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1

c,; * a &
The AVALON HILL
&
@ENEW&L I
I

low Much is that Wargame in the Window?


THE GENERAL

.c.l.w losing
r venture publ*hed M-mcrarhly, pruty
PAGE 2
1
-
to the f h t day ot Jnnuarg,Bhch, May, Jaly,
S c p t m b c r and NoVemkr.
Ihs General ir edited nnd pubfirEd hy f i e : Mail
hdon FWl Contpny dm011 sokly for dm c u d
d ~ h ~ o f d l l ( I lt b th d ~p s m
4 1 A d o n Hill poodpft6, rwl) A d o n Hill tl hasways prided iWf in main- us:
Tftt problem, thm. is that yOu alv tao
Ankles from ltre w a s i d d for txEsIl8nt c u s t o m ~ ~ ~ ~departmmbIizd
p s , W Y s the pol.utiod
plrWrcDeian on a p a i -ibumrg M a Such but a recent flood of letten from customen THEM: h part, the so1ution is for the customer
s n i d m must h fypewriac~d mt c - c d 700 stadng ofhwwh had dhktwd us to the point to b m k down hicr cwrespondence so t h t all of
words I h m p h s oad diqrprm t huxomp~g w h m ws'w gone to where the "actim's at'' to his requests can Iw a c t d upon simultan6vwy,
hcharticiQimrrwb.~inbhckialr,rcady tind out whai's happened. ~ a s t h a n o o l l ~ c u t i v G l y . w h a tmsanbythis,in
I
lor reproduction, N o m&e a n bf ghcn regrx- Since the dt&d o f a w of Thc G m e d are that a customer's for the m w e should
din# nc- of for p u b t i u h lacatd in the W o r d Annex, 1601 W o r d b an a separate piece of pa^ fmm hip order
hll k c k hum, rxcyp V d l , N m l & 4, which Awnue - downtown, yow eIsewhiie aditor went far a game which should b an a soparate piew
u c our of BPPEka +CC a d h ' b f e mt $Ip&.# hue. to whwe tlte "action's at," the mdn offlea. and from hlP requast for aaswerri to ganwl POW-
Fun-ymr &prioma B $4.98. umbmhady put it ta 'em,Heet how it went: In thip manner, wwthhg gets done at o m .
lh The A&n EiU Campay, a r c ,
Mttyland p&ud in U S A
= Look, we've e n o w 'lettern to the
Editor" cornphhC on your smict, or lack of it, US: WBU, that wjll help ... but is not @
You're s a 6 weeks &hind answering
-to An thg entire next h e of The Gmed
THEM: Hold it, A q m If you'll take the time to
pan-
fht, pardon the axpmdon, "nut d"
m d fhm ~~mplainflettats thoioughiy youll THEM: Part o f h t problem was inoonslstency.
b d tRat most of h r n deal with questions to Hsretofm, dth palodic turnovw in company
COVER STORY: game probhms; not to the of pa&h fact,
hart's a hand full of kttm tharrking us for our
m n n d e e d to mdq game qudaw&
we w d d have dfferent h t a r p h t i o n ~from.
quick ddivwy and nMhg d c e , d w m t employes. For 6%mpIe;let's say that 6
US: But what &ul thoso q u d m s . How corn montlp agv aomwne mt in a Mht m g UP if'
you ius 6 weeks behind? remting uni8 can mtrmt thm Mocking tenah
How Much THEM It's true, them's no denying that we baa
sudddy f a h eon8iderably b h h d in this area
WelI, the partIcuLar indivldud m e r i n g that
qucatton w that p* day might mpon4,
of wnmmer swim. Acbdy, it is an indimtion 'w Buf 3 months lam, when the san&
is that Wargame of how this &ameQ&nerrs has txpandd. Ths
d m e of m d ll has& gotten do the point
quastion is wdtten 4 a diffumt cmploym may
got # to amwx and ha mlght answer, '*no?'
wbsrs our pmmt staff was not able to hap, up Now, let's projet what might he the corn
in the Window? w i l it. quenca d this ambiguity: it's possible that the
two respondents abow am playing a&wt W .
US: Haw do you plan on mdving thSg pbIcm?
THEM: First, we've got to segment the incaning maybe m n a play-by-malt game. With one myhg
How docs one introduce A d o n MU Wargam- m d into tfte proper departnuma You *, much that hH mid you cod$ ramat md the othar
of the problem liea with the eonwurrsr MnueIf, chiming that A H said you couldn't rehat, then
ing to innotant, unspbhd and unaxpcting in&
viduaIs3 Thm$ are many ways, of came. To M&ry will m a us a game order, a parts Order, an naturaay this ConfIict the q m o n of
m e a few: sdwtismcnts, word of mouth, order for your rae. and a& q u d m a l l In the mdibitity not to mention a cauple of mwe
rrtCractivs box- and dsptays, etc. Undoubtedly samo letter. WelI, sir, by the t h e it gms thou& Im8rs q u ~ our~ answm. o ~ Thia aituatiaa
the b a t matkod, how-, 3s a p m d d o m - all of the difftmnt order d-nis and f i M y d d snow-bd, md when it happens h-ds
strafim. ba& b US fwm r i f i g d tfie q ~ s t i ~ n ~of, h e s instead of just orice, as outlined
&venal wmks h e elapsed. And then there's no YOU% p t a problem. And thars mainly why wc
Realizing tMa Hemy H. Bodmatcdt, G B n ~ guarantee that the gwtims will be m w d the got bthiTBd in t k first plact.
M- of Continental Hobbicg Inc., md found- US: Suppose., Wead, that you simply didn't
er of thB now famous Avalon Hin lntereontlnefi day # finally gets back frOm the rariaua shipping m c r all of the nut m& What would happen?
tal KrIegspieI Society (ahk). had a unique id= dapartmmta. So add muthcr m k to that and
K a W t h n &owing Qr dmronstmfing the A d a n youts gat a midmum of three weclcs in an- THEM: Wdl, that's certainly the msy way
M1 gsmcs to one prospoctiv~buy= at a time, h g thie kind of cum@ondonce. out. ..but not a t d i a ~ t i a h with t owphnttsp,
H w y dadad ia play a 'Waqam in the phy of auswehg each and wtiy letter that
Window" of his new retail -tors at 25 Broad comesin...welltually...
S t m t i n FAoId, New Jmey. US: Oh! You mean you do mswer oll mnw
PIwerhb, ,in spite of the ahiks play Wee ponden@? Then how do you account for t h a
h ofoincial tournament game of S T D G R A D
wap requested md manred by the ah&# ICRK - adjustment, Go~bN1sm n ran out of h t h , the people who claim that you n e w m~warthem ~t
M&tcr to Dick H o l m b e of Oakland, W o r a i a Gsrman attack lost its a h , and, finally, In June an?
and Henry BpCnsteBt. A STAUNGRAD map tho bad had it. T h y went down THEM: I'd srty that 99% haven't teccid
b o d wa@ -red and p h d in the ston P.@thgtoth4IB$tbrCath. for w e d &amm: they foaet to put thok
window in view of Lwdrcds of passwbya W a y Hemy who was commandii the Gemam m h m sddrws on their iertm or t h y hwir
back on April 12th, 1988, theGrand Opuring of blames this eatWmpfi0 m the many vying aye raeently mwed and have not forwarded their new
the stum, O p e m f h Barbnmsa began Qf Adolf which were comtantiy o M n g the battle Bsld ad&em to us In the h t b case, wMe the postal
would haw &rkd that arb he wouId pmba6Iy and the hhterlan& and Iagt but not I m t , on the people are supposed to fmard an ibt d m mail
have .won). Tlhe game mwed along swiftly. since nwn- back wat stra- T h y were always to new a d d m e q we know that fhey often don't
it is mck's and Asary's pow to mktt all psM on hand with wen meant but ill &mi advisc, bother to do this - and is on8 of the rewons fw
mow by return msll. Soon the m e attracted which Henry could not afford to neglect, k- the coming &&*up about to ~ e a in u the en&
the attentton of thmn@ of w-B enthw4ast-i muse: who fs to argue with a would-be Field
who were d y awaiting tba &n whenever M d who had just bought an armful of Aralun polid system.
a reply move was due to be d d k m d . Wffidd*' HilIGameainth#Btom? US: Well, thk amounts for many of W unde
commenta&a of PRAVDA and VOELKISCHER A E i Note: At thia writing, a new 'kin- M M e General%
BEOBACHTER, c1cverIy worded by the P r o p d o w ~ e " j s pLatmed for 1%9. All Diqgpiel EM: Of cwrse. kmemter, k t The General
ganda bfiniatcrs of both p t partkipan& added &cionados am m y invited to drop in at is A d undw a spedal bulk rate which mtana
a p b to the demon~trationand Mped to h t ContinmtaI Hobbies when In the k t . Thek that undelivmkles me aufmaticaIly destrwed
the morale of the fish- men. advice is always welcwne, ptovidiag.. . Inratead of be& forwrrrded
THE GENERAL
important. Whycouldn't you at least answer d y
t h t matl which comes in with stmped, self-
a d b m d envelopas?
THEM: Let me put it to you this way. That
gham of ymus loses money on the face ~f it.
right? But we keep publishing it h u m it is the
one organ that helps tie the who16
syndrome together. Look at all the wargame
convenUons cropping up - when two y m s ago
none existed; in fact, thm wmn*t wen wry
many wergam~dub then. So by fostsrtng this
syndrome, more people get in- in wm-
gaming which produces more gams pales.. .
which wiH ww1hdy produce moR a u b ~ p t i m s
to The C a n e d . . . one feeds the- other, So it is
with tha nut mall. R s g a d ~ iof ~ how much it
costs to mahiah, we h o w It conlrlbutss toward
the % x p a m h lof the w m e fnduptry.
W: Of course we rn aware that this se* you
~ ~ , ~ a I @ ~ ~ ~ t t f ~ provide Is imporhnt; we just fed tbst you are
d.~,gtdd&mte d a pioUms k & M # k L doIngy~moleharmthangmdbygetthg
Us: SwmQutdEd~q,Wm&'do#rftmt sakbbahindmamwerlngit.
30u.hW Baigpkdbttsr
~ dqwd~? THEM: Tbam you've got us dead to rightp. But
THIW &rrt 19 mts. M, the #@om7& reSt muted, We axS working W n t l y tow&
&s In* be & m ed m ndi
taznhrrtim t
b akPiath8 this problem. We3 n d the coo-
5 d d E O S f d ~ p ~ p t f , ~ e n v a l o p e , ~ d ~ ~ tion of the subdbss, though. If t h y would
~ * * ~ ~ P B P B ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ = Include a return emtlopa, ~ e y l getl their an-
a w y w& ...ma& ?hisby I 9 0 e n b ~ m i m ~ swws much mmex. Secondly, if thty'll break
~Pan~'~myiaurmfit~. down their mul*lt w ess it will help us
t
k& Why dan't you a m p t b &mum@ thb@ p- their entire order that much more quickiy
THEW To,-# atend WB do ~ & ~ w &+ u and &&fitly.
tlw s h azWMddm& e m eonbin&
s r c s t E t a g s ~ S a n m r m ~ ~ Ttlfki:
~ ~ p Wu~ 0h ~o w tlkb h fact, we. how that With nothing further to add, or subtract. we
obtliospmWa ata W m W faithful W m d k i Y & a ~ I s ~ Q n l y g a Z M ~ ~ a * y W ratfrsd , d ~ to oUr &itorid offiw mtisfied Wt
and wha b o w h w many p&pb t W a n a ~ c ~ E a E h . 9 n d ~ M t o f r m t m a & k t I i i P k i rAvalon m is h t h mars of them shwtcomings
&c : M d on,AWom XfllI prwluoi# UmWtbeit P t t e M t b e ~ ; w & h a 1 m a*t@ig$ f and actively doing something about it. We WJU
d ~ s w b . y m ~ ' k m ~ a a t s r i y " t uf 0 tmmmdwki w* a m Ww. P d a r , fil w continue to p o k their dforts, however, and
*.with%and thtoW~@tort)s- t h a t i t L & e W r & & n w ~ h b & m s welmms additional correspondsnc~ from mb
M" -St- agibm if- SenYCB fails to improve.
U B : I g a f n € l w s f a r y a u : m a n g r ~ ~ US:IdonltfaZbrundemmdhwW&cq We'll just takc our bush= elsewhere, that's
dadad that, w m w m n w c&ts:m m u & ~ ~ ~ hiai m n , whf...

