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SCARA Robot

Jyotindra Narayan Ashish Singla

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering Thapar University

Thapar University Patiala-147004, India

Patiala-147004, India ashish.singla@thapar.edu

Abstract—Robot kinematics plays a crucial role in recent solution which rely on starting point and not functional

advancements within industrial sectors and numerous medical near singularity region.

applications. Finding forward kinematics, using DH

convention is an easy task. As compared to forward As degrees-of-freedom increase, traditional techniques for

kinematics, finding the inverse kinematics solution is far more inference of inverse kinematic solutions become

challenging problem, especially when degrees-of-freedom insufficient because of unavailability of a unique solution;

(DOFs) are more. That is why; there is no general solution to

the inverse kinematic problem of a given serial manipulator. leads to highly time consuming approach. All these issues

This led to the development of alternate technique like fuzzy can be resolved by applying the concept of fuzzy logic and

inference system (FIS) and neural network approach (NNA). neural networks as a conjugate, having qualitative feature

This paper uses the combination of above two techniques, of fast computation.

called as adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS),

along with Gaussian membership function, in order to address Fuzzy Logic is the most significant approach in soft

the kinematic analysis of a 4-DOFs SCARA robot. The inverse computing field as it is fully accomplished to comprehend

kinematic solutions obtained using ANFIS are further utilized human expertise in terms of precursor IF and successor

for desired path generation by the SCARA robot. Further, the THEN formats. Nature of the system in this dominion is

complete analytical solution is developed in MATLAB described by using linguistic expressions. The classic

environment for the validation purpose. It has been architecture of these systems is initiated by Wang [7],

demonstrated with simulation runs that ANFIS results are

Tagaki and Sugeno [8] and Jang [9]. In [7], the proposed

satisfactory and are found in close approximation with

analytical solutions. inference system is formed constitutes Gaussian

membership function, product inference concept and

Keywords—Inverse kinematics, path generation, ANFIS, weighted average defuzzifier. In [8], defuzzification part is

Gaussian membership function, SCARA robot established in terms of dynamic systems. The qualitative

feature of this concept is that under certain restraints,

I. INTRODUCTION stability of systems can be interpreted.

It is a well-knownthat robots perform a vital role in many Artificial Neural Network is a knowledge proceeding

industrial applications like pick and place operations, paradigm that is motivated with the functioning of

welding, soldering, painting etc. [1]. In medical assisted biological nervous system, such as brain. It comprises of

surgery, importance of end effector’s position of a robotic highly interrelated components (neurons) combining in

device is really appreciable for better accuracy and unified way to resolve distinct problems. Main advantages

precision [2]. The protein position in the metabolism of of this system are: adaptive skills, self-association, real

human being can also be determined using robot kinematics time management and fault tolerance with redundant data

[3]. coding. In order to address the inverse kinematics problem,

Literature survey reveals that with the use of D-H different researchers have worked purely on neural

convention, forward kinematics is an easy task, for position networks approach [10] and also on the combination of

analysis [4]. Traditionally, for solving the inverse neural networks and fuzzy logic [11]. There are multiple

kinematics problem, three techniques are proposed: options after combining neural networks and fuzzy logic so

geometric, algebraic[5] and iterative [6]. However, these that they can subjugate their disadvantages as well as grasp

three techniques come with certain demerits like geometric the advantages from each other’s classified qualities.

method is only applicable if closed form solutions exist; The literature shows so many conjunctions of Adaptive

algebraic method does not give any guarantee of closed Neural Networks and Fuzzy Inference Systems as a hybrid:

form solution; and iterative method converges to only one Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) [12].

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kinematics solution for 5-DOFs industrial robotic

manipulator with wrist movement [13] along with

experimental validation.

Within 4-DOFs robotic class, kinematic modeling and

simulation of SCARA robot has been proposed by Schilling

[14]. A neural network based approach is also elaborated

by Jha and Biswal [15], for finding inverse kinematic

solutions. However, they did not emphasize on the idea of

trajectory tracking through ANFIS technique.For the path

generation with only neural networks committee approach, The 4-DOFs robotic manipulator presented in this paper is

by Koker et al. [16], positioning errors of less than 10 mm shown in Fig. 1. The same has been designed in the

were achieved. SOLIDWORKS software. Systematic assignment of

different frames using D-H conventions is shown in Fig. 2.

