sensor network infrastructure for agriculture.”

“e) Existing wireless sensor networks that monitor agriculture infrastructure measures
different soil parameter and environment conditions. This WSN is composed of node
with software and hardware units. Node has control unit which control sensors and
communicate with base station. At mega and ARM are frequently used as control
unit. ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi used for transceiver in WSN. Wireless
communications take place between networks. Network report soil value, volumetric
water contains, landscape movement, earthquakes and volcano information. Hybrid
sensor network combine advantages of these two infrastructure system. When WSN is
out offline of sight WUSN collect the information from node. Mobile information
collected by terrestrial WSN.”

“Automated irrigation system provides the solution for watering the lawn and the
garden automatically even in the absence of human. No individual presence is needed
for watering as the system is automated considering one or more of the various
parameters available for irrigation scheduling such as soil moisture measurement,
evaporation estimates, leaf water potential canopy temperature etc. This saves the
greenery of the lawn and provides proper amount of water needed in the garden. Soil
moisture based irrigation system, timer based irrigation system, drip irrigation,
sprinkle irrigation etc are the types of the automated irrigation system available. At
this phase soil moisture based technology has been chosen. In this project, the system
is controlled by using the soil moisture measuring sensor which controls the flow of
water. Main components required are soil moisture sensor, control circuit, gate valve,
pumping unit, timer, power supply and programming guidance. In last few years labor
problem is the major problem in farming. Some irrigation systems are used to
implement efficient irrigation method for the field having different crops. It is
difficult to handle irrigation system always in big Farm or in Green House all the
time. In nursery it is necessary to apply the right amount of water at the right time,
independent of labor. In addition, if farmers using automated system then it is not
required to monitor irrigation every time & also internal temperature which should be
constant. By using proposed Method, the soil wetness and temperature required for
plants are precisely controlled. Because of changeable atmospheric conditions
sometimes depend on place, it is very difficult to maintain constant condition. The
green house dependent agriculture is the today’s requirement. The main reason is the
lack of rains & scarcity of land reservoir water. For this Bluetooth module is used to
report the detailed about irrigation. The report from the Bluetooth module is send
through the android mobile.”“

“1.2 Need for Automation

“As we know irrigation of crops requires a very large quantity of water in the fields.
The leading obstacle in agriculture is wastage of water. Most often large amount of
water is given to fields due to less knowledge or less controlling methods. Technology
had given numerous methods to save or to control wastage of water. The artificial
application of water to the soil is Irrigation. To assist the growing of crops during
periods of inadequate rainfall and in dry areas, usually irrigation is used. For proper
management of water in agricultural land, different types of irrigation systems are

The most convenient method available for water management is Automatic irrigation
systems. If automatic irrigation systems installed and programmed properly, money
and water can be saved using automatic irrigation systems can. This technique of
automatic irrigation systems can be taken to the cost incurred in replacing the dead
lawn grass and plants. Hose or with oscillator watering leads to wastage of water.
There is no significant degree of precision by these methods targeting plant roots.
Required amount of water now can be discharged to the fields which can conserve a
large amount of water using programmed Automatic irrigation systems. All Devices
Controlled By Arduino. Proposed design is fully automated. No need of monitoring
always. soil sensor is for moisture sensing, it will send signal to arduino . Arduino
based device will turn on irrigation system. Moisture sensor senses the water-level
and it sends information to arduino and arduino initiate Bluetooth-module for
transmitting message to owner and give the current status of soil-moisture. After
receiving message user can send back message to turn on motor. If tank is full then
water sensor gives signal to arduino and it turn off motor. It also sends message using
Bluetooth-module to user that tank is full. System also contain LM35 for temperature

control inside green house. When LM35 sends signal to arduino board then Exhaust
fan on/off by arduino board. Whole system based on IOT. It will save power. It is
environment friendly and require less man power. “

1.3 Hardware and Software Required

Hardware required

1) Arduino development Board (ATMEGA8)

2) Depth Sensors (Here we used office pins)
3) Temperature Sensor (LM 35)
4)Bluetooth Module
5) L293D (Motor driving IC)
6) DC motor (200 rpm)
7) Power Supply (Transformer (9-0-9, 1 ampere), Capacitors (47 and 33 microfarad),
voltage regulator IC’s (7805 & 7809), Potentiometer (1K) etc).
8) Display Device- Laptop (64 Bits)
9) For PCB designing (copper plate, ferrous chloride etc)

2.2 Description about components used

2.2.1) Arduino Development Board (ATMEGA8)

Arduino is an open-source prototyping electronics platform based on flexible, easy-to-

use hardware and software. Arduino Development Board is used to interact with
objects This board is used to control the whole system .Its is just like CPU. The
Arduino is programmed by the Arduino programming language .This language is used
to control the microcontrollers present on the Arduino The designers, artists,
hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments are
open to use it.Arduino is a standalone entity is act as a communicator between

software and hardware Arduino receives the data from the sensors and send it to data
warehouse .There are various arduino in the market here we use arduino uno . The
microcontroller on the board is programmed using the Arduino development
environment .