Crack the German Supply Line


Now comes tha dpoint, t h center. ~ Your 2
mom% squares am most va].uabIr becaw they
~~#~~~ bqad.porahtt cut the St. Huber-Dinant Road The units a t
sevsn mrsrea Tho= =.armY mn the tima uut Rochafort and P-34 and 0-34 ars p r o w by a
b t i e ~ * ~ g ~ ~ a ~ t 6rW%r
~ and ~ f otm Wh The
9 unit
~ you put m Marche wEI
~ ~ a a d ~ t f s ~ ~ p ~ T b s t % * t c probably
e y p o Be eridrckd so don't put a 7 4 or 8 4
VikkjIY. there, saw It for P-28w 29.
~ ~ ~ v ~ ~ e p ~ ~ d n ~ b m i i ata N-4
The units n1 and
a 40s are them fw reinforce
*s; {"P mi&.fOF a f W m W l b6 be. built ments and to cut the. Rochdort-Sedm mad in
an mtmtl. Cast tha w m i ~ 4-35.
t b e j ~ & I ~ t at Xt
Neufchtw &35 F-29f Due to &e fact that by now the Gtrman wiIl be
UJk2$ Ro;:hem
W E
m low on hfmtty (due to msk offs and protacting
~pst-.~lrrp@wiIhrl$o a a ~ mmmwlt N-41 the flanks) the ?or& sqmm we great forpmtd-
t b a t ~ * ~ s m @ $ t k e ~ ~ X $ p .R41 W f N24f V-18f ha-.
~ s $ I & ~ y b u g v l e f a & t h e 8t~ RUM M M EI 1-21 a With tha large ninfoments after 32 A.M..sk
b- s-35 P-28f power, dower German rn08mant and P d , you
T;r. wmntimw=-&hao tobrorsh ~w a, wamprtmr.afr~m~~of
. # $ ~ ~ e $ n 2 1 ~ ~ a n d n p k ~ ~t aa g~ n~ ~r ' l k t 8 0 m a i r v m r f key
should get a uaFB at tha *an
t s movc
supplies. 7lrat I
~ d d match victory from the j a w of
~ f i & i & b y 2 1 ~ t h ~ b I Qf a i n a r t h . & . 2 d 3 d f a w i t i t f & b h u I d k dofat. The bast s b a t q y fho is fiot ta let the
fongmov&to&-tb thaMeusa, su&&nt to Md tIwGmww Inthe huth,tha Gemtafigetto t h e ~ ~ a g o o d A m e d c a n
Cmrtmry to t h op- of most, the temh un% in U-42gndV42 ShOuta~Cmtho w!r@$, player could fall p w to a a c c m f u I b a n
PMmtraealrtbb ~ e - M ~ i s n ' r a l l w tsend ~ m m C 1 o r 3 @tsWm~Srbuh& the& advan@, I hops you don't have to us8 this defense.
the Pam^.^^ b PalfdfoMWafl Wt TftC arlit'ai ulmngni,and Xt-41 Shorrldbc Commcntrl

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I f ~ A m ~ ~ a r r s t a l l f o r m m o v a , b ~ l i lh$t
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John R Q w M
7219 Wyntw Ww
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* IndianapW Il3dha 6 2 5 0
THE GENERAL PAGE 4 1
coming July has been under p r e p d o n for the
p a t 6 month If will be a dnubk tomggment.
lbuughuut i$ hiartmy,P.O.W. hao been led by

Club of the Month an elactad c h a h m who serves a t h e yeur t m r ~


This e h h a a , now his second h,L
M d G m m v o o d Ws Box 280, RD NO. 2,
Sayre, Penna. 18840 ad- b the f d point for
Another in a wftw of s h o w ~~ giving them In fact, w m g d n g ' s only d d f i c i q an P.0.W. md.
m i t i a n to among waf@m o&wlm groug. In tha beghnbp tonmamtrrt exp- In addition to its taumatmnB P.Q.W. bas
tiom, thk one on PsnmvI~mlatO m W War w m paid out of the pockets of ~IXY various initiated a wmgming magazine &d b z e r f i w t
gimm p r o w But its pm'ble B pfonwde w- mmbeap. Sbm the0 however1with the naOEpnal now Ia L third yew. T h i s 26 page monthly M b
gamin# w-i succumMng trr h e m ~ i f e s t ~ d o r ~ racogrdtion of P.O.W. as the mtIwtat tournament with alt f a t s of wmming and i s avdabh to
of b'te p w and pmdge syndmne so whdent organization, tournamsnts hmrve been abIe to pay anyone for $3 per yr. A, nomr prsduct OP
In wgarning today. for thtmpelvos moxe or W. T h e tournamts are P,O,W., k lis awn wargamm C o m m C o w m B
now Bnanced tbmugh the payment of enw ftm ers which a& for $2. Allofthisisjustapart of
P.O.W. (PenmyIvanh's 0-d Wargamefs) md the donations of v a d m swnsw. Of late, P.0.PY.L many activities to promote warp?&&
has been arwnd for a loolg time in t a m of A.H. the adlability of w ao nr h mabled P.0.W. to Remtly P.O.W. has hcorpomted tbe hbam
c l u b The orgmiaaibn a n a k d in the s p a of P- st@- P* Any wargamlng Beld Tournament &@ation into P,O.W. The
1964 ror sole pupme of conducting neuM wnctm m y become a Bpomr of a P.O.W. Bake~-&~Id Oqmmtion has m d u c h d thm
national p6m tomaments. At that time it was a tournament by mtscthg the manitation and tournamerib in its histow, wdea the dimdon
p a t of Spectre and operating only m a torn* stathg Its d& b don& a p b . in &urn the of Dun Evluls of Bakersfidd, WE. The B a k e
meni ~rpnhtion. However, long before the spmmr ~ V E mcognition
B for his $tncr&v field orgmhdgr will now handIe Mctly M p b
demise of SPBmkE, P.O.W. decided timi its and quite a blt of publidty. macy tournamsntE under the me-of tim P.O.W.,
iatasts could k t k m e d through a neu- P.O.W.'a fmi tournament was a singles affair md all such tournaments will be o f h U y m c ~ g ;
separate mganhtion with no affiliation to any won by Mark St. Peter of Detroit, Michigan Thts r d d P.O.W. tournaments. A Diplomacy t o m
other warring duba Therefore P.O.W. broke h r n WB f o h d by a doubh tOwnammt won by merit b schcduld for late '69 or early 7 0 and
SPECRE a fun year before that orgmhtion's the BakuIM bmPhEfs of C o n n h f . P.0.w.'~ ppiIl be announcd at that tlmu as P.Q.W. Np. 7.
apse* T h 1Ht P.O.W. toarnmant, h ~kmty, 3rd tournament took phca at th4 same Hms in h W x m m q , P.O.W. believe$ rhat the maia
smml under tfts SPEjCTRE name but the win- form of an Invita-- only club tOmc thing lacking in wargaming today is an ultimate
ners wpae announced a yeau httr & winners of ment. Thig has the only tomamant not ~ W e b ~ ~ t w e p m v i d e ~ g o a l I t
tha P.O.W.' tournament. S i n e then there hawr open ta the pubh and wan won by Tad Hapham form of our national tmmamnts which name a
bcen abm1uteIy no club affiliations Invalrcd in md hi* 4th Rei~h o r m a o n . P.O,W.'s 4th ncw champion every year. Not only do the
the P.O.W. townamenth w n b d n g absolute A n n d PBM tournament was won by co-winners winners (prize Iists inchide some 20 odd pla-)
hornsty and f d to W Ma& Ruddph and Richard RubJm. P.O.W,'s 5th mcciw valuable wargame m m h m d i i and tra
P.0.w. is composed of an m o o q y m ~group of Aanual tournament is mrrtntiy under way using pMes but thsy we publlcfkd as the national
wmgmttrs who have banded toge,thet l ~ 1 8 ~ Ito y a thca divisional f m br which thm wilt be chnmphm in Wcry lmgume lmpzim in th#
form a m p that giwx e c m , not wuires three whucrs* P.O.W. No. 6 which 4bggin this countru.