In this paper, a 4-DOFs SCARA robot is being taken into

consideration for kinematic analysis using ANFIS and

comparingthe inverse kinematics solutions with analytical

solutions graphically. Furthermore, a desired path is being

generated with ANFIS and analytic one for a pre-defined

workspace.

The remaining paper is organized as follows. In section II,

description of 4-DOFs SCARA robotic manipulator is

discussed. Section III is focused on analytical formulations

for the forward and inverse kinematic problem. In Section

IV, ANFIS architecture with knowledge of Gaussian

Membership functions is described. In Section V,

application of ANFIS method on 4-DOFs SCARA robot is

done. In section VI, solutions of joint variables and

tracking for desired path obtained from both methods are

comparatively presented. Section VII highlights the

conclusions of the paper.

II. DESCRIPTION OF SCARA ROBOT Fig. 2. DH frame representation of SCARA robot.

consideration. The robotic manipulator constitutes RRPR III. ANALYTICAL FORMULATIONS FOR FORWARD AND

configuration. The detailed description of the movements INVERSE KINEMATICS

of joints and end-effector is tabulated in TABLE I. The kinematic analysis [14] for any multi-DOFs robotic

TABLE I. DESCRIPTION OF WORKSPACE FOR MOVEMENTS OF SCARA manipulator can be classified as: forward kinematics and

MANIPULATOR

inverse kinematics. With n degree of freedom, joint

S. No. Type Part of Movement Workspace variables can be denoted by ߠ ൌ ߠሺݐሻǡ ݅ൌ ͳǡ ʹǡ ͵ǡ ǥ ǡ ݊

Robot and position variables by ݔ ൌ ݔሺݐሻǡ ݆ൌ ͳǡ ʹǡ ͵ǡ ǥ ǡ

1. Link 1 Waist Left/Right 0 - ʌ/4 (rad) ݉ǤThe expression between end effectorݔ௧ and joint angle

2. Link 2 Shoulder Left/Right 0 - ʌ/4 (rad)

ߠሺݐሻ can be formulated by forward kinematic equation as

ሺݐሻ ൌ ൫ࣂሺݐሻ൯ (1)

where, is a nonlinear, continuous and differentiable

4. Wrist Wrist Roll Clockwise/ 0 - ʌ/4 (rad)

Anticlockwise function. Due to availability of DH convention, finding

forward kinematics is an easy task. On the other hand,

finding joint variables for the given position and orientation

is described by inverse kinematicequation, given as

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ࣂሺݐሻ ൌ Ԣ൫ሺݐሻ൯ (2) Furthermore, using above formulations, the joint variables

in the terms of position variables can be found, which

With comparison to the forward kinematics, finding

denotes the inverse kinematics equations,

solution of(2) is complicated task as of non-existence of

unique solution due to its nonlinear and time-varying ௫ ଶ ௬ ଶ െ ܽଵ ଶ െ ܽଶ ଶ

ߠଶ ൌ േܽ ݏܿܿݎቈ

nature. In this section, the analytical method for solving the ʹܽଵ ܽଶ (8)

inverse kinematic problem for 4-DOFs SCARA

ܽଶ ܵߠଶ ௫ ሺܽଵ ܽଶ ߠܥଶ ሻ௬ (9)

manipulator is described using algebraic approach. The DH ߠଶ ൌ ܽ ݊ܽݐܿݎቈ

convention has been used to formulate the forward ሺܽଵ ܽଶ ߠܥଶ ሻ௫ െ ܽଶ ܵߠଶ ௬

kinematic equations, as tabulated in TABLE II. ݀ଷ ൌ ݀ଵ െ ௭ െ ݀ସ (10)

TABLE II. DH PARAMETERS OF SCARA ROBOT ܵߠଵିଶିସ (11)

ߠସ ൌ ߠଵ െ ߠଶ െ ܽ ݊ܽݐܿݎ ൨

ߠܥଵିଶିସ

S. Joint Joint offset Link Length Twist

No. Angle (mm) (mm) Angle

ࣂ (rad) ࢻ (rad) It is quite evident from equations(8) - (11), that there exist

1. ߠଵ ݀ଵ ൌ ͶͲͲ ܽଵ ൌ ʹͷͲ Ͳ multiple solutions, which are cumbersome to obtain

analytically. Moreover, as number of linkages increase,

2. ߠଶ Ͳ ܽଶ ൌ ͳͷͲ ߨ there will be lot of implications in solving inverse

3. Ͳ ݀ଷ Ͳ Ͳ

kinematic equations because of their non-closure forms.

