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Dynamic Model of a Permanent Magnet DC Motor (Midterm Exam)

Electrical Characteristics

The equivalent electrical circuit of a dc motor is illustrated in Figure 1. It can be represented by a


voltage source (Va) across the coil of the armature. The electrical equivalent of the armature coil
can be described by an inductance (La) in series with a resistance (Ra) in series with an induced
voltage (Vc) which opposes the voltage source. The induced voltage is generated by the rotation
of the electrical coil through the fixed flux lines of the permanent magnets. This voltage is often
referred to as the back emf (electromotive force).

Figure 1. Electrical representation of a dc motor

Transfer Function Block Diagram

Figure 2. Block diagram representation

Figure 3. Overall transfer function of a dc motor


Problem

1. Derive the transfer function for the multisim DC Machine Permanent Magnet motor model.
(30 pts)
M1
+

Te
θ
- Ea

Figure 3. DC Machine Permanent Magner Motor

2. Simulate the step response in Matlab. (30 pts)


3. Verify the step response using Multisim. (40 pts)

Requirements:
1. Submit all Matlab and Multisim files, and a soft copy of the report.
2. Printed copy of the report (hand calculations and simulation results) to be submitted not
later than May 27, 2019 (Monday 12:00nn)
Dynamic Model of a Permanent Magnet DC Motor

Electrical Characteristics

The equivalent electrical circuit of a dc motor is illustrated in Figure 1. It can be represented by a


voltage source (Va) across the coil of the armature. The electrical equivalent of the armature coil
can be described by an inductance (La) in series with a resistance (Ra) in series with an induced
voltage (Vc) which opposes the voltage source. The induced voltage is generated by the rotation
of the electrical coil through the fixed flux lines of the permanent magnets. This voltage is often
referred to as the back emf (electromotive force).

Figure 1. Electrical representation of a dc motor

Transfer Function Block Diagram

Figure 2. Block diagram representation

Figure 3. Overall transfer function of a dc motor


Motor Control

Proportional Control

In the proportional control algorithm, the controller output is proportional to the error signal, which
is the difference between the setpoint and the process variable. In other words, the output of a
proportional controller is the multiplication product of the error signal and the proportional gain.

Proportional Control Block Diagram


Proportional-Derivative Control (PD)

Proportional action provides an instantaneous response to the control error. This is useful for
improving the response of a stable system but cannot control an unstable system by itself.
Additionally, the gain is the same for all frequencies leaving the system with a nonzero steady-
state error.

Derivative action acts on the derivative or rate of change of the control error. This provides a fast
response, as opposed to the integral action, but cannot accommodate constant errors (i.e. the
derivative of a constant, nonzero error is 0). Derivatives have a phase of +90 degrees leading to an
anticipatory or predictive response. However, derivative control will produce large control signals
in response to high frequency control errors such as set point changes (step command) and
measurement noise.

PD Control Block Diagram


Proportional-Integral Control (PI)

The proportional gain provides fast error response.

Integral action drives the steady-state error towards 0 but slows the response since the error must
accumulate before a significant response is output from the controller. Since an integrator
introduces a system pole at the origin, an integrator can be detrimental to loop stability.

PI controller block diagram

Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control (PID)

The Proportional term responds intravenously to the current error (providing instantons response).
The Integral term responds to the accumulation of errors (providing a slow response that drives
the steady-state error towards 0). And the Derivative term responds to the rate at which the error
is changing (providing some anticipatory response).

PID Controller block diagram


Problems

1. Using the motor transfer function implement a Proportional Controller.

2. Calculate the required proportional gain, Kp so that the step response will have a 10%
overshoot.

3. Verify your design in Simulink.

4. Calculate the required gain so that the system will become undamped, critically damped
and overdamped. Are these configurations possible? Explain your answer.

5. Verify your answers in Simulink.

6. Add a Derivative controller to implement a PD controller.

7. Calculate the required gains (Kp and Kd) for the proportional and the derivative controller
so that the step response will have a 10% overshoot and 5 ps peak time.

8. Verify your design in Simulink.

9. Calculate the required gain so that the system will become undamped, critically damped
and overdamped. Are these configurations possible? Explain your answer.

10. Verify your answers in Simulink.

11. Implement a PI controller to the motor.

12. Use Simulink to tune the controller so that the step response will have a 10% overshoot
and 5 ps peak time.

13. Use Simulink to tune the controller so that the system will become undamped, critically
damped and overdamped. Are these configurations possible? Explain your answer.

14. Implement a PPID controller on the motor.

15. Use Simulink to tune the controller so that the step response will have a 10% overshoot
and 5 ps peak time.

16. Use Simulink to tune the controller so that the system will become undamped, critically
damped and overdamped. Are these configurations possible? Explain your answer.

17. Based on your simulations, how do you compare the P vs PD vs PI vs PID controller?
Measure the time response (%OS, peak time, settling time and time delay) and the steady state
error for all simulations.

Submit all hand calculations for the gains.

Submit all the MATLAB files and the screenshot of the graphs.

Requirements:
1. Submit all Matlab, and the softcopy of the documentation.
2. Printed copy of the documentation (hand calculations and simulation results) to be
submitted not later than May 27,2019 (Monday12:00 nn).