Husbands and Wives


by James M. W R d y n Crawford

Of dl the opponents 1 have ancountered H my


w& ~cpmienms,!ha mmt fascinatinghas to
be my wife, a s u r p r l ~ ~wwfky
y opponent
cqmkkkg sht had nwei played any wergamcs
pxIm to our maujage six months ago. The pfd*
aopI5ally pa& h @ s h IitCratum &or now attdoatoa&&f~~t~uinsher&
emges me in battIes of I9 14. Tactics H, Jutlmd, line of action. Ifthis pro bocama~xtbn$rrs,I
BLPmarcR. Midway md UBmt Skim wargaming is tiug&wt~wwa. blth your twouse.
becoming quite a hobby with US, We want to p m
on osrtaIn advantage4 and spbciat problem that
thaw tblnking of husband-wife wargaming should
wnddtr-
To me, a my ayid m m r , one major
advantage b the mwant avrdtabiIity of a goud
oppmeat. Wammcw e sometime3 hard to m e
by m Iiving with one is a dehite mmmience.
Another advantage is the ability tn continue a
or leave it set up as long as rim-. Thisb
o h t i m w h @ b k whcn play* opponents not
asp~teasawtfehappenstobaAna~
a1 admnhge h that husbdwfft -w pro-
vide3 a good common i n k t a d hobby md
intarem m i o n fm a cquph's fiae time. Thus,
i t uctuaUq adds a new &mion to pne's m e .
Them am, however1 mddn spxbl problems
h o h d in h~bml-wifewarga&g that W also
be wnsidmd me mo8t obvious is ths that of
THE GENERAL
Skill (taczim) s)f s mom mechanical dafttent ofa
Realism, game, W hchrdcs making specific d d o n a ,
manipulating, md mmkhg Strategy is tlm
m m abstract &mart of B game. The addition of
m m w d~can redm a pmc to a mtchaniFsl
Playability 1 6 m
M
e r than elevating it to a hfgherstrata&

Chm is a goad mntmt Althuugh I prefer mcst

- Take Your Pick


AH g a m to ~ Chess, it serves u a good exmpIe.
Hwe i s a game w h m the rules are 'few and *pie.
One an team tho nth h a few minutes and
m a m b a them without referring bwk to the rule
W e t . Prom then on, one can devote his mtbe
by Jared Johnrron mergy to sWtsey without having to make a
madous @art to rwnembw how many sqwm
such aud such a man m o w , and how this attack L
fought, etc.
Z can stt w h m d- such a complex game
Longb%nle wbwlbers are fmiilrar with Jwwd meinthemInority.T&dy~~~ t would
o be fun far s histmy fanatic, but cannot SM
J o A m ' s miles, he hing a wkrlber-fat&& be so many of them i tRat they make r bigger w h play- such a game would be much fun for
H e % a i r w t r e s d y t o ~ t e f r o m o g l ~ r # p e Rofae. One check on the trend toward UstorkaI most wmgmers who aren't tha! interested i
CoIW IArtand w f MB ~ lor p d m f t r smdy in a m m y 3s t b fact that A d o n W's games mwt histmy. I prefer AH prna such as Afrk Korps.
"sd* hy&dw w PhHm@)r." He b c u m h -a1 to more ptople than a minority of G m d M i and Wge, despite what h a
Iy 64e mniw of c o n m n y in * &Im w
subsclibm.
Many wargames h e hen dojag mxarcb td
they may contain. BESUBS.how many wargamers,
rrs m as they get a new game, run out to the
h t b m M BECUTaFV battle wmrntly waBfng b mvkw AH games to their own Eking and prdwmd nearest Libraw of C o n p and gtart looking up
m w a w m fanatla A Z? w d d m m I degree of rUm and historid accuracy. I k c one informadon on Ordm of Bama, sk., to ws if fhw
@msr, J t d t m &pe g s m f m the p n l l ~ &advantage to tho end rmdt d thas mmch In can fhd some minor tfiacCuraEy In the ganiel
s q o M otendpaht of symbolic to&. .. q u h r m & f h AH games It i s andogous to the old
dvh~rn frwn* Me1 hwgmm h d c say& that you WY sea tht foItSt fw the m?%
On8 should mt equate a multitude of complex
~ B T W B f X 0 W8YS W ~ 1 both6 MtOP
i d accuracy nuts and dl other play m : (1) Hape
rules, as h the past, fm bask optional, and
~

d € Y wtfh complex stnrtcgy. It searm that om toummmt mwioa (2) C#mkucX the gatne
'I% article was wtitten in mpmse to the AH couId get so bogged down h a aca d minute du&& qlipmtnt m that historical wwcy advocates
F W ~ p h y- Part XI C ' R e VS,A-ctlon") added for the sake of histori4 awwcy that ha wilI d y be able to me thc pieces whm t h q
md the -1 accu~aey''cmm" which m s to wodd wmgtettly lost sight d the red m~m arrd revtse fhP game to their own s p ~ c a t i o m
haw p o w d Avalon HiIland a mInoTfty (in my S U B w Of the Kame, hltg O f t h -88~ m d 8 The main p a t I want to m&& b that pky&
9pinim) of AH WaqwUCW. The whole ma* more camflex than th o w version areem to ba ty should not be sa-d for WstoriM ammaw.
~ s t o b e $ e t t i n g ~ u t o f h a n d A H ~ B r t n o tjust a rws of & d One would be spending aII PlayabiJity comes Tirst. And, there is etrtainly
maant to be tabbtop W-BW (Jufland be& to hh t h e sad enargy 10- thro11& the d e a to a o t h h g ~ n g w i t h ~ a g a r n u astogive
so
Bdge o va into this c a m ,danpit~the fact that sm what mwes how farr, what web and such i mch side an equal chanw with equal playus.
y ~ haveu tp $lay it on the floor.) It bornas wen pice k worth, and how such and such a brttflc doalpitc what it does b historical acamcy.
mom apparent when I hew Wk of 9acMcing should k fought. M d , wMe fiddlimg around with A b i t k d y . I have e x w t d a number of
playability in fm OP hhtorical -. t i w e data&, t b 0 Y C r - a drategic dements of tha statemmtn h fhis d d a , but I kope I haw made
latter is oboioudy U* witbout th2 fofpter. game w d be Ios!. A game should be won my Wht. M i y ~ y 1,would Pk6'to iree AWr genI~s
Thc8t =games. and are notrn6ant to be* bcccwsc a pemn is mom skitlful in ttteapplidon channeled in some new dhctions.
textbooks in dkgdne. ( M e ' ~ u l a t i m "AH of strategy, not &ply k c a w ha fs more f m £ k J d Johnson
d s them.) with a multitude ofx u h 1548 Roehuh Driyt
I b e M that thtsa historid accuracy advocam I make a, dhtinctim h t w m ~ &U and smttem. Chmnblee. Georgia 30341

m d u g Dr. P~ltmall&'$m
No. 5 of The Generat, f Wed a
e In VOL 5,
m ths m o d
W m to Midway, the game I h a y s &psrfmcnt
Five FAULTY SEARCHIMG
On the mnt a playar f -his oppment't fleet
in air- his opponsnt may mport his fleet
with In a game such as M i d w om Me,tho
Jagan- ho& a strong h*; and when a
garnu such as this is produd, mcwa5s fore#i
tmmfwm fhc unequal weights into unequal, l
Fickle compO&i*n I n c 0 n - d ~h. k h g r r t hip bit fmord
sheet, hc may add OF sub- 3 Victory Points
from my dip, or add them q m t e l y , and then
rcporst31at sMp asder&ipwhoeePaluequala
bughsmtmttm~~dcm

a+?Became Midwy &%ted


and intemstinggmm.
Why then, did tfie h ~ f k R I 3 . SW h th8 WlCOWlt-
the human factor,
Factors h t of ths l a t h ship pita its 3 extrrt pink Thus,
8 fleet comp& only of Hanma wuId up-
Battleship, 1 b a t u p and 1 a u k , 1 &,
as I
or
mong other thhp, that w often intarfares with by DOUg HalIst
1 d m , To make ti& intaresting one wdd add
thelogkin a battle aYuathnl ships of anothbr fleet h a t was amby, that is
Through rn UXtCiWk6 examination I ha ARROGANCE rwmwhare in the Pa&, but &'t appear in the
Gome to the conclusion that five fadm must be a-1 battle (there w m such fleets on both sides).
mmahd fm an &torial huEation game of
On the piemeditated battle plan tfw fdllmhg
dm& mmt k U t a I n o d and not comb* wia
Aiidway. TImy are: (1) F a d h m d the lack of the basic camponant shIw of any otha d thc LACK OF TECHNOLOGY
comrnunimtion, (2) Japanese Amgmce and con- mentioned fleak Becaw of American radar, H th~Japanem
fidenta, (3) Amdcan intellig~ilm,(4) Faulty h a Atago, Mni,ZZuIho, Yuu attacks any U.3, tacgtt. the Amerilran may lamah
tdllgence, (5) lapmew h c k of Technology. my redied plane after ~~changIng opwattPn
CDMMuMaTtON b. f i a g l , $aga, Soryu, Nagara
c Yamto, 2 othar battle&&, Sendai sheets. He may not, how-, send them to attack
The Japan= playw must draw out the exact 0 t h -8 m y be d d e d to thau taskfme~, any targat morc than 2 squares away.
mutes for all his &ips before the m e begh on a butmay d w g e a t w f l t Shipsmaycomeonatmy U&g thtse rules, which are even better In
piece of gragh paper. He muat move ag- to h 0 Mia June 5,0500, but not all on the m m cotkiunctloa with lbc Submarine, Dam*, and
this plan throughout the gsme unIw an Ammican turn. PBY Cataha rulw set f d in ptmious
Csrrier i s found Tf this happen$ all fr>xcasare free dmid gIve both playem an interesfing if not
bo maneuver. ITAmertanCrtdsers alone am found, AMERICAN NIKLUGENCE MstoricaHy accwats game.
fox- m y be diverted to attack, but they must ThtIapan288mugtMlthe~hwmany hu@ d. m8t
wmnpIish their as&hmantr on time, or lm I and the numhr and
fleets he Mlultimately b, 2714 Cypm
point to the Ammieans for each har 1 Wt is typusinmof thm. Norman, moms 13069
overdue.
THE GENERAL
chmo3 ofwinnin$tfiatfiam
Getting back to this oEfew iWf; there am
s w e d vital elements whiEh mWr be fdhwed. The