This leads to the evolution of artificial intelligent

4. ߠସ ݀ସ ൌ ͳͷͲ Ͳ Ͳ techniques. Worthwhile, ANFIS is one of the promising

technique for finding the inverse kinematics problem with

The general transformation matrixܭିଵ amid two adjacent advantage of its non-time consuming nature.

frames Fi-1 and Fi is as follows in(3),

ߠܥ െܵߠ ߙܥ ܵߠ ܵߙ ܽ ߠܥ

IV. ANFIS ARCHITECTURE WITH GAUSSIAN

ܵߠ ߠܥ ߙܥ െߠܥ ܵߙ ܽ ܵߠ

ܭିଵ

ൌ൦ ൪ (3) MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION

Ͳ ܵߙ ߙܥ ݀

Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ANFIS technique [13] is a hybrid neuro-fuzzy approach

After incorporating the DH parameters from TABLE II in which combines the concept of artificial neural networks

and fuzzy logics; utilizing the discrete primacy. It is

equation(3), the forward kinematics equations can be

practically identical to Sugeno fuzzy inference system. It

formulated for 4-DOFs SCARA manipulator by

forms a bridge between fuzzy inference system and

multiplyingܭଵ ,ܭଶ , ܭଷ andܭସ are as

learning potential of artificial network; where membership

ܭସ ൌ ܴଷൈଷ ڭଵൈଷ functions for inferences are adjusted by back propagation

ǥ ǥ ǥ ൩ method or conjunctionof least square method.

Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ڭ ͳ

ൌ ߠܥଵିଶିସ െܵߠଵିଶିସ Ͳ ܽଵ ߠܥଵ ܽଶ ߠܥଵିଶ

ܵߠ ߠܥଵିଶିସ Ͳ ܽଵ ܵߠଵ ܽଶ ܵߠଵିଶ

൦ ଵିଶିସ ൪(4)

Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ݀ଵ െ ݀ଷ െ ݀ସ

Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ

where,ߠܥ ൌ ܿݏሺߠ ሻǡ ܵߠ ൌ ሺߠ ሻǡ ߙܥ ൌ

ܿݏሺߙ ሻandܵߙ ൌ ݊݅ݏሺߙ ሻ,ߠܥି ൌ ܿݏ൫ߠ െ

ߠ ൯,ܵߠି ൌ ݊݅ݏ൫ߠ െ ߠ ൯,ߠܥିି ൌ ܿݏ൫ߠ െ ߠ െ

ߠ ൯,ܵߠିି ൌ ݊݅ݏ൫ߠ െ ߠ െ ߠ ൯ ,

Using equation (4),

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of ANFIS architecture

௫ ൌ ܽଵ ߠܥଵ ܽଶ ߠܥଵିଶ (5)

The architecture of ANFIS method is illustrated with five

௬ ൌ ܽଵ ܵߠଵ ܽଶ ܵߠଵିଶ (6)

layers as depictedin Fig. 3. The functionof respective layer

௭ ൌ ݀ଵ െ ݀ଷ െ ݀ସ (7) is summarized as:

where, ௫ǡ ௬ ǡ ௭ denotes translation about x-, y-, z- axis Layer 1: The Node Layer

respectively.

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This layer provides the input parameters to the succeeding The literature survey suggests that based on the selection

layer. Every node itself forms a complete fuzzy set and criteria of being flat and non-zero at all points, Gaussian

output in corresponding fuzzy set works as the input (gaussmf and gauss2mf), sigmoidal (dsigmf and psigmf),

generalized bell curve (gbellmf) and spline based curve

parameters membership class. Here, the node function ܱ

௧ ௧

(for ݅ position of ݆ layer) is evaluated as: (pimf) could be applied for the decision of membership

function. From these six, only Gaussian Membership

ܱଵ ൌ ݎ ሺݔሻǢܱଵ ൌ ݎ ሺݕሻǢܱଵ ൌ ݎ ሺݖሻ (12) Function (MF) is procuring admissible results. The detailed

description of Gaussian MF is as follows:

where, (ݎ , ݎ , ݎ ) is membership function for that Gaussian Membership Function

particular input and (x, y, z) is the input vector.