Below is the pin mapping for the Atmega8, the original chip used in early Arduinos

2.2.2) Depth sensors “

“Here we have used metal pins for sensing depth of field. Irrigation is the most
important cultural practice and most labor intensive task in planting operation. Knowing
when and how much to water is two important aspects of irrigation. To do this automatically,
sensors and methods are available to determine when plants may need water. It is suggested
to use soil moisture sensor to do irrigation . The moisture sensor will be an important
element for this project. “

“The warmer the air is, the more moisture it can hold, so relative humidity changes with
fluctuations in temperature. The most common type of humidity sensor uses what is
called "capacitive measurement." This system relies on electrical capacitance, or the
ability of two nearby electrical conductors to create an electrical field between them.”

“The sensor itself is composed of two metal plates with a non-conductive polymer film
between them. The film collects moisture from the air, and the moisture causes minute
changes in the voltage between the two plates. The changes in voltage are converted into
digital readings showing the amount of moisture in the air.”

2.2.3) Temperature Sensor (LM 35) “
● “It has an output voltage that is proportional to the Celsius temperature.

● The scale factor is .01V/oC

● The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming and maintains
an accuracy of +/-0.4 oC at room temperature and +/- 0.8 oC over a range of 0
oC to +100 oC.

● Another important characteristic of the LM35DZ is that it draws only 60 micro

amps from its supply and possesses a low self-heating capability. The sensor
self-heating causes less than 0.1 oC temperature rise in still air.

LM35 is an analog temperature sensor. This means the output of LM35 is an analog signal.
Microcontrollers don't accept analog signals as their input directly. We need to convert this
analog output signal to digital before we can feed it to a microcontroller input. For this
purpose, we can use an ADC( Analog to Digital Converter).If we are using a basic
microcontroller like 8051, we need to use an external ADC to convert analog output from
LM35 to digital. We then feed the output of ADC ( converted digital value) to input of 8051.
But modern day boards like Arduino and most modern day micro controllers come with
inbuilt ADC. Our arduino uno has an in built 10 bit ADC (6 channel). We can make use of
this in built ADC of arduino to convert the analog output of LM35 to digital output. Since
Arduino uno has a 6 channel inbuilt ADC, there are 6 analog input pins numbered from A0 to
A5. Connect analog out of LM35 to any of these analog input pins of arduino.

“Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35's low output
impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control
circuitry especially easy.”


“L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as
current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-
current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors.
L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of
operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse
direction. The motor operations of two motors can be controlled by input logic at pins
2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01
and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively.
Enable pins 1 and 9 (corresponding to the two motors) must be high for motors to
start operating. When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a
result, the outputs become active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when
the enable input is low, that driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the
high-impedance state.”

2.2.5) Voltage regulator IC’s 7805 and 7809

7805 and 7809 are the voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 78xx
series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have
fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC
maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed
output voltage it is designed to provide. 7805 provides +5V regulated power supply
whereas 7809 provides +9V regulated power supply. Capacitors of suitable values can
be connected at input and output pins depending upon the respective voltage levels.”

2.2.6) DC MOTOR

“A DC motor is a mechanically commutated electric motor powered from direct current (DC).
The stator is stationary in space by definition and therefore its current. The current in the rotor
is switched by the commutator to also be stationary in space. DC motors have a rotating
armature winding but non -rotating armature magnetic field and a static field winding or
permanent magnet. Different connections of the field and armature winding provide different
inherent speed/torque regulation characteristics. The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by
changing the voltage applied to the armature or by changing the field current. Modern DC
motors are often controlled by power electronics systems called DC drives.”


2.2.7) Bluetooth Module HC-06

“HC‐06 module is an easy to use Bluetooth SPP (Serial Port Protocol) module,designed for
transparent wireless serial connection setup.The HC-05 Bluetooth Module can be used in a Master or
Slave configuration, making it a great solution for wireless communication.This serial port bluetooth
module is fully qualified Bluetooth V2.0+EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) 3Mbps Modulation with
complete 2.4GHz radio transceiver and baseband. It uses CSR Bluecore 04‐External single chip
Rluetooth system with CMOS technology and with AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping Feature).

The Bluetooth module HC-05 is a MASTER/SLAVE module.By default the factory setting is
SLAVE.The Role of the module (Master or Slave) can be configured only by AT COMMANDS.The
slave modules cannot initiate a connection to another Bluetooth device, but can accept
connections.Master module can initiate a connection to other devices.The user can use it simply for a
serial port replacement to establish connection between MCU and GPS, PC to your embedded project,

Hardware Features

● Typical ‐80dBm sensitivity.

● Up to +4dBm RF transmit power.
● 3.3 to 5 V I/O.
● PIO(Programmable Input/Output) control.
● UART interface with programmable baud rate.
● With integrated antenna.
● With edge connector.

Software Features

● Slave default Baud rate: 9600, Data bits:8, Stop bit:1,Parity:No parity.
● Auto‐connect to the last device on power as default.
● Permit pairing device to connect as default.
● Auto‐pairing PINCODE:”1234” as default.

The HC-05 Bluetooth Module has 6pins. They are as follows:


When enable is pulled LOW, the module is disabled which means the module will not turn on and
it fails to communicate.When enable is left open or connected to 3.3V, the module is enabled i.e
the module remains on and communication also takes place.