The German Offense W, of Of m=.h an anattempted p8nsWiim


d tha US h t wound 0018. With @ect -bat
h t s in I W . the Amsriw will have ollg d
t
tb mermBrsabetweanmws13aad22, which$
Part 2 hap9sfbh. If 0018 k at dI o m send aaptor
through there to disupt ths security of the
Amanfa l k
hother factop ia the pmm* that the
Pert /I, b y Davld Kfmberty, down Lo the HodkUa and MaImedy. And PIW,thm is the u f L ~ e i u 9 i t d t p t h ~ ~
nitty-gngnuyof w battle pian which make8 Ihe Spa front, which is charactabed by many mom- is a mdw road jwtion, and I t is n v for
v f & m he orrtliw in W lsst I#tm redly go. I t ~ a n d ~ T k S p F E a n t & n b t a s & k y o n t d&mie and mppb -IM, Keephg thb in mired,
must w&k slnm* a m&s of his 17- amble to Elw out, but 8 elmr G e m n commander can thb offem is desirprcd far m4orptrskss up
know, ha /s on the honor role at ttre Hopklns aploIt W fsct Eo bis own admhge. Whp and jcsorlffalirs laad% ~ ~ r r pi ls nolt
Country S c h d in New Ham, Covlnecticut 8 s f o r e f ~ a i n t h c ~ o f # l i ayour ~ aide, you &we a dwble p h ~ e ron %m
owmse, ft might be wise to eatabW\l few gcneFaI tugne, if you do mt attack the mountains d d
though@ that we w$edtosJIGermanplank a e m u x y o u -G a small &nr for tkc Am&
In 'the k t hali of this *part &s I o u t M Basicanythere%embkttircc&1~8nC b * an to mnat Biid yoti n9t only haye IImitiW.
some opening German positions in Balm of the that can b put lrndar the follmhg ha ding^ apporhitieer f ~ & r nki tha more n o r h a -
B u h . I wodd make only On6 s d revision, and I-, plmmmt of armor, and fluency d your h n t a , But you an also set up P saW&f2iq
timi would be to place 352/703 at ssay iligttmi of hi% mthun defe*
S528. A3 fa 'the fw,it mmdy r e k to the,fEzt fhat I cannot atrsss tm heaviIy the importanm of tha:
This half of tha &8s wiH sxplain and dsfine: the whenever pc&W thf~Gamms should be nblb ta muthem mad T%s mptum of M s
rtcm .
gmeraI ~trategicftuation, and I win b $v8 an ahorb casualti- with Manlry urdta Of Ewriw.if 18 ~asy, w SLS d us lllU5t pllt a-
interpretation of how 1 myM1f usually try to thcGermm d 9 1 8 t c m m a i ? y l ~ h a f o m 2 f A M mm on that ffaat, and that m away fPDm the'.
aonduct the offens h e w i l l k h a F d ~ a n y w a y . B u t t h o m o r l e midah, A mmi-dik toward Y39 d l give a$.'
When a begher First sta* playing Bulge, the t m p ~ u a t o b c ~ ~ ~ Amerbn ~ W ~i on d ercvcrc w bnarlactcs about I&
ibi thing he should do is anaIyze ths general ewli#g&t aad thh fact should aIw&y&bc kept in nm+xhnt flank If h i s medement to*
drat@ and k&d siblion. One of the most mind, epchur wh8n tits M m 3 l ' s dsfmm m e mat should h & d a d a d d mff, it,$
o u t d d h g ibiqp that makcs itself evident i f not fm(~fls doubled Ute drh-8toward Miwkdmf~.
upon o b m t i o n then in the fmt few prm is the BnlgR ia ham for &e f d & tactidafi, and O m yon &iEm m u wm, o,cuttin@
tremendous irnpmtmw of the -em half of the t h i S e s ~ t ~ f i n * p I s c s n a e n t o f ~ nwth dong rha f I w T f d b ~ A y ro~d w ~
board. The eastern part of t h board
~ conWha 60% P mmbm amlor should haw k~ t
G a r m a n m m r * I n ~ o f m y m ~ ~ t I m g l g CThe om
of the total cities,50% uf tha forests, 51% of fh mmt oE armor h M t t h pb& an *&awn &am the mountains at a b n t IW or'
rivers, 54% of thw mads, and 94%of ths mouatains. f n d i imporhi m1%,for i a rrMttty to w f t b PM, with the rednhg tnfmhy mntEinrine fk
Once you drive the Americans from this area, the t h w h m 8wagd batrlss giw it unlfmitd a~~merarrs&eUSmW~tainmtEs.l
US commander has nothing to Wn back on except pot%ntlalaYou an Bngage tmira bn me M 60 ib Spa =tor to k e p the city, and a aR.
atended Fiver Iim and porn defsndw terratn. It keep them there, aud the n#xt you ~ - b f h g u p northward in c r r m b h f h with hny pmm&
would not be too far from the truth to say that other rmfb to eonthue W &hhtg you ~ V ~ d a h o u I d d t h c U S ~ ~ W
what happens tn the East will dotermine the @her m u n d the units with y m w & p h d luck, yon cm mt off the ttm irr the Spa area,
c h c a of victory fur thc Gsrmsm. I will deal *- rn camm wmaafy d0f- such elim4nete tfiw, a d & up defensive p oz iw -
primarily, tlttn, with this half of the bowd and #mdja&ms,cih,andhThsmfsct a&lsr US w m m n t s . The ourtb river esa-
how it might be approach& that the Am& knows that your armor an do now be d near Werimmon, and andm fht
From the Gsnnan's point of view, them are four that Forw~himtapmpamformy stmtsthtrtyou M w nwr Hny.
hitid pathways west. The k t Is the hkt&w W t g u U , w h i c h m e u m h e b t o ~ ~ t a T?hhavqpnaraf b ~ ~&dfm p are@@
~ ,
road, which from a tactieal mdstrattgic perspew E o m m faor thetultfal dm@r,whhhmeans ~ & ~ k B I I ~ ~ b y f h 8 ~ d
tiv% i s just about the best on the board to advancc W t w u a f e ~ ~ h f p & ~ m t p o t h edemaads skiEd manipulation of not only fha
on. The second i s the "middle front,'' which Y W . h d w l l t n o bFa & ~ O W B E ~ O ~ ~ O ~ $ S W ~
consists of tha W11te-Baatogne mad, the Clemux- Thk Isads us toftit I& key &anent. If'thmtra But uwralty if you can anduct tNs offense -9,
Bastwe and St. Vitlt-Bastqptc road% and the St. m s golden ruEtitis#k mahidntheffuidityof in thefirat&day;pof Won,y~ushautdbawtm
Yith-Houffab road. This h n t too is vary hpor- your own h e , and dmmy hk Ti& lnean~that dif6dty la achlew u l
w e vl~toryfur
t
mt. If for the only reason that it rcpmfmts ths you must Wtrd #t &&Can Em with your Cir!mana
shoriat d h n m between t h e Our River and attach, YOU must almp $now whm you lam
Bastognt. The third area is tht V i e d m wctor. tlw Amtrim to be, and y- muat know how to
Even though limited in space, it offors gmd gtt htm to tht point - aRd &Waf fmm 8110th~. If
opportudtks in outfhkhg such kuy cities m hasttadthe~~#Isyou,y~~astim

1. T e W

-
ZPdM
Fun With "Tech-talk" 3. .w
4. off&
3"*tie
by Gary GYW 6.
7. Sya-
a, mkaim
x-
t h e $ B m b . t l d e n ~ , B a t t l a o t ~ . F b f c x m ~0.-
Do you em get #red of yaw erudite opgw pk, 502 dm yeu STATfC m W T P W E &
nenta burying ym with their fmhical analyses of ot't Kwnmd me t h i n q&%t m n d Afwm-
~ o r a ~ H e r o I s t h c ~ l T h e n e K t t i m od p I n h # A f i w ? ...'S#ZyourvMmwjIl ReWpde
you are correspondbg with one of thw chep
pick any h e d i g i t number, consult the chart
Wow, md Insart tha r m l t Into p"a& critique of ti& aFtiCie w1
-
admit hn 'dmnSt:how what the M y w am
t&ing h b ~ ~ om t mojw whtbi tri hmqt red
h 0 d

Total
1 PAGE 7
I is not new advice, but many players do not

f The Road to Alexandria


practice what they preach. Another important
aspect of this strategy is the attempt to capture
Alexandria before Tobmch falls, sometime before
November, 1941. The Allied Home Base is worth 2
by Daniel Lee replacement factors t o the Allies, whereas Tobruch
is. only worth 1. The capture of the Allied Home
Base creates an identical replacement capacity for
Among our youngst of contributors is Daniel like after a game of Afrika Korps? The perimeter each side, 1 factor each. The capture of Tobruch
Lee, age 96. But Daniel is a Canadan which, of Tobruch is littered with blackened hulls of by the German before Alexandria falls also creates
naturally, allows him to rake a more objectively Panzer Mark 111's and IV's; Alam Halfa is surround- an identical replacement capacity for each side, 2
erudite qproach to American wargames. He is ed by Mark 111 Specials, still smoldering. This scene factors each. However, it is to the German's
I would make any true "panzer leader" shudder. The advantage to take the British Home Base first
managing editor of U-I~Loyola Hi@ News, presi-
dmr of his school's debating team, and '$fays" old strategies in Afrika Korps have been used too because the Allies will not be able to build their
often. They are impotent. This new strategy, I army up as faat as they could if they still held their
with the lBM 1620 in his spare time. He cim
hope, will be more effective within the recognized home base. Since the German does not expect to
Mellinthink "Panzer Battles - 193M5," Guderi-
set of rules for this game. suffer many casualties, this decreased replacement
m's "Panzer Leader," and Ballantyne's ns w W WII capacity will not hurt him that much. Further-
series as his main sources of knowledge, The key t o this strategy will be the preservation more, the siege of Tobruch is costly and it is better
of the Afrika Korps. Without Rommel's tanks, the to avoid attacking the fortress until Alexandria has
What does the Western Desert battlefieId look German commander has no hope of winning. This fallen.
The f m t phase of the German advance is getting
to Tobruch. Thk should be done with the greatest
consmation of men and supply units possible.
Attack only at high odds, 5 to I if possible,
surround Allied units if possible like at Benghazi,
and outflank the Allies on their exposed desert
tlralns vs brawn flank. Do not let any weak Allied units slip into
your Ear areas in the desert, either. Marauders like
these can be a very effective Allied weapon. Also,
or
EXCEDRIN HEADACHE NO. 1-14 d o not waste an Italian unit garrisoning Benghwi.
by TMl William B. Searight The second phase of the advance is the siege of
Tobruch and the '%aid7' into Egypt. Leave two or
three Italian 2-3-4's guardmg Tobmch. Then, with
Battling across the Lybian and Egyptian sands, Situation: German superiority assures him of the rest of the force, capture the vital positions at
Rommels Afrika Korps may lose a few weak an automatic victory at Timimi Pass the Halfaya Pass. Again, and throughout the
-
units, but the British dead litter the sands from (F-17) by a frontal attack. campaign, conserve your supply units, attack at
Bengasi to Matruh. Problem: How to slow the Axis with as little only high odds, outflank the enemy, and do not let
You'll notice that by Aug. 4 there me quite a loss as pospible. any of Ms units slip into your rear areas. I would
few dead British units lying on the bomds edge Solution: One 1-1-6 at F I8 and F 19. Unit at mention here that this strategy applies only if the
testifying to this fact. F 18 will be eliminated, but unit at Allies hold Tobruch with their strong armoured
h ~ l yin the conflict, Geman effective k e F I9 cannot be attacked. (See Auto- brigades. If they d o not, try to capture the fortress.
power superiority is about 1.5 to I in April. In matic Victory rules) However, most Allied commanders will defend
May it jumps t o 2.25, then tapers off to 2.0 in Situation: British are forced to reetreat t o Tobruch with their strongest units. If so, only
June. This is because of Tobruch being beseiged Tobmch on his May 2cd. tum. weak units will be guarding Alexandria. The
by 3 Italian units. July is L25 and 1.1 in Aug. Problem: How to prevent 9 German units German advance depends on supplies, however,
with only .8 in Nov. 41. On paper it would seem from assaulting Tobmch success- and between July and November the German will
the German advantage diminishes wjth rapidity fully before arrival of British June h v e a hard time getting them. If he does have a
a f h June, but in actuality you'll notice that the reinforcements. sound supply line, he should take Alexandria, if
converse is more often true. Why? The reason is Solution: Depending on the British strength possible. However, this should not be an all-or-
obvious. in Tobmch, leave one or two 1-1-6's nothing effort. If Alexandria does fall, return to
In the game, as during the actual campaign, outside but adjacent. This leaves Tobruch and try to capture it. Be careful not to
Rornmels fast moving units manage to cut up the limited attacking area for the Ger- lose any of your 7-7-10's in exchanges. However,
British forces in a piece meal fashion. Reinforce- mans to use. due to the bad supply conditions, the German will
ments arriving are greeted in the same manner. Situation: Germans have sufficient striking usually not be able to take Alexandria. In this
This is accomplished by having short supply lines power to mangle the British still event, he should form a line at Mersa Matruh.
with more chance for supplies. more at h l f a y a P m .
The basic objective for the British is to delay Problem: Bow not to become more mangled. The third phase is either the capture of Tobruch
the German advance as much as feasible while at Solution: Leave one 1-1-6 at K-35. Retreat or Alexandria. With his November reinforcements,
the same time cauging large German supply British eastward to a defensive posi- the German will have to decide which he should
expenditures with as little loss as possible. B u , tion that will be out of attacking capture first, The capture of Alexandria first has its
as the British player, must rely on your brains range of any German supply unit. good points, as I have already pointed out.

