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FLIGHT PLANNING & MONITORING

Flight Planning and Monitoring


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CHAPTER 3
FUEL POLICY AND FUEL MONITORING

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Flight Planning and Monitoring
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FUEL POLICY

UNIVERSAL APPLICATION OF FUEL POLICY

9 Principles regarding fuel amount carried on an air


transport flight have been internationally agreed on and
are laid down in JAR-OPS
JAR OPS 1.
1

9 Known as JAR FUEL POLICY (JAR-OPS 1.255).


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REALISTIC TRIP FUEL

9 Commercial pressure to carry minimum fuel

9 No reason to carry unrealistically low fuel for a flight

9 We base calculations on what we actually expect to happen


during the flight by taking into account

8 The most likely routing


8 SID and STAR
8 Forecasted weather conditions en-route
8 Traffic at departure and arrival aerodrome
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 A
An operator
t shall
h ll ensure that
th t the
th planning
l i off flights
fli ht is
i
based upon:

9 Procedures and data derived from the Aeroplane


Operations Manual or current aeroplane specific data;
and

i) Realistic fuel flows expressed as kg/h, lb/h or gal/h;

ii) Aircraft’s
Ai ft’ anticipated
ti i t d masses

iii) Expected meteorological conditions; and

iv) Air Traffic Service procedures and restrictions


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JAR FUEL POLICY – BREAKDOWN OF FUEL

TAXI
TRIP

RESERVES CONTINGENCY
ALTERNATE
FINAL RESERVE
ADDITIONAL
EXTRA
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 TAXI FUEL
9 Fuel used prior to take-off
- Start-up
- Taxi
- APU consumption
- Local departure airport conditions

 TRIP FUEL
9 Fuel for:
- Take-off and departure procedure to TOC
- Cruise from TOC to TOD (step climb/descent included)
- From TOD to a point where approach is initiated,
including arrival procedures
- Approach and landing
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 RESERVE FUEL

⇒ Contingency
g y Fuel
Should be the higher of 1) or 2):

1. 5% of the planned trip fuel or if in-flight replanning


5% of remaining trip fuel.

3% of the planned trip fuel or if in-flight replanning


3% of remaining g trip
p fuel,, p
provided that an en-route
FOR JAR-ATPL alternate is available.
QUESTIONS
20 minutes flying time based upon trip fuel
planned consumption
p p from fuel monitoring
g system.
y
Other statistical method approved by the Authority.

2. 5 minutes at holding speed at 1500ft above the


destination airfield in ISA conditions.
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⇒ Alternate Fuel

9 If a destination alternate is required


q

- Missed approach procedure from DA/MDA

- Climb from missed approach altitude to TOC

- Cruise from TOC to TOD

- From TOD to a point where approach is


initiated, including arrival procedures

- Approach and landing

9 IF TWO ALTERNATES REQUIRED IN ACCORDANCE WITH JAR-OPS 1.295


⇒ ALTERNATE FUEL REQUIRED IS THE LARGER OF THE TWO AMOUNTS
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⇒ Final Reserve Fuel


9 Piston engines ⇒ 45 minutes
9 Turbine p
powered engines
g ⇒ 30 minutes
At holding speed 1500ft above alternate (destination, if no
alternate is required) at an estimated mass over the aerodrome.

⇒ Additional Fuel
9 15 minutes holding at 1500ft over destination in ISA conditions,
when flight
g operated
p under IFR without destination alternate.
9 Being forced to proceed at lower altitude from the most critical
point along the route to an adequate aerodrome, following a
possible failure of an engine or loss of pressurization, and hold
f 15 minutes
for i t att 1500ft above
b aerodrome
d iin ISA conditions
diti and
d
make an approach and landing.

 EXTRA FUEL
9 If required by the commander
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 Example 1
Jet aircraft. Taxi fuel is 60 kg. Cruise fuel flow is 5000 kg/hr. Hold
fuel is 3000 kg/hr. Flight time is 2 hr 30 min. Contingency is 5%
of trip fuel. Alternate fuel is 900 kg. What is the required ramp
fuel?

Taxii
T = 60 kg
k
Trip 5000kg/hr * 2,5 = 12500 kg
Reserve
C
Contingency
i 12500
2 00 * 0,05
00 = 625 kg
62 k
Alternate = 900 kg
Final Reserve 3000 * 0,5 = 1500 kg
Additional Not required
Extra Not required

Total ramp fuel = 15585 kg


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 Example 4
Piston aircraft. Taxi fuel is 20 lb. Cruise fuel flow 150 lb/hr. Hold
fuel is 60 lb/hr. Flight time is 1 hr 20 min. Alternate fuel is 40 lb.
Assuming minimum fuel uplift, normal en-route diversions
available and that contingency fuel is not used en-route, what will
be your fuel on arrival at the destination after a 20 minute hold?
Taxi = 20 lb
Trip 150 lb/hr * 1,33 = 200 lb
Reserve
Contingency 200 * 0,05 = 10 lb
Alt
Alternate
t = 40 lb
Final Reserve 60 lb/hr * 0,75 = 45 lb
Additional Not required
Extra Not required

Total ramp fuel = 315 lb


- (Taxi + Trip) - 220 lb
- 20 min holding - 20 lb

Total arrival fuel = 75 lb


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SPECIAL CASES 1 – DECISION POINT PROCEDURE

 To be discussed in Chapter 10 – MRJT Additional Procedures


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SPECIAL CASES 2 - ISOLATED AERODROMES PROCEDURES

BACK TO PRESENTATION
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FUEL MONITORING

 JAR-OPS 1.375 In-flight fuel management


9 An operator shall establish a procedure to ensure that
in-flight fuel checks and fuel management are carried
out.
out

9 A commander shall ensure that the amount of usable


fuel remaining in flight is not less than the fuel required
to proceed to an aerodrome where a safe landing can be
made, with final reserve fuel remaining.

9 The commander shall declare an emergency when the


actual fuel on board is less than final reserve fuel.
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 Most used methods for fuel monitoring:

Fuel remaining and fuel used information from FMC in more


advanced aircraft compared to flight plan calculations:
REM B/O
8,7 + 5,3 = 14,0 / +0,7

6,5 + 7,5 = 14,0 / +0,6

9 If fuel surplus or the sum of fuel burnt and fuel remaining


decreases it is necessary to investigate. Burn-off could be higher
than expected or there might be a fuel leakage.
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‘HOWGOZIT’ fuel
f l graph:
h
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OTHER TYPES OF JAA FUEL CONSUMPTION QUESTIONS


Example
For a planned flight the calculated fuel is as follows:
Flight time 2 hrs 42 min. The reserve fuel at any time should not
be less than 30% of the trip fuel remaining. Block fuel is 136 kg.
Taxi fuel 9 kg. How many kg of fuel should remain after 2 hours?

Answer
Block Fuel 136 kg
-Taxi 9 kg
g
=Take-off Fuel 127 kg

Trip Fuel at take-off 127 kg / 1.3 = 98 kg


R
Reserve att take-off
t k ff 127 kg
k – 98 kkg = 29 kg
k

Percentage trip time remaining ⇒ (42min/162min)*100 = 26 %

Trip
T i remaining
i i after
ft 2 hhrs 0,26
0 26 * 98 kg
k = 25 kg
k
Reserve remaining after 2 hrs 0,26 * 29 kg = 8 kg