Supply Voltage 3.3V to 5V


Ground pin


These two pins acts as an UART interface for communication


It acts as a status indicator.When the module is not connected to / paired with any other bluetooth
device,signal goes Low.At this low state,the led flashes continuously which denotes that the
module is not pairedwith other device.When this module is connected to/paired with any other
bluetooth device,the signal goes High.At this high state,the led blinks with a constant delay say
for example 2s delay which indicates that the module is paired.


This is used to switch the module into AT command mode.To enable AT command mode,press the
button switch for a second.With the help of AT commands,the user can change the parameters of this
module but only when the module is not paired with any other BT device.If the module is connected
to any other bluetooth device, it starts to communicate with that device and fails to work in AT
command mode.

Hardware Connections
As we know that Vcc and Gnd of the module goes to Vcc and Gnd of Arduino.The TXD pin goes to
RXD pin of Arduino and RXD pin goes to TXD pin of Arduino i.e(digital pin 0 and 1).The user can use
the on board Led.But here,Led is connected to digital pin 12 externally for betterment of the process.”

Software required

1) Arduino 1.0.2 version for coding and its serial monitor for display

2) PCB wizard

3) Operating System(either Windows or Linux)



2.1 Description about Project “

“With the advancement in technology, the world around us in every part of our life
getting automated.“The manual procedures are being replaced by these automated
systems, since they are with energy efficient and consume less labor work. This paper
proposes the advantages of having Wireless Sensor Network technology in Indian
agricultural sector, which shows the path to the rural farmers to replace some of their
traditional techniques. Here, multiple environmental data such as Humidity, Soil
moisture, Soil pH etc. are collected by a set of wireless sensor nodes and applied as
input to the Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC). The data is checked continuously
by PIC controller and a set of control actions like Irrigation, Soil fertility check etc.
are made if they exceed threshold level. After every activity, an evidence message is
sent through SMS via Bluetooth module to the farmer. The module by module design
and implementation of the system are given. The system overcomes the limitations of
traditional agricultural procedures by utilizing water resource efficiently and also
reducing labor cost.

With high-flow outlets you can irrigate with shorter runtimes, which reduces
waterlogging, deep drainage losses and tailwater losses, so you use less water more
productively. The challenge with high-flow is to ensure that irrigation bay gates and
valves are opened and closed at precisely the right time. Too soon and crops can
suffer from water deficit, too late and even a small delay can eliminate the water
saving benefits of high-flow irrigation. Even the best human operators can struggle to
manage high flow irrigation manually. The solution involves installing high-flow
BayDrive automated gates along farm distribution ditches and at the head of each
irrigation bay, or high-flow BladeValves where buried pipe and riser distribution
systems are used. Each gate and valve has integrated solar-power, control software
and radio communications. The system connects to a cellular network and is managed
remotely using web-based software. Because the software is web-based your data is
always online so you can see what’s happening on your farm at anytime from any
web-enabled computer or smartphone, and take action if it’s needed. The Surface
Irrigation Automation solution’s remote and automated operation of gates and valves
provides the precision control needed to manage high-flow surface irrigation. You can

program BayDrives or BladeValves to open and close to a timed schedule and even
program multiple irrigation sequences in advance, so you can choose the watering
sequence that suits your crops, soil conditions or grazing activity at a particular point
in time. And with comprehensive monitoring and alarming you are kept up-to-date.
The software continually monitors system performance and will let you know via
SMS text message or email how an irrigation sequence is progressing and if there are
any problems, giving you peace of mind and freeing you up to get on with other tasks.
By combining the Surface Irrigation Automation solution with the Crop Monitoring
solution you have all the information and control needed to implement high-
performance surface irrigation (also referred to as precision surface irrigation), which
can achieve the water efficiencies and productivity gains of an equivalent sprinkler or
drip irrigation system without the need to replace existing border-check field layouts
and without the energy costs. “

Available Systems:

Pneumatic system: A pneumatic system is a permanent system activated by a bay

sensor located at the cut-off point. When water enters the sensor, it pressurises the air,
which is piped to a mechanism that activates the opening and closing of irrigation

Portable timer system: A portable timer system is a temporary system which uses
electronic clocks to activate the opening and closing of the irrigation structures.
Because of its portable nature, landowners usually buy 4 or 5 units to move around
the whole property.

Timer/ Sensor Hybrid: As the name suggests, this system is a hybrid of portable timer
and sensor systems. Like a portable timer, it uses an electronic device to activate the
opening and closing of the irrigation structures. However, this system has an
additional feature of the irrigator being able to place a moveable sensor down the bay,
which when comes in contact with water, transmits radio signals to the timer devices
at the outlets to open or close the structures and sends a radio message to a receiver to
let the landowner know water has reached the cut-off points down the bay.

SCADA: Automation systems that use Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) consist of a personal computer and software package to schedule and
control irrigation via a radio link. Signals are sent from the computer to control
modules in the paddock to open and close irrigation structures with linear actuators.
Bays are opened and closed on a time basis, some systems have the capacity to
automatically alter the time a bay outlet is open if the channel supply is inconsistent.

SCADA based systems have the additional benefit of being able to start and stop
irrigation pumps and motors.”