iI British opening move is standard, but with


below noted exceptions.
(1) 2-2-6 at Mechili moves to E-7 to hold the
Italians.
If you don't worry about giving up territory,
you cause the German to extend himself far
beyond his supply lines. By this time his Supply
system becomes erratic by a 50% chance of
Whatever his choice, one of them must fall before
Ma~ch, 1942. 1 realize that this is easier said than
done. However, it must be done. To make, the
game more interesting, and to confuse your oppo-
(2) AU 6 British units a t MatruPl and El supplies not arriving and with a long trip to the nents, alternate your objectives each time you play
Alamein go t o sea. front. Also his force was reduced by the necessity Afrika Korps. Even if you lose with this strategy,
(That extra 1-14 is useful) of besieging Tobruch. which will probably happen many times, you can
Another point t o remember is British units usually walk away knowing that it was the Supply
On British second turn, units will land in To- before Rommel is sometimes not as effective as Table that beat you, that you tried your best, and
lmch. Send one 1-16 to C 10 and pull the 2-2-6 having a few 1-1-6's behind his lines. For if they that the glofious Afrika Korps is still intact to fight
back t o Timimi. Move your other units as can disrupt his supply lines, the German threat is in Tunisia, and maybe this time the attack at the
necessary. Supply No. 2 moves from Tobruch to greatly diminished. Kasserine Pass will be a success. After all, one of
H.B. for garrison duty. ?Re longer you delay the Yes, there's no denying that those little old the greatest tank commanders of all times didn't
Italians the better, since the Zlst. Panzer Div. will 1-1-6's can give Rommel quite an Excedrin win this campaign either.
not attack on its own. headache.
Daniel Lee
1 Of course for each move the strategy changes,
but here are a few useful situations you may have
William B. Searight TM I (SS)
U.S. Naval Torpedo Station
Keyport, Wash. 98345
5902 McLynn Avenue
Montreal 252, Quebec, Canada
1

THE GENERAL PAGE ,8 .

Leige in a Week
by Bab Frost and Bob K c m

Pmhwy t h e y w ~ t p m o n m ' f t o ~
- Antwerp, Maybe Never I
hook& on &ton #Ill m f g k Bob Frost.
Now a 1 9 . p ~old Mabrr Wor at Itfinds State,
Bob tm bssn me of us d m , wp he s m,
*Awtm #if/% Imption" el- yam A
c a m in inwslmmts k his p h . hWw&IIe, he
w l k Bwer). M ~ time
" relaxing dwh
ti %onball,
la, h&*, fl,wine, m P hh afw,end of
mum pI&ng mru his C8a- gem, is14

Psst i!mes of the " G e m we mntaind


pIans for the 'Wacht ant &in" offmdw which
haw Qeen witlass, iampttnt, and guife offen
Tlwa w& be '+&Ral whtiom'' so o f t ~ n
-the mty of the,Canan dtufhn. ??hq to
exmatt said plans EP offen to embark the G s m
Army on t!wh a hopeless ddvcnturo th@tit will be
of m e wonder If the Geman phycf p t a so much
as a single unit a m the Ourthe, much 1- 'the
Meuse. mtRsYer, w0vlag that 8 W t - t is
b w %wompllsheaby gomi cKamphx I MU p-nt
fQr your oonsidemtion an aff& wMch 1 fed
wiII d d 1111#lfthough probably not dl, B, the
d h s t m M e w n t in a %act phfi."
~ ~ A r m v w ~ n a t c ~ ~ ~ ~ t
Ardmma must of necsssScy be subiiet b dertain
rwtricttons p n f d on hfm by the tprrain. b
muse sf thw k d n dif~%uhies the Gcmran rnMmPPfARY
admmz to t h e ~ u i t h 8 r n t w t b e m C r W h o f w e a n dhcwn. All r e m w d o t l e d ta tMs
&&ope ad south of tlm Amblevs, It Ts of front. ~ h s l r e y t o v i c t o r y ~ w i t h ~
paramount impr?m@ that the &man gain qukk SthRBnZBTllnny ability to &n h e d m of m m m t . Tho rap*
p z m . . ................ a15 by which the E i o u f f d b M a n h a ~ - A ~W
p s q i w i d the Hvufga~z%-AywiUh
mdntataatfirmgmponth@fihiWyF~$hh 2 Fz117
axis and
..................... UUI 4
network I$ -0- wiU ds-8
~b&toforrnrsmW~h&!
*4 t

@tion lw can effoctively titwten the BAtusc 2 Fzf7,$<8t


north of Dinant. In tha final stages af the advan- tS0Pz.B.. ................... a 0 2 2
2iZL M PW
he should blmk the uza at thenorthem edged 115 P4312,406
t h b~ o d betweb the O W &ndthe MeU& to
............... .QQ17
tPlWY sffgt.
T h e ~ ~ t a d b y t Z l a 5 ~ P h w
ri6~~j31o%r drive s b d f a , the enemy%hand at Basto@
m t an Ant- mtsr-attadt dm t b h 8 79 VG ...................... .PP19 Ha wflf, haw no choics but to cwtr its n*
Huy-dsrboman. a m , .......... : ........... T T t S a p , c W thw tying dawn m W Iteeaed
Now, for you cWmd HI& Sugend who Ia VG ......................0024 When &B Amtican tart d s l y fow ~ J $
thWc tbar the qw#t way to An- lies 277 VG .................... . a 5 t h i s ~ f o ~ o ~ ~ , t h c 6
swthwegt thmugh B&ognc I reeommmcl that 326 VG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,0026 s h w l d b n e a r ~ ~ ~ M m , i f n o t
you buy y o d a Rand RIcMIy. AlthW A m c m abaadonmmt of BastDgne &#I
yom
m w ia vital ta the hn&an d c f m ~it, R by O b j f d h
no maans r mcmhty o b j h for the BmUn. An Drive on Houddize and h t m B&cgae. Ad- ***

o f f m e an p m C d quite well without it. ButJf vance in the direction of Mar&. Win pmtwt 1 mwt mhapoirrt: Sthand6thPanzerAr1~@
you'= one of thm poor, m d e d sods who m u h flank of 6th h e r Army. &odd remain, at dl fhes, on mu&
f & ~ t h m t & ~ t h l s t a n k s a t B a s t ~ e a n d 7th Ann$ adww route%In this , m w r thw can s upm
&mi "m!", then I would ad* a@nst this plaa saeh other by flank and mar moycments d q l d
h a u s e your attack Pm - would k tab do, 5 h J 9 ..................... .PP26 &her W m a d h d . Nww dm their d
dwap an i n v i e M dhmter. 5Par,]8 .........,,...,....... pp27
Wth thw points i mfnd it I s m m a dear that 5Par.17 ..................... QQZ?
the m a da ~ennantt~~lts must fall b e t w e 4 n a r 671334 ..................... .ss28 Yow soufhgm fnfan
born and U m u x . 352 VG ..... ...............
; TT30 so do not m t it to
274 VG& 16'11333 ............. :W J O
ORDER OF BA- objeme
To harass en8mg before % t o w Whcn m'=my
l i n ~bet~meWmred, nmia w n i d i r a t e and
&am@d def#mh m o m Mud protact
e x m e m u m hank of ti18 aEen&c.
BATTLES
23rd (I*21,%th(7-1)
341 & {E12), 393rd 8t
395th (2-1.)
4221id {&I), 423rd 11-11
109th Q1),1lOtn ($1)
8th (1-11, 12th (bl) Bob F a
1209N.Culton
The @I& battI# should n e m m d y b fought fit. Bfoomhgton, Ill, 61701
THE GENERAL
Seven 7. M A M U I N A MOBLE RESERVE Some
thnao a lack of units, a atwrt or ht&r
linss, malres s mhpsiMs or m m s s a y .
Steps h t , in other cases maintain a m e to cow*
attack m close a bmk in your he. Place your
~ e s w h t h e y ~ a n w w r t h e ~ g a r t o
your tlnk

to Waterloo T h a ~ t t n d m a W t ~b t h e
&active a p p l i w n of kd u h n s (yxhdples
is the popular term). I will show you how I
sbttCgy and tactics on the dcrensive Uarany apply them in Watsrloo. Moat Df yau may
by John M. Strong
-
md the appmch a bit radical but effective.
Refer to the &win& The f?wt ahowe the
kdthlpt up I Uke t o w althuu& i t c a n m y
A M h h C at WIImm U M w , StronB b 6. WATCH FOR A BRWKTHROUGH IN A slightly if the n d &m Its m W t acc#mphk
w r r h a A c R O T C ~ e a n d p ~ t d ~ a sWmB~ A K P A R ~ O F Y O U R M N E ~ @ ~ ~mtnt
F ~ ~b~ ~that
E ~it~ will most likely put yow
, of WhIsk~ry W y . " They proibeWy &fr
ofioat my WI, but #m Ilsns a lot d ikn
d it up If i€ breaks Don't &t
W P m t to make a and
your
hb
opponent into a state of shodt (a gmd way to
start). By tba way your wits sm bpmad "dl mw
*Af&wa&- do R m g r4wans whalcarmy~ikI11~ittoyou t othe hwhe think you eithexhmoafan*
MIht3 own a m w r wwgwme "'ELI- Out*! plan or y o u art a b1- Mot
1W" W & m to fAe crowd, &in. We
%
-
.c
V
C
ywwnrdeomehk~