For fuzzification process, Gaussian MFs with product

inference rule are utilized; on the other hand, for

defuzzification process, weighted average method is

Layer 2: The Membership Layer

applied. A symmetric Gaussian MF is defined by (17),

In layer 2, the output of every node which indicates the

firing strength is calculated as product of all membership where parameter ‘ߪ’ denotes width of the curve and ‘a’

function; giving the specification of degree with which shows the distance from the origin.Representation of

input parameters for the next layer is decided. Gaussian MF is shown in Fig. 4.

షሺೣషೌሻమ (17)

ܱଶ ൌ ܴ ൌ ݎ ሺݔሻݎ ሺݕሻݎ ሺݖሻǡ ݅ ൌ ͳǡʹǡ͵ (13) ߤሺݔǢ ߪǡ ܽሻ ൌ ݁ మమ

In this, computation of activation level of every rule is done

by comparing each of the firing strengths with summation

of every firing strengths. It comprises of static nodes which

computes the ratio of firing strength of the rules.

ܴ (14)

ܱଷ ൌ ൬ ൰

ܴଵ ܴଶ ܴଷ

In this layer, each IF-THEN rule as resulting output is

inferred by precursor/premise limit or linear grouping of Fig. 4. Gaussian Membership Function

input fuzzy individuals of ANFIS with constant

expressions. V. APPLICATION OF ANFIS TECHNIQUE ON 4-DOFS

SCARA MANIPULATOR

ܱସ ൌ ܴ ܭ ൌ ሺݑ ݔ ݒ ݕ ݓ ݖ ܿ ሻ (15)

ANFIS method performs in two segments -training and

where, ሺݑ ǡ ݒ ǡ ݓ ǡ ܿ ሻrepresents a consequent design testing segment. In trained ANFIS data, the ݔ, ݕandݖ

parameters set. coordinates of tip of the SCARA manipulator behave as the

inputs and joint angles; ș1, ș2, d3and ș4 as the outputs. In

Here, fuzzy IF-THEN rules are defined as:

fourth data set, effect of wrist roll is considered. Here, four

If x is A and y is B and z is C, then ܭൌ ݔݑ ݕݒ ݖݓ training data sets consisting of coordinates and joint angles

ܿwhere, A, B and C are fuzzy sets in precursor, and u, v, w, has been regardedas (ݔ, ݕ, ݖ, ș1), (ݔ, ݕ, ݖ, ș2), (ݔ, ݕ, ݖ, d3)

c are design parameters that are found in the training and (ݔ, ݕ, ݖ, ܵߠଵିଶିସǡ ߠܥଵିଶିସ ǡș4), respectively.

procedure. The corresponding MF’s and number of rules have been

Layer 5: The Output Layer designated for each training data set. First three data set

In this layer, summation of all inputs coming from layer 4; comprisesof three MFs for each tip coordinate, leads to27

consequently, whole ANFIS setup is automatically tuned rules. Last data set contains three MFs for each tip

up by the application of least square approximation and coordinate and wrist roll angle, leads to a total of 243 rules.

back propagation structure for the required membership The epochs used for the training data set are 10. The basic

function. procedure of ANFIS approach is defined in four steps; as

shown in Fig. 5.

ܱହ ൌ ܱସ ൌ ܴ ܭ ሺͳሻ In the testing segment, the premise and consequent limitsin

ANFIS approach are modifiable as they are adaptive in

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character. This adaptive procedure of ANFIS approach is The radius of the path is denoted by ‘r’. ݔǡ ݖݕare the

subdivided into two steps. In the first step, training of position coordinates along the respective directions.

consequent parameter is done with the help of least square SCARA as a spatial robot, z coordinates

method because linear combination of same parameters varysimultaneously with x and y coordinates throughout the

gives ANFIS output. The premise parameters are static path generation process. Using MATLAB, the responses

during the first step. In the next step, back propagation of for joint variables (ș1, ș2, d3, ș4) for the desired path are

approximation error is done byapprising premise shown in Fig. 6.

parameters over each layer. This fraction of learning

process is in accordance with gradient descent principle

which is correspondent to training of back propagation

algorithm in neural networks.