Various Automatic Irrigation System:

Time Based System

Irrigation time clock controllers, or timers, are an integral part of an automated
irrigation system. A timer is an essential tool to apply water in the necessary quantity
at the right time. Timers can lead to an under- or over-irrigation if they are not
correctly programmed or the water quantity is calculated incorrectly (CARDENAS-
LAILHACAR 2006). Time of operation (irrigation time – hrs per day) is calculated
according to volume of water (water requirement - litres per day) required and the
average flow rate of water (application rate – litres per hours). A timer starts and stops
the irrigation process (RAJAKUMAR et al. 2008 and IDE n.y.).

Volume Based System

The pre-set amount of water can be applied in the field segments by using automatic
volume controlled metering valves.

Open Loop Systems

In an open loop system, the operator makes the decision on the amount of water to be
applied and the timing of the irrigation event. The controller is programmed
correspondingly and the water is applied according to the desired schedule. Open loop
control systems use either the irrigation duration or a specified applied volume for
control purposes. Open loop controllers normally come with a clock that is used to
start irrigation. Termination of the irrigation can be based on a pre-set time or may be
based on a specified volume of water passing through a flow meter.

Closed Loop Systems

In closed loop systems, the operator develops a general control strategy. Once the
general strategy is defined, the control system takes over and makes detailed decisions

on when to apply water and how much water to apply. This type of system requires
feedback from one or more sensors. Irrigation decisions are made and actions are
carried out based on data from sensors. In this type of system, the feedback and
control of the system are done continuously. Closed loop controllers require data
acquisition of environmental parameters (such as soil moisture, temperature,
radiation, wind-speed, etc) as well as system parameters (pressure, flow, etc.). .”

“Computer Based Irrigation Control Systems

Fig: Control board showing timers, soil moisture sensor-controllers, solenoid valves wiring, and flowmeters-

A computer-based control system consists of a combination of hardware and software

that acts as a supervisor with the purpose of managing irrigation and other related
practices such as fertigation and maintenance. Generally, the computer-based control
systems used to manage irrigation systems (e.g. drip irrigation systems) can be
divided into two categories: interactive systems and fully automatic systems. Besides

these high-tech solutions there are also effective methods without any energy supply.
Optimising a system mechanically with the help of gravity can automate an irrigation
process. Examples are the small-scale and self-made drip irrigation systems.”

Low-Tech Principles

Clay Pot and Porous Capsule Irrigation Network

This old system has been modernized and reapplied in water scarce areas. The
technology consists of using clay pots and porous capsules to improve irrigation
practices by increasing storage and improving the distribution of water in the soil.
This low-volume irrigation technology is based on storing and distributing water to
the soil, using clay pots and porous capsules interconnected by plastic piping. A
constant-level reservoir is used to maintain a steady hydrostatic pressure. Clay pots
are open at the top and are usually fired in home furnaces after being fabricated from
locally obtained clay or clay mixed with sand. The pots, usually conical in shape and
with a capacity of 10 to 12 litres, are partially buried in the soil with only the top
poking out. Distribution is done by plastic (PVC) piping to ensure a fairly uniform
permeability and porosity. Maintaining a constant level in the storage reservoir
regulates hydrostatic pressure.

A similar system, tested in Mexico and Brazil, uses smaller, closed containers, or
porous capsules, completely buried in the soil. These containers distribute the water
either by suction and capillary action within the soil, or by external pressure provided
by a constant-level reservoir (as in the previous system). Each capsule normally has
two openings to permit connection of the plastic (PVC) piping which interconnects
the capsules. The capacity of these capsules ranges between 7 and 15 litres, and the
storage tanks supplying the system are elevated 1 or 2 m above the soil surface. The
capsules are buried in a line 2 meters apart, at least 10 cm under the top layer of the

soil. The number of pots or capsules used is a function of the area of cultivation, soil
conditions, climate, and pot size. Up to 800 pots/ha were installed in Brazil.”

Fig: Schematic representation of a clay pot irrigation system (left) and porous capsule irrigation system
(right). Source: UNEP (1998)

Automatic Surge Flow and Gravitational Tank Irrigation System

This is an intermittent gravity-flow irrigation system. It has been used almost
exclusively for small-scale agriculture and domestic gardening. Prior to the
development of this technology, electronically controlled valves were used to produce
intermittent water flows for irrigation. These valves are expensive and require some
technical training to operate. The siphon replaces these valves with a device that
would be more cost-effective and easier to operate and maintain with a minimum
consumption of energy. The system consists of a storage tank equipped with one or
more siphons (see figure below) (UNEP 1998). The water in the tank flows to the
field because of the siphon effect. As soon as the tank is empty, the flow stops. For

the next irrigation process, the tank has to be filled-up to restart the siphon effect
again. To learn more about possible siphon designs see VORTECH (2009).

Schematic representation of an automatic surge flow irrigation system. Source: UNEP (1998)

Another system that produces similar results is the use of a storage tank with a bottom
discharge. It is equipped with a floater, which allows the cyclical opening and closing
of a gate at the bottom of the tank. In effect, the operation of the floater is similar to
the mechanism in the storage tank of a toilet flushing system. The materials normally
used in the construction of the water storage tanks are gravel and cement, reinforced
concrete or plastic. The siphons are usually built of a flexible plastic material; PVC is
not recommended.”