k ~ o n o a ~ ~ w * ~
that -you dhxmr ) * ~ ~ ~ p r o ~ y m l b a v - o t t
~~~.ThisLanhpmhtpartofmilftary
p- for both the o f f e w and ddanse. A&
m&~aoomlmfwcemnimpf~v~its
chams by proper prcpmprtparatioa By pro8hm I
d a y amm obvkus msca like theFmwhba#a
b o m y troops [don't law&, s 'ti a pddmt] or
tlwFmnChWlntobofton.Imeanthepr0~
l & 8 w ~ i I s t b b & d O f e ~ h M d ~ w ~
cheFrentaunitsWtWd8StrO~Ifthe
p m # l n $ E a n l w m ~ ~ b f m t h 0
~tiaShrts~~arm8nd~oprekan~88~~
i m m d . Fdhg the pmbhem is the ffrst and
IkttaPlcawsrgamex~or~~rnUSff~I
haw madb t b point far the WndH of the
bginm. M a t Df you wmned wmnmm BE
mdyknowitso l e t i t t t t o g s t y o u a l t ~
fwthe~(th6ydoitinwrmexaaveissOit
esn*tbeauba
T h t ~ t a & i ~ a & u l i m i o ~
proMm faEing you. Them ara many soMona
and most pwple hvu their m n Howwler, thm
are a few basic oms tbt.1 feel art h p o r h t and
shoufd bs u d w h s m r m d b l c .
1. BSTAELISH A GOOD DEFENSE LWE
B W R E BPTGAGWG THE ENEMY. This meaod
pm~the~ofeach~aswella6ths
entire front. gach action a n prewnt your
from b&qg cut off md d e d or h k W nnd
dsf& ta dstd or simply ovsmbfmed by
wd&tdmrm~Somo~Irwitlbe~
s 8 r y t o ~ & C d o l a y y a u r ~ y ~
yoahapctImeto&ttpa61rw.
2. m m YOUR 0mmraeep him
mesdn& h can't makaplmwte~ouate~youraif
he a ' t figure cut w h t you arc up to.
3. MAKE USE OF RAlm. You can aamo
tima deimmh tlw q g m u h n e s and cqdmcc
of your apponmt by hwhim mi&=dyhthe
We.Lh,raidsamofteaa~mtansd
apnfwhg your opponant.
Wm
4. WASTE YOUR UPlITS DEP13NB Tho twinfantry dMdomon tbGam&sto
q u a e ~ w ~ ~ t w F m c h arvund
are forming one. Tifc sbong M e m a of the rid@
c a Quah
~ B m Wm r&e B F d attack
ING PART OF THe FRONT WNE YOUR
OPWHENT CAN NOT W. It is beftar to keap f m m ~ t h e $ m t o p k t b f I r s t t u m I n them wry d&y.
t h e m i n m e m w h t & a r e ~ ~ w t o u s s y o w Brst tnrn fmch a raid h a r d - T
with emhy but do not attempt tu tngagp Fmwh In m o w two and thm mom back
InfBatty! U s s ~ t D b l . o c k t h t ~ ~ t l ~ r o justootdre&OfthFretlchwrw&mgthat
ad
LY msmm. If is the &t Way tb h t r u y into Qua* 3m to pmtect ?hee&fhnkof this an attack would be M e (Quatre Bias rid&).
your opponents arm. But, be cw&d not to town. The p u p = of mwing your infanby aa U~eavdrytosiowtheFimchifnewsmy.At
ex- youmlf to a deadly e m y wnter s h w v n a n t h s ~ t w o m a p s i s N O T t o f o n n a the w e time ust your new fMaps to fmm r
-a f r o n t h t s i m & t o ~ e t h F r a n c b # i n k ~ dcfum at and t h w p p ~ .
THE G
EME
M PAGE 10
In kua fuw move your infantry back s fm
W N ~ n a p g RSvar t defense line g k h g
UP Qtmtrrt M a n tfle Fro~ch3PMturn. Your
IcsmtoWpointshouIdbtwU%ltlIikca
haIIdozen attack factam of b).
F m here on wU1 depbnd on French
strategy. If ihe F d %tfa& toward Tilly, tm
the P m s b mam to dday the F r e d
advane until pou can m up a k p p c Rlwr
,defense. If the Fptnch gb 911 out here your l
h
w U bmk but you will have a fw
a W 1 e tn defand ths &&t Ls-m river.
AgaikdtEay t
hF m C h ~ ~ h y ~ e ~ * . I f ~
French mt4nud this @cnsir?t they may be
wu&~tfn 8 trap w h e ~the Pms&i fmch cum
mtM%If fhe b c h go aI1 out west of Qm&e
BrasthenssndrJl y o u r u n i t s h t h e T m y ~
mW the W k rim tmd Csnappe9ndw
tiwm there,
K the Fmnch grr for %dies ft wiU taBc so
long that flu &odd W e ihe &lwemcnB to
fight a muting bttle. A baffle of aMfop will
beinyoutWar-And,tfWwgetmughyoa
auuss~~to&wMmmyouwngctupa
d a f m azound La LRudk Finany* tht
mmvt f i t r l r t r ldhMm
r n m Warn ean bs mnt
cast or we9f, w h m m it 3s n d e d
A good Pmch player W probably diM%uts
h l r F o m f n ~ a ~ y ~ W ~ a l l & c p B
His mast effeciiye &tack wpt pmb&$y &me in
~P#atertfmm~pst~~e$bea~ge~tl
gepbetw%eathcndw-andthshkofanahd
sw&Q dtfttnsa he. If ths FmCh am*
t Q m s 3 * ! & n a ~ F i v c f t wQuklb%atmt
d& and it would ptobabb be vem costly,
NOW that y o n ~ h s w y w c a n ~
WaMw, hy Afrika Katpa arrd I thWt I
~ a n ~ t w t h % t t b e ~ t s w i I I b e i m
f o h M. StTQng
Box I307
vm- UnWmity
V-Pa 19085,

K e l l e-r -
. AIlam
,
THUNDER AT HARPERT$ FERRY.
Enalewood Cliffs, N. J., Preatice-Hall,
1958.
W e l l Illustrated account of S o h
Brown'e mad attempt to end slavery by
a Negro uprising, armed and Ied by
him and h i s friends. Written by news-
paperman accu~tomedto dramatizing
his material. tlFactual errors creep in
and the style may be termed 'journal-
ese. ' '+
Okinawa, Victory in the PacWic, by
Chas. Nichola, Jr. a d Henry Shaw, J r .
Published by C h s . E. Tuttle Go., Rut-
land, Vermont & Tokyo, Japan, L966.
Library o f Congress Catalog Card No.
66-11010. Official Marine history of
the invamion of Okinawa; has over 40
large maps of the campaign. Appen-
dices include complete Jap order of
battle, and complete Marine camualties,
332 pages; hundreds of phot6~. Store
price: $7.50.
I Side Pocket
Bismarck in the
by John Rancour t
4. If you have an opponent who i s
adept at finding you with four or more
battleship6 and cruisers at the same
time, heavy strumming with the fingers
a t random intervals will alleviate 'the
problem.
I f you couldn't put John's advice of Im Issue 5. After the Z5-tb, whea you are with-
to work (Chjckm B i m m k l , then zs a k t reson,
in range of a part and decida not to go
try &tw I 1 SWPS to uMmer v i c t q - Only a
ypyo... in. toss a coin. This will cause even
tb most stalwart Britisher to recon-
Of course, we've all playedBiemarck eider his placement of battleships.
by now and h o w mare or less bow we 2. As yon move about the board prbr 6. A t an advanced sbge of the game
do at it. FOPthose of you who can't to the 25 th drop in- ports a d when he if you are unwounded and have a few
learn to swing a victory witki the Bi6- finds you say, "just picktag up some points say, "would y w like the Tirpitz
marck I have developed a f o d p r o d mqrk shell^ a8 big as trsem1'%ar "We're to nrske the sidee even?" This ofMn
running low on champagne. A few of causes your frustrated ogprrneat m leap
method to crinch Victory. I call his
plan "Bismarck, in the side pockel!' o r these jokes in succession shodd w ke over the h b l a and strangle you or a u r -
"Ha, ha1 Yablewit". the most hearty player violently ilL, o r render in abject disgust. Eithar way
1. During the first moves ask the at least cause him to lore his train of yon win, I think1
I British player continually i f he wants -ugh+ 7. la case you are b s i g you might
I to surrender. At the ead of the game 3, Note carefully your course and much a bidden button which is eonneeted
if you won ally "we could have saved a try to draw a awastIla with the lines

I
..
lot of time it. " or if yw. loat, play
deaf. This accentuation of the times
that you followed. Show him these after
the game if you have woa. They will
to a fio3.a (whbb ie hooked into a bank
of amplifiir~),&I of which is below
hie chair. After you get his head out
y o u win should ~ i v shim a feelhg that make htm feel that you are toying with of the pLaster calmly inform him that
you are actually superior to him in him a d this will make you even more he upset the game so it was a tie.
ability. suprior in his eyea. 8; Sf you are r e d l y bad y w can give
him a pen containing invisible ink w h n
ha m a k e hi* move a d fires at the Bis-
marck, and when you atart ta fire re-
gain L a pen on some pretext so that he
can hot use it, This trick aloae has

Al or Nothing?-Hardly flnoded the sanatoriums.


9. Generally, if the game f 0 lost
and you can't leave the room see X yon
by Bill Quina can stall. Say thing@ like. "Did you
say B or J3 7" or "Are you sure that
carrier i s in range?". Enough of this
Throu&out the en& North A h campaign kctom per firrn h m A@ to June, f 941,18 Prom and he will never return to play you
the German m y was plegud by J r f k k n t July to Navsmber 1941, and 20 from Dwmber again which mearts that you'll be left
mrpplie& This is portmyEd in AFIUK.4 KOWS by on.
havfrrg tha German phyeysz roll for suppfies. But
how many times Zn the teal campaign did all the
OnempplyfacCorirrsedtrpfarewryatWcing
factor- Mo supply faem ara wed up when out these trouble-makere .
with people you can beat after yon weed

10. If you have no coaacieace w u t -


supgliw get throu#? Or how mmy times did no Cf-
supplies at alI arrive? NBVBR. Some m p p h If twelve attack facm of -bat a h am ever you can dip his pieces in honey or
d w a g made their way through the bIe&brmmm d r d , then helve supply facactw8 are m d d molassae just before the g a m . Thio
gauntlet. Sometimes it was only a Mckl8, some to k m p thcm lurbhw If only ten supply w i l l g w a n t s e that he wfll move slowly
timss a 105 but i t w a s m ~ o r n o ~ am a d a b l e then two m c k faotors of the giving you time to thiak, and that ahips
I have made thc following supply table for use ia surrounded lmib are removed. he pilea will stay piled for the rest of
my games of AFRIWL R O W lt ia lrsry M a r b Supply mlib m o t be "soahd o r against the game,
tha H e r y supply table in the GUAISALGWAL when in E i
tattle manuat. I have found mt that w makm Lucky 11. The last fins k i c k to end
AFRIW KQRPS mart mlWc wMa not taking in a tia ie to aay, "that's it, now you've
DIE ROLL away from its eimpkicity. It Is a h a good way to done St!" aad axhale onto the red aep-
1 2 3 4 5 6 -~gamebysimPZ~a4f*the~ly aratar iu PUT sigh of "re1iePT. That'U