This hybrid learning procedure is computationally

inexpensive than gradient descent method as the search

domain of initial back propagation neural network is far

decreased and ANFIS converges with less number of

iterations.

VI. SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

A. For joint variables Fig. 6(c). Response of ‘d3’ with ‘Number of samples’

Here, the workspace for which 4-DOF SCARA

manipulatoris trained, tabulated in TABLE I. Thedesired path

is defined as

ݔ ൌ ͲǢ

ݕ ൌ ͲǢ

ݎ ൌ ͶͲͲǢ

ݔ ൌ ݔ ߠݏܿݎǢ

ݕ ൌ ݕ ߠ݊݅ݏݎǢ

Fig. 6 (d). Response of ‘ș4’ with ‘Number of samples’

ݖ ൌ ͳ͵ͷ േ ͳͷǢ

where, Ͳ ߠ Ͷͷ (degrees) B. For path generation

After obtaining the joint variables, desired pathis back

where, ݔݕ are the manipulators base or foot positions. propagated using ANFIS approach and compared with

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analytical and ANFIS solutions with respect to desired path In this paper, it is concluded that finding inverse kinematic

is shown in Fig. 7(a) and 7(b) within two different views. solutions for 4-DOFs SCARA robot with conjugation of

Furthermore, in Fig. 7(c), the simulation runs for desired fuzzy logic andneural networks as an artificial intelligent

solutions is shown along with 4-DOFs SCARA links, technique supports potential conformity with respect to the

where tip of robot is coordinated with analytical and analytical approach at much lower computational cost. One

ANFIS solutions, simultaneously. of the remarkable advantage of this artificial intelligent

technique is the avoidance of non-linear and non-closed

form solutions for higher DOFs manipulators. Even,

inverse kinematic equations are not required in this

approach for finding the joint parameters, unlikely in

analytical one. Thereafter, path generation by the same

manipulator for desired path within the trained workspace

has been done by ANFIS approach, showing quite less

error. However, if the desired path is out of the trained

domain, the ANFIS solutions may behave erratically.

Further work can be done on the training parameters like

Fig. 7 (a). Analytical and ANFIS solutions for desired path in XY plane number and type of membership functions, number of

epochs etc. Moreover, complex shape path and obstacle

avoidance using ANFIS approach is possible and will be

presented in future.

REFERENCES

[1] Kim, Won, Frank Tendick, and Lawrence Stark. "Visual

enhancements in pick-and-place tasks: Human operators

controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator." IEEE Journal on

Robotics and Automation 3, no. 5 (1987): 418-425.

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Fig. 7 (b). Analytical and ANFIS solutions for desired path in YZ plane

Science 8 (2016): 550-553.

[3] Kolodny, Rachel, Leonidas Guibas, Michael Levitt, and Patrice

Koehl. "Inverse kinematics in biology: the protein loop closure

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[4] Hartenberg, Richard S., and Jacques Denavit. "A kinematic

notation for lower pair mechanisms based on matrices." Journal

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[5] Lee, G. C. S. "Dynamics and control, robot arm

kinematics." Computer 15, no. 12 (1982): 62-79.

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method for solving the inverse kinematics problems of

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From Fig. 7, it is observed that with ANFIS approach, [7] Wang, Li-Xin. "Adaptive fuzzy systems and control: design and

maximum deviation of end effector’s position of robotic stability analysis." Englewood Cliffs (1994).

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quite precise in comparison with analytical approach is [9] Jang, Jyh-Shing Roger, Chuen-Tsai Sun, and Eiji Mizutani.

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deviation is 0.0003 mm, 0.0007 mm and 0.0001 mm in x, y learning and machine intelligence [Book Review]." IEEE

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[11] Howard, David W., and Ali Zilouchian. "Application of fuzzy [14] Schilling, Robert J. "Fundamentals of Robotics: Analysis and

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