3.1 Block Diagram

3.2 Working “

The Microcontroller and soil moisture sensor based irrigation system proves to be a
real time response control system which monitors and wheel all the activities of
irrigation system. The present system is a model to modernize the agriculture
industries at a mass scale with optimum expenditure. The temperature sensor senses
temperature of the field and depth sensor senses depth up too which water is present
in the field. If level of water in the field drops beyond certain level than the output of
the sensor will go high, If temperature is in the proper range and suitable for
irrigation, then microcontroller will provide high output to motor driving IC. Hence
motor will start drawing water from the nearby source. When proper amount of water
(as required for particular crop) is drawn by motor then automatically microcontroller
will cut supply from the motor as the result proper amount of water will be given to
the crop.

An automated irrigation model is proposed using different circuits as demonstrated in

different figures. We designed and implemented this model considering low cost,
reliability, alternate source of electric power and automatic control. As the proposed
model is automatically controlled it will help the farmers to properly irrigate their
fields. The model always ensures the sufficient level of water in the paddy field
avoiding the under-irrigation and over-irrigation they can provide irrigation to larger
areas of plants with less water spending and inferior pressure. Using this system, one
can save manpower, water to get better manufacture and eventually income.
Advanced soil moisture level sensor will use in these we can measure different
parameter that is pressure, temperature and humidity, of soil. Different amount of
water requirements for different types of soil in this according to the type of crop, and
water resistance capacity in different seasons, system provide definite amount of
water to the plant hence, we can save large amount of water. “

Algorithm “

It states the steps that the proposed system undergoes.

Step 1: Start the process.

Step 2: Initialize power is supplied to our module

Step 3: Check the moisture level (less than or more than).

Step 4: If the level will be more than a fixed criteria, no need to irrigation

Step 5: If Moisture level is less than a fixed criteria, start irrigation

Step 6: Initialization of pump

Step 7: After the process completed, It moves to original state.

Step 8: Stop the process.

Little water is lost to deep percolation if the proper amount is applied. Drip irrigation
is popular because it can Irrigation system uses valves to turn irrigation ON and
increase yields and decrease both water requirements and OFF. These valves may be
easily automated by using Controllers and solenoids. Automating farm or nursery
Drip irrigation requires about half of the water needed by irrigation allows farmers to
apply the right amount of sprinkler or surface irrigation. Lower operating pressures
water at the right time, regardless of the availability of and flow rates result in reduced
energy costs. “

Soil Moisture “
Soil moisture is an important component in theAtmospheric water cycle, both on a
small agricultural scale and in largescale modelling of land/atmosphere interaction.
Vegetation and crops always depend more on the moisture available at root level than
on precipitation occurrence. Water budgeting for irrigation planning, as well as the
actual scheduling of irrigation action, requires local soil moisture information.
Knowledge of the degree of soil wetness helps to forecast the risk of flash floods, or
the occurrence of fog. Fig. 2 Block diagram of the system Soil water content is an
expression of the mass or volume. The above fig 2 shows Microcontroller based
irrigation of water in the soil, while the soil water potential is a system proves to be a
real time feedback control system expression of the soil water energy status. The
relation which monitors and controls all the activities of drip between content and
potential is not universal and depends irrigation system efficiently. The present
proposal is a on the characteristics of the local soil, such as soil density model to
modernize the agriculture industries on a small and soil texture. Scale with optimum
expenditure. Using this system, one the basic technique for measuring soil water
content is the can save manpower, water to improve production and gravimetric
method. Because this method is based on ultimately profit. Direct measurements, it is
the standard with which all other methods are compared. “

3.3 Software and Final PCB layout “

In this project we were using Arduino UNO to control the motor. The irrigation system will
operate by setting the time and with the assist of moisture soil sensor to measure the level of
soil moisture and the signals to Arduino if watering is required. The motor or water pump
supplies water to the plants until the desired moisture level is reached. Software
programming language is used to control Arduino board. “

Temperature sensor:
float temp;

int tempPin = 0;

void setup() {


void loop() {

temp = analogRead(tempPin);

// read analog volt from sensor and save to variable temp

temp = temp * 0.48828125;

// convert the analog volt to its temperature equivalent

Serial.print("TEMPERATURE = ");

Serial.print(temp); // display temperature value



delay(1000); // update sensor reading each one second

● Connect the +Vs to +5v on your Arduino board.

● Connect Vout to Analog0 or A0 on Arduino board.
● Connect GND with GND on Arduino.

Soil Moisture Sensor:

const int sensor_pin = A1; /* Soil moisture sensor O/P pin */

void setup() {

Serial.begin(9600); /* Define baud rate for serial communication */

void loop() {

float moisture_percentage;

int sensor_analog;

sensor_analog = analogRead(sensor_pin);

moisture_percentage = ( 100 - ( (sensor_analog/1023.00) * 100 ) );

Serial.print("Moisture Percentage = ");




Bluetooth Sensor:

Pin Description

EN: It is the enable pin. When this pin is floating or connected to 3.3V, the module is
enabled. If this pin is connected to GND, the module is disabled.

+5V: This is the supply pin for connecting +5V. As the Module has on-board 3.3V
regulator, you can provide +5V supply.

GND: It is the ground pin.

TX: It is the Transmitter pin of the UART Communication.

RX: It is the Receive Pin of UART.