flatten his pieces.
A steady d i i t of this will leave you
with a group of patrons who you can
1 Dec1- 142 B i6 12 10 10 B beat at any time and who w i l l love and
I April-Iuly*42
~ ~ ~ $42
6 10 8 8 8
~ &4 a10~ 8t ,5 6
6
4 at
Two supply f-
Bern-
may be bu&t in sash turn
G w Sdm or haby * rcrrpect you for your ekiIls, like the
h t Iast 1 1 o n t d d t h t p d i u l & port. Mafia I
&a BUT2-G rewrlis Q I a and malm m- Comments on thie article and what-
The Gaman p b c r m h r t fhe bWmia of a b.t dm phfmboth h w e v e r ather dirty tricka people know that
h.Hs mav him them in as he would in tba
regular gmm-~uppGunits hrwe a movement fnctor I havaa't even thought of, may ba ad-
of 10 and m y be broken up into supply columns Bill Qulnn dressed to m e at 316 Aroontook Hall,
of two or more bctm 1107 A l l @ q University of Maine. Orono, Maine
The British playm may bring up to 12 supply ArllngConhkhts, &ok 60004 04473.
THE GENERAL PAGE 12

O@l Awlon Hill Game Clubs...


Utilizing The dubs h t 8 d below supplement the initial llating made in the Jan-Feb 1968
iaaue. Due to space limitations, we have not repeated m y prior listiags dthough
maay have forwarded us updated information. The purpoae of this Listing i s afmgy

Economy to provide basic information to those readers looking for n e w clubs.

of Force CLUB

P m emwdm
8314 Tommy Driw
Spn Diego, California 4 1 1.9
The A m y of Northern Virgin Tom K w s s
As hls wtfde pohre out, Mflk f m intw 7724 H a w d PI-
ested h fmm a &tM paint of vlew
SpringRdd, Vlrglnh
m##r than I- "BuIp offam so many The Wwmongera Galen Workman
amkai slbladw thet ft wtmt k a m e 13321 So. Isls Avenue
W.''At ap 33. ##/a mmh as a Hawrhome, California 90250
&wnht end b arm* WWkIng AK 1 1WS . Okkommend SDuth am w
-
&mm In thet mw MemwhIk, he ~temImhk 6764 Sunny Brm Dr.
expefbm on his wife and me &&tar no doubt. San Olego,California 9211s
1 FW W l l h Hoyer
4aa ru. spwkllng
One of the most fmbathg combat r d b for C h m ,tttinois 6m25
the Wending M EinB Bulm~is a COD#.
g.:
AIthough not driven back by the a-, the Hdlfi glrtera Rmld A n h m
A m s r i E a a l a ~ o b l & d t o m ~ ~ w h d 13- Nrandon Avsnue
h ~ f o r e e t R i t h w b i c h t o c w o ~ . mkgo, I l t i d rn
m e a s whieb. thc A m d m b gone to mt
e Femme Tuvlwome
o f t m ~ w i I I d t i a ~ ~ ~ f l l t b I 8 d e P e a s I v The
R.R. 2
Randolph J, @
trouble to prepam I would Ilks to pmmt m Wast Branch, Iowa 62358
in- mtic which be used by tbe The G a W Patrd Sam Fwris J,
AmeriEan to armtamtack &om a contact u$ng s 210 Nopth Planberry Averme
jIIhdmum of f o r c ~ Nwbwry, M i e h ' i 49888
T W tactic can bs b s t IUwtmted b W
expm*: The G a n a i sw Stephen Amy
X-28 30/118Inaf0dhtion 616 PsaFhtree
X-29 2~17.2Pz17 G m Point Wowls, M e
ih
w
Y-a8 2 pZl8.150 PL -& Afrika Korps Jim Schoppman
Y-27 Fuhr.Escort Brigade 1806 Faimwtnt Drive
T h o ~ n u n i t a h a v oj & a W e d t h e h d - Fforhm& Miaswri 83(W3
cana at odds of 5-1 and had a dia roll of 6 Wwldwide W m i n g M a t i o n Charles Ywng
(omtact). It b now up to ths Am- to 2 &mu Road
wuntraa#ack or m a t and I- hb doubled Hanow, Mew Hampshire
dtftneiw paition. To c w n t m h c k at ad& of 1-1
~ a l t G e r m a n ~ ~ w i l l ~ ~ a t Ml's The ~ 4 0B r i m David Colongalo
Amerlean facbwa Howww, 1 pmpw that t h m Alae Streat
I 4 stkksbythe AmPricaa hasamdlik8Imood EgSHarbor, Newjersey08228
of lsahg at hist one hmrian unit in the Taturn Gbaregic Wergeming Club Dirk b n e r
f~tionatthasndofmbaP.plaEinethe1/16 West Star Routa
a n d 1 / 1 8 ~ c m i h f i t l o n t o m h - T a m , New Maim 88267
f m ths 301118 m&rw only 14 Tk Special Air G a n i Omid Isby
p r o k W t t y o 0 b a v f n s a t ~ t m m ~ U n i t o n 32-25 88s-t
-
the f d f h t l o n sftsr: earnbat h3x(113) 3xIll91
+ 1l27 0.70. In mwtrfwn tha 1-1 attack by 40 JaeksMl H@., N w York 11388
Hldds Henchmen Bob Stephenson
N. Franklin
~ ~ ~ t % m r u r d ~ t s d q u a m a ~~~, s ~ n Ohio s
t h e P B M ~ t s ~ b l a t b Nonh s ~ American
~ ~ ~ T&~ O& ~P~.AT.O.I Doug Httltet
mcae in h v o r of the thw f-3 attack 2714WprrrssSrn
I n s u m m a r y , ~ ~ c s f i o P t e n M ~ o m , Oklahoma
p ~ a g r s a t M w W i a n ~ o m y d f o r w b y h i d warpman of A m w h
using a munlm of attacks at what inittany appar 3BOQ E. 3&h Suget
t o b o p o o r o d & ~ b y t o ~ e u a r t o f ~ W c k p Tulsa, Oklahoma
mdng at last two and prefmbly thrte attaelrs at
*odh v ~ m o f t h l s ~ ~ a n ~ 1The - @th
2 Martm
Box 1301
John M. S m g
a#adra and vPtiws ~ w o b h t h of s 13 and 1-3
attaeks.For thaw ~Slodpotfitoutthatfnthe
example &en t h m k a 0.30 probabW of fdum,
I ~ ~ w t s ~ o n W - 2 8 t o ~ u p t Pm1M h u Im
P W k N i o n a n d p m m t aGarmanPdvlraceifanof Box m2 GPO
ill- attacks fa& Hobart Twas

~~
824 Broad Avwrus
RbdseBstd New Jmay07657
PAGE 13 THE GENERAL
------------- --1
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Don't forget t o vote on what a r e the I


Contest No.30
t h r e e be8t a r t i c l e s of t h i s i s sue. ..
re- It's time for you strategists t o don the men- decision. Place the number "1" on the correct
cord your v o t e s w h e r e provided on the I tor's cap for the solution t o this Bmeball SStrstegy line o f the "My Strategy" Plan t o designate what
Contest Entry blank. I problem. While it is not necessary for you to be you think is the best possible strategy. Take
familiar with the game B ~ R b a l l Strategy, this another 20 seconds and atso state what y w r 2nd
1 contest poinis out one of many managerial and 3rd choices would be.
I decisions players have to make in this game that 10 W i n m

Subscriber Discount.. .
I can decide the outcome. This contest's j u d g ~will be made up of the
1 YOU are out on the field. You must make an managerial and coaching staff of the Avalon Hill
I instantaneous decision from among nine rational Baseball team, winners t w o years i n a row of: the
The Coupon shownbelow is for the bene- alternatives. The Situation: It is the 5th inning of Baltimore Unlimited Amateur Brrseball League.
fit of the f u l l - y e a r subscriber. A s soon I a scoreless tie. Your team is at bat; there are two T h e ten contestans who come closast to rnatch-
a s you have accumulated 4 such c m - I out and you have a slow runner on at first base; ing their decisions will be named the winners.
p o n s , 1 each f r o m t h i s and s u c c e e d i n g I your No. 8 hitter is coming to the plate and is A l l entrantg must name what they feel are the
issues, you a r e entitled to a $1.00 dis- followed by y o u r weak-hitting pitcher. On the three best articles i n this issue. This selection has
count a p p l i e d t o the purchase of any I m w n d for the opposition is their right-handed n o bearing on the c o n m t results but entries not
A v a l o n H i l l games, p a r t s , play-by-
mail equipment and the G e n e r a l .
Here's how it works-
,
I fast-ballet.
You have just 10 seconds t o make your
bearing this information will be voided. Contest
deadline is April 15, 1969
i
Each coupon i s w o r t h 25C. B u t o n e
coupon alone does not entitle you to a
2 5 t credit. You m u s t accumulate 4 1
My Strategy
dikerent before taking advant- 1 a ) O Surprine the opposition by ordering a drag 9) 0 Pinch h i t for No. 8 batter with a right
age of the $1.00 credit. W h e n you have I bunt handed power-hitter.
accumulated 4 coupons, then you clip ' Send the slow baserunner down on an Send i n a fast pinch runner for man at
them all together and send them in with
your o r d e r for a n Avalon Rill game.
I atternlatpd steal o f 2nd. h, first; flash h i t and run.

When ordering in this m a n n e r , you Order the batter t o swing away. i) 1Order batter to get h i t by a pitch.
I,. simply send us a check o r money-order I d ) n Flash the h i t and mn.
f o r $ 1 . 0 0 l e s s t h a n theusual r e t a i l v a l u e
i of the g a m e . I el Pinch h i t for No. 8 batter with a left-
1 =handed powwhiner. In t h e presence o f my conscience I swear that
end i n a fast pinch runner for man at I only took 30 seconds to make all my above
first base; order batter t o egg for a walk. strategic decisions. '

1 SAVE THIS COUPON


GOOD TOWARD THE PURCHASE
1 ) H e a d l i n e s of 3 Best Articles: ; Name

W
OF A L L AVALON HILL
PRODUCTS
1 Address

MAR-APRIL 1969
wm!Et%x~ 1I I1 c i t y
State
THE GENERAL PAGE 14

Dear S i r :
You have ~ n v l t e d commanPa on the
" s u r v e y of g a m e e l e m e n t s r e s u l t s "
which a p p e a r e d in the Nov. -Dac. i s s u e

Gentlemen: Dear S i r o r whatever,


- -
Gentlemen.
of "The General. "
I think that most of t h e s e e l e m e n t s
have t h e i r u s e s and should depend on
It may s u r p r i s e you--and then again t h g~a m e . We d o n ' t want e v e r y g a m e
In the r e c e n t G e n e r a 1 , J a n - ~ e b . 1 9 6 9 , I bought something named the "Battle like 1914 a s s o m e t i m e s it i s nice to
you had printed a l e t t e r f r o m a M a r k of the Bulge. " (Get the duft of tha l e r t e r i t may nor--to know t h a t out in the t r o p -
r e l a x with something l e s s demanding
Spencer. The l e t t e r concerned a Nation- now. ) The g a m e ia one-sided a n d t o i c a l r a i n f o r e ~ tof E a s t e r n Nigeria a
a n d t i m e consuming, but then a t other
a l Coalition Leagua. c o m p a r e i t to a s u p e r b g a m e a s c h e s s number of your g a m e s w e r e avidly e n -