STATE: This is a status indicator pin. This pin goes LOW when the module is not
connected to any device. When the module is paired with any device, this pin goes


#define ledPin 7

int state = 0;

void setup() {

pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT);

digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW);

Serial.begin(38400); // Default communication rate of the Bluetooth module

void loop() {

if(Serial.available() > 0){ // Checks whether data is comming from the serial

state = Serial.read(); // Reads the data from the serial port

if (state == '0') {

digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); // Turn LED OFF

Serial.println("LED: OFF"); // Send back, to the phone, the String "LED: ON"

state = 0;

else if (state == '1') {

digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH);

Serial.println("LED: ON");;

state = 0;

3.4 Android Application “

“Our Android application is featured with easy-to-use layout, which makes user comfortably
control our automatic irrigation system, without the need of man-power. Its easy to run and
control our system. It could track out the soil and environment condition, making system
more feasible. Let your Android device be a remote control for any micro-controller with a
Bluetooth module. Run the app, search for your bluetooth module and connect. Once you are
connected you will be able to send your own commands to your Arduino board using this
Application featured buttons. “ “

The flow diagram of the Android app is illustrated below:

As this app will be using the onboard Bluetooth adapter, it will have

to be mentioned in the Manifest:-

uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH"

Use the following code to test if Bluetooth adapter is present or not,

BluetoothAdapter bluetoothAdapter=BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();

if (bluetoothAdapter == null) {

Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),"Device doesnt Support


The following part of the code deals with reading the data,

int byteCount = inputStream.available();

if(byteCount > 0)

byte[] rawBytes = new byte[byteCount];


final String string=new String(rawBytes,"UTF-8");

handler.post(new Runnable() {

public void run()



To send data, pass the String to the OutputStream.



Power up the Arduino and turn on the Bluetooth from your mobile. Pair with the HC-
05 module by providing the correct passcode – 0000 is the default one.



4.1 Result “

The automatic irrigation system can operate with less manpower and provides with
several benefits. When the humidity in the soil goes below the reference, the system
supplies water. Direct transfer of water to the roots helps in water conservation and to
maintain the moisture to soil ratio at the root zone constant to some extent. Thus, the
available efficient and compatible to the changing environment is automatic irrigation
system. This system is reduces the water use because it provide irrigation as per the
requirement of the crop. This system is automated irrigation system so it reduces the
human resources. This irrigation system was found to be feasible and cost effective
for optimizing water resources for agricultural production. The irrigation system can
be adjusted to a variety of specific crop needs and requires minimum maintenance.
Using this system we can monitor the status of all the sensors (Soil-moisture,
Temperature, Water level) and also the ON/OFF status of the motor and Fan.
The automatic irrigation system on sensing soil moisture project is intended for the
development of an irrigation system that switches submersible pumps on or off by
using relays to perform this action on sensing the moisture content of the soil. The
main advantage of using this irrigation system is to reduce human interference and
ensure proper irrigation. The Microcontroller acts as a major block of the entire
project, and a power supply block is used for supplying power of 5V to the whole
circuit with the help of a transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit and a voltage regulator.
The 8051 microcontroller is programmed in such a way that it receives the input
signal from the sensing material which consists of a comparator to know the varying
conditions of the moisture in the soil. The OP-AMP which is used as comparator acts
as an interface between the sensing material and the microcontroller for transferring
the moisture conditions of the soil like moisture, temperature of surrounding, etc. ”

4.2 Advantages

1.Saves water - This methods shows that water can be efficiently saved . Drip
irrigation conserve 30%- 40% of water than any other traditional method of irrigation
such as sprinklers .so the water can be conserved largely.

2.Better growth - The basic idea of irrigation is to provide smaller amount of water
for a longer duration of time which ultimately leads to good growth of plants. Drip
irrigation is also prevent nutrients runoff and prevent soil from erosion it also extends
watering time of plants. Also because the flow is continuous water reaches to the
roots properly and moisturize the soil

3.”Reduced labour -As the irrigator is not required to constantly monitor the progress
of an irrigation, the irrigator is available to perform other tasks – uninterrupted.”

4.Improved lifestyle- The irrigator is not required to constantly check the progress of
water down the bays being irrigated. The irrigator is able to be away from the
property, relax with the family and sleep through the night.

5.Unwanted weeds- water is given to only the crops not to weeds.

6.Time efficient- The system also saves time as we need to manually setup or move
the sprinkles the system did it with automatic timer set according to environmental
conditions for watering.

7.Helps control fungal diseases- The system also prevent health disease like fungal
infection which is caused due to wet foliage..

8.Adaptable- A drip irrigation system is very flexible it can be changed according to
the environment and new technology its adaptive nature is good .

9.Assists in the management of higher flow rates- Many irrigators are looking to
increase the irrigation flow rates they receive through installing bigger channels and
bay outlets. Such flow rates generally require an increase in labour as the time taken
to irrigate a bay is reduced thus requiring more frequent change over. Automation
allows for these higher flows to be managed without an increase in the amount of

10.”More accurate cut-off- Automation of the irrigation system allows cut-off of

water at the appropriate point in the bay. This is usually more accurate than manual
checking because mistakes can occur if the operator is too late or too early in making
a change of water flow.”

11.Reduced runoff of water and nutrients- Automation can help keep fertilizer on
farm by effectively reducing run off from the property. Retaining fertilizer on farm
has both economic and environmental benefits.”

12.”Reduced costs for vehicles used for irrigation- As the irrigator is not required
to constantly check progress of irrigation, motor bikes, four wheelers and other
vehicles are used less. This reduces the running costs of these vehicles and they
require less frequent replacement.”

13. Simplest Method- We need some free area to plastic turbines and hoses in the
desired area. To set up the system we need to mark the area of planting in the yard
and the garden
With a numerous fields of application and various advantages of the system has made
it one of the major option available for the farmers. The increasing interest in this area
of research may bring about more and more consumer efficient system. Water scarcity
the major problem is well handled by the system. The changing climatic condition and
global warming issues prevailing throughout the world can be overcome only through
this system. The automatic irrigation system will be every farmer’s choice in a decade
or so. The improper advertising was the sole reason for the late adoption and
acquaintance of the system that took place in the late eighties. But with the awareness
spreading all over the globe the system is earning acceptance and so, a number of
scientist are investing their time to perfect the system.”

Operation and Maintenance

Automatic irrigation systems need to be operated by skilled laborers and maintained

frequently. Malfunctions of sensors and valves have to be avoided at all cost and
common repair work (e.g. leaches, blockages) has to be considered as well. Although
the approach towards this automated irrigation system looks simpler theoretically, but
real hands-on scenarios are completely a different story altogether. First and one
major problem is the choosing of right kind of sensor system to fulfill our demands
and requirements. Compatibility among the different kinds of sensor system can also
pose a challenge. At the actuator end, proper coupling among all the individual parts
is a tough situation to handle. Also the end users need to be properly acquainted with
the kind of technology or technique, we are talking about. Funding of the project as a
real life implementation is a big concern. On top of all these apprehension, there lies
unseen and unpredictable environment.

Chapter: 5
Analysis and discussion of Results

5.1 Development of the Smart irrigation system “

A Bluetooth automated irrigation system was successfully developed and connected.

The developed system consists of a microcontroller, a temperature sensor, a moisture
content sensor, an electric solenoid valve, Bluetooth module, display and spray
nozzles, Fixed over the irrigation system prototype. The area of study was 1.44 square
meters which was irrigated sufficiently to meet the crop water requirements of
purslane. Figure (5.1) show the developed wireless automated instrumentation system
circuit. Table (5.1) presents the specification of the materials used.

Figure 5.1 Automated System Circuit

Table 5.1 Specifications of automated irrigation system prototype

Item Description
Moisture sensor
Temperature Sensor

5.2 Software development “

The Program was tested and found running. Allowing the required amount of water to
pass in its specific time. Also the monitoring of soil moisture was tested and found to
be efficient.

5.3 System Evaluation

The smart irrigation system operation begins with the initiation of the irrigation
process with a pre-set timer on the microcontroller. The moisture sensor monitors the
moisture content of the soil if higher than the permissible limit it signals to send a
specific order r1 to open water or r0 to close water. the system was tested successfully
and found to be running smoothly and without any human interference except in the
case of an urgent emergency.


Thus, the proposed automatic irrigation system is very useful to the farmer who
doesn’t have enough time to monitor the field regularly. Implementation of this
system for irrigation will improve the crop production i.e., in general the farmer will
get only 70% output from the plantation, by using this system it is possible to get 90%
of output. The system provides with several benefits and can operate with less
manpower. The system supplies water only when the moisture in the soil goes below
the reference. Due to the direct transfer of water to the roots water conservation takes
place and also helps to maintain the moisture to soil ratio at the root zone constant to
some extent. Thus the system is efficient and compatible to the changing
environment. Also the system saves the water and improves the growth of plants. The
other advantage is that the very irrigation levels are regulated with the help of various
sensors. The Temperature sensor is used to check the temperature to change the
irrigation levels from time to time and to check the occurrence of the fire accidents
and control them with the help of sprinkler system. The management of irrigation
systems has gained importance over the last five decades due to a tremendous
increase in irrigated area in India, primarily as a result of massive investments in new
and existing surface irrigation projects. There has been a growing realization of
possible improvement in water management for a more efficient use of available
water resources. The potential of information technology applications for improved
irrigation system management was realized long ago, but concerted efforts on this
front have only been made in the last ten years. The use of computers, communication
and information to control irrigation systems will yield many benefits, resulting in
obvious economic savings and in intangible benefits whose value cannot be measured
in monetary terms.

Rehabilitation and modernization of the existing water resource projects can be

carried out under three main headings, engineering, agronomy and administration.

The engineering side includes modernization and rehabilitation of all headwork and
their replacement where they have outlived their usefulness, and modernization of
canals, canal structures, in particular the regulating devices, provision of additional
cross regulators, permanent outlets and on-farm development works such as field
channels, field drainage and land leveling.

The agronomic side includes the review of current cropping patterns, scientific
assessment of crop water requirements to upgrade the system to meet the new
demand, adoption of high-yielding varieties, and propagation of proper cultural
practices and so on.

The administrative side includes the consolidation of land, volumetric supply of

irrigation water, changes in water rate policy and the like.

All of this can be achieved by improved water management at farm level, keeping in
mind the existing constraints of the physical system and its operational constraints.

It is easier to plan and design a new project to be operated on the canal automation
concept than to implement that concept in existing water resource projects. Physical
and operational constraints must be evaluated and based on the impact of each
constraint, the dynamic system design approach will have to be formulated to produce
an economical technical solution.

With the exception of Sardar Sarovar, on all projects where canal automation is either
planned or being implemented, it is done basically with a view to carry out the remote
monitoring of the system through either manual control or local automatic control to
achieve reliability in water flows. As the systems have their own constraints, the first
step cannot be better than the one planned and it should not be treated as the final
step, as we have to achieve an irrigation efficiency of about 60 percent in times to

Water is no longer defined as a natural resource but as a commodity, the value of

which has been recognised both at administrative and farm levels. Unless reliability in
irrigation is achieved, all other efforts to boost the irrigated agricultural sector will not
reach the required goal. With limited water resources, it is now the responsibility of
the engineers to create water which can be used on farm by reducing the operational
and conveyance losses in the system.

Inadequate water in quantity, time and space is the primary constraint on agricultural
production. However, when water reaches an outlet in an irrigation system, we cannot
afford to remain despondent or indifferent to its proper distribution. Experience
teaches us that inefficient water management below outlets not only results in lag of
use, but also leads to serious legal complications due to inequity in water distribution.
Normally, tail-end users are those who do not get their legitimate share of water.
Furthermore, the farmers generally irrigate their farms with as much water as possible
and as frequently as possible whenever water is available. This practice cannot be
continued when water for irrigation is insufficient. Application of more water to crops
does not necessarily mean better yields; on the contrary, it may lead to problems of
water logging and thereby adversely affect crop yields.

There is considerable interest among farmers in technologically and economically

advanced countries over the use of personal computers to implement their own
irrigation scheduling programs. Data collection equipment gathers necessary details
about evapotranspiration, rainfall and irrigation. The irrigator selects the parameters
of allowable soil water depletion and application depth. Irrigation scheduling
forecasts the date and amount of the next irrigation, but does not check the ability of
the distribution system to supply the required flow.

Though the below-par performance of an irrigation system is primarily attributed to

inefficiency in water distribution below the outlet, it is not the only factor. Problems

also lie in the main system operation, and reliable supply of water to the outlet is
indeed a prior requirement for success of any management scheme below outlet.
Water conveyance could be readily made automatic from the main canal headwork for
the scheduling of irrigation at farm level. It requires linkage of the actual requirements
of the irrigated crop or plant to the farm outlet as well as to the source of supply.

Recent advances in irrigation have related irrigation scheduling to the complex

climate-crop-soil relationship. Increased knowledge of soil and plant characteristics
combined with better methods of measuring soil moisture content and estimating soil
moisture depletion are available to predict with greater accuracy the time and actual
quantity of water needed for the next irrigation. The sensor element for measuring the
prevailing soil moisture content could be a commercially available instrument or even
a trained technician. The information could then be fed into an automatic data-
processing digital computer which has available in its memory the information
concerning the characteristics of the soil such as its moisture-holding capacity, the
type of plant and its maturity, an estimate of evapotranspiration and many other
parameters which may affect the quantity and timing of the next irrigation. A digital
computer using many reference inputs determines the irrigation schedule, which is
then provided to the computer centre controlling the canal conveyance and delivery
system to update the weekly and daily schedule of irrigation as set up at the start of
the season, based on the data available then. Thus the assessment of water needed to
be released into the main canal can be forecast on a scientific basis, and this will
allow a more flexible operation of the canal system. Linkage of real-time data
collection and monitoring of the climate-, crop- and soil-related parameters with the
canal automation of the conveyance and distribution system is the ultimate goal, and
use of information technology below outlet level will be assigned equal priority. The
socio-economic conditions of the farmers and the scientific use of water to satisfy
crop water requirements will determine the success of the complete approach of
implementing automation from headwork to farm level. “

Chapter 7
Future Work “

All above techniques have some problem like security issues, low transmission rate,
etc. For overcome this problem. The system can be made distributed wireless network
of soil-moisture and temperature sensors placed in the root zone of the plants and
sense he condition and transfer the information to centralize node and other nodes.
When nodes are receiving the information then system will be start automatically.
There are researches going on which leads to advancement of technological
methodologies. We can use predictive analysis to make a more easily maintainable
system where the irrigation and fertilizers would be initiated by system with no
manual labor. We could work with a vision where the system suggests the farmers
about soil quality and the best suitable crop. This could be done with a easy GUI,
provided it’s cost-reliable. “

Few Recommendations about future perspective: “

1. In real size fields the control should be done on pumps and solenoid valves could
be used to control different water requirements on the same field.
2. This system could be used as a replacement of the hanging system by the addition
of wheels to make it mobile.
3. The addition of pH, humidity and other sensors to maximize the precision of the
irrigation system.
4. The hydraulic research center in Medani has a project that notifies farmers about
the scarcity of water in the field using satellite messages. The addition of the GSM
based automated irrigation system can be utilized in the control over these fields. “


[1] Venkata Naga RohitGunturi, “Micro Controller Based Automatic Plant Irrigation
System”, International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume
2, Issue4, April-2013.
[2] Mahir Dursun and Semih Ozden, “A wireless application of drip irrigation
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