joyed by a g r w p of m i s s i o n a x i t s . That timea when we r e d l y want to challenge
Whatwas s a i d In that l e t t e r concern- i r u t t e r m o c k e r y . The G e r m a n s havm something, a n d g e t s t u c k into it, then
ing IFW was u n t r u e . T o set the f a c t - l i t t l e chance and you a l e o make tha i s , until we r a t h e r h u r r i e d l y had to
1914 is a p p r e c i a t e d . I would be d i s -
s t r a i g h t , I F W had told S p e n c e r that IFW ridiculous Comparison of t h e g a m e to laave o u r countere deployed on t h e
appointed if a l l y o u r future g a m e s w e r e
was not joining h i s l e a g u e . T h i s was a c t u a l reality. The G e r m a n s have a g a m e b o a r d a a t t h e t i m e when the
of !he samecomplexability. Don'? m i s -
a m a j o r p o l ~ c ydecision. L e n Lakoika chance of one i n a million. Nigerians a n d B i r f r a s s deployed thew
understand m e . I like 1914 a n d can
a n d P h i l F r i t c h a r d , our V i c e - F r e s i d e n t I have a n excellent idea f o r a g a m e units in the m o s t r e a l i s t i c engagements
handle it (and eveo m o r e complicatione
and Editor r e a p a c t i v e l y had a l a o told that you could r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e . The of a l l : the r e a l thing! ( I ' m s t i l l t r y i n g
if r e q . ) with e a s e , but I find f o r "play-
M r . S p e n c e r that I F W w a s not going to s a m e could be "FIGHTWG TRUTH. " t o decide whether w e wet a bad example
ability" that Stalingrad is a better
participate in h i s league. T h e object would be to eliminate y o u r i n that we w e r e gaming a t E r , o r good
example in that w a w e r e gamisg a t w a r . ) l e v e l . I would play Stalingrad 4 t i m e s
opponent. One s i d e would have 1000
William Heyer I hope you can fied i t in your c o r p o - a s much a 6 1914 and twice a s much a s
A m e r l c a n t r o o p s a g a i n s t , say one
President r a t e h e a r t t o f o r g l v e u s f o r not isclud- Bulge. P r o b a b l y b e c a u s e i t e x e r t s l e s s
c r i p p l e d G e r m a n in a Wheel Chair
International F e d e r a t i o n
of Wargaming
As a history major, favorite a r e a - ing those g a m e s e t s in o u r 44-pound p r e e a u r e and I play w a r g a m e s to r e l a x
and f o r pltasure.
WW I1 - how did you g e t G e n e r a l evacuation luggage allowance. But we
McAuliffe to e n d o r s e t h i s rnongolold reasoned that they wouldbe replaceable. John E d w a r d s
item? A l a s - - a n d that i s the r e a s o n f o r t h i c 483 Chapel S t r e e t
The e h o r t h i s t o r y i n the r e a r of tho l e t t e r - - w e find that one of o u r i a v o r i ? e s Sch. Y a r r a 3141
Dear Sirs: i s not r e p l a c a a b l e . "Air E m p i r e " s e e m s
pamphlet i s too d r a m a t i c . What w a r e P i c . Australia
Taking into a c c o u n t t h e g r o a t s u c c e s s to have flown t h e coop. O r has i t been
y o u r s a u r c e d o c u m e n t r ? Didyou bother
you have had with Gettysburg, m i g h t I hijacked t o Havana? But I ' m wonder-
to g e t under the s u r f a c e of the h i s t o r y
suggest t h a t you come out with a pame ing if mayha t h e r e i e s ' t a set o r two D e a r Editor
of t h e b a t t l e ? No - if i t wounds good
on Bull Run, the Shenandoah Valley l e f t t h e r e , in your main, c o n t r o l tower, The way I l o o k a t it, one of the Cacred
u s e it i s your theory - c o r r e c t ?
campaign, the P e n i n s u l a campaign, which you could s e l l - - f o r one of your cow8 of t h e A H Company i s i t s hallowed
Do I sound like a mad c u s t o m e r ,
Shilob, Vicksburg, the W i l d e r n e s s , typical high-altitude p r i c e s , a s your philoeophy, which extends a l l t h e way
Chattanooga, o r Antietam. Although
TSK TSK. I play c h e s s , RISK a n d s o
on but n e v e r have played such an i d i o t ' s p r o s p e c t u s might say. f r o m game design t o a c c e p t a n c e of
your "Chancellersville" g a m e w a s n e t I n t h e i o t e r i m , I'll b e awaitlng y o u r a r t l c l e s f o r the G.- Now, don't
game.
acornplate s u c c e s s , I f e e l the tima i s r e p l y by c a r r i e r pigeon. get m e wrong, thiu i s not a l l bad. T h e r e
The d i r e c t i o n = a r e not p r e c i c e a n d
r i p e f o r another Civil War g a m e . i s one thing I a d m i r e iu your company,
quite s p r e a d out. P e o p l e , i c t h e r e {The Rev. 1 William E a r l Boys
About tho r e a l i e m level of "1914" and that i s the courage to s t i c k t o your
naught you can do r i g h t 7 38 T h i r t e e n t h Avenue
how do I g a t tbe b a r b e d w i r e out of m y guns, in the f a c e of r i d i c u l e a n d d e r i s i v e
living r o o m ? C o ~ u m b u s ,Ohio 43201
laughter; a n d even m o r e , y o u r consist-
J a m e s Young
ency, which h a s been pretty. -perfect up
Henry S. S c h a r p e n b e r g B 12 Wallace Avanue Sirs: until recently.
112 Brighton Way C o l u r d'alene, Idaho 83814 My t e r m of offlce a s t h e National Now, I d o n ' t warn to round l i k e s o u r
M e r r i c k . New Y o r k P r e s i d e n t of the Unlted W a r g a m e r s d
A m e r i c a h a s now d r a w n to a close.
- .
ErrDas o r anvthinci, . - but what A n did ao
me a few weeks ago r e a l l y set m e off.
A f t e r a l m o s t two v a a r s a s a l e a d e r of a I w r o t e a n a r t i c l e on S-Grad, which
w a r g a r n e r ' s club, I can eay that w a r - bacically w a s a h i s t o r i c a l l y a c c u r a t e
Dear S l r r : Gentlamen:
gaming h a s trllly advanced. I know tha
I a m a m a r r i e d twenty t h r a e y e a r A s I a m a naval w a r g a m e nut, I was OoB f o r both s i d e s i n t h e 1941-43 t i m e
"advantages" t o a m i l i t a n t club a s I s p a s of AH'S g a m e . It w a s r e j e c t e d .
old graduate student In anthropology v e r y disappointed in no mention bnlng
was the E m p e r o r of one, the I m p e r i a l Actually, I had expected a s much, 6ince
a t the Univeraity of Oklahoma, and a n made of them in your eurvey. l, m y -
Maximus Legions (IMLJ. A f t e r nine t h e a r t i c l e was quite long. But NO! It
avid f a n of the w a r g a m e s put o u t by s e l f , and the m e m b e r s of the c l u b I
months of w a r 6 a n d conflicts ( F e b r u a r y was r e j e c t e d b a c a u s e AH did not like
your company. belong to, f e e l that naval wargarnee a r e
to November, 1967), m y club changed m y s o u r c e s - - t h e S - G r a d II OoB f r o m
Of late, however, 1 haws noticed a n m o r e realistic than the o t h e r s . A s
i t s s t r u c t u r e , objective, and name to S t r a t e g y & T a c t i c s magazine. T h e i r
increasingly high level of complexity F l e t c h e r P r a t t f a n a t i c s we e a c h have
t h e United W a r g a m e r s of A m e r i c a . e x c u s e was that theydid not t r u s t come-
being introduced into y o u r g a m e s . In formidabla navies of f r o m 200 to s e a r -
I a m , h a w e v e r , v e r y proud of the UWA. thing that w a s not euitably documented
the c a s a of e i t h e r B l i t z k r i e g o r J u t l a n d l y 500 craft. We r a t h e r enjoyed Jutland The club, l i k e aome o t h e r s , i s one that b y t r u r t w o r t h y s o u r c e w - l i k e tho L i b r a r y
I f e e l that & i s p r o c e s s i s j a t i f i e d , but and want to s e e m o r e like it.
e e r v e s the m e m b e r s h i p . A y e a r ago, of C o n g r e s s I P e r h a p s AH i s not a w a r e
I have s o m e r e s e r v a t i o n * concernmug The c o m b a t r e s u l t s tabla in Blitz-
when I Wac in my f i r s t e l e c t e d t e r m of that i n m o s t likelihood. e v e r y b o o k uaed
1914. In my p r e s e n t position, a s a s t u - k r i e g is the b e s t , j u s t a s the s u r v e y
office a s the National P r e s i d e n t , t h e by S & T in compiling t h e i r OoB 1s sitting
dent, 1 c a a seldom spand m d r e than atated. The s t e p s y s t e m a6 in 1914
club was h a r d p r e s s e d to get anyone to r i g h t i n t h e L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s ! P e r -
two conaecutive evenings playing a s e e m s 10 d e p a r t f r o m the s t a n d a r d
e n t e r o u r t o u r n a m e n t s . Our f i r s t two haps what s e t m e off even m o r e waa
eingle game, and since m y f a v o r i t e table. The n o r m a l table i s one which t o u r n a m e n t s w a r e invitationals and a that i n t h e l a t e e t I s s u e of the G e n e r a l ,
opponent joitwd the Zambian A r m y , I does a s i t aaye, glves tha r e s u l t of total of seven pald e n t r a s t e w e r e r e - a n a r t i c l e on a v a r i a n t Afrika K o r p s was
am generally f o r c e d to depend upon my battles. Tha Step s y s t e m begins to give
ceiuad: the c a s h p r i e e c w e r e accordingly printed. I wonder if t h e staff might not
wife who, bslag l e s ~dedicated to t h i s result^ of 'cactice not engineered by the s m a l l . S o m e s u c c a s s was attainad. have wondered just a l i t t l e about t h e
f o r m of r e c r a a t i o n than I a m , g r e a t l y p l a y e r s themseluee. T h i s I f a e l i s not Voting i n o u r e l e c t i o n s was m o d e r a t a s o u r c e s u s e d by t h e a u t h o r of that a r t i -
p r e f e r s your l e s s iovolvad g a m e s . 1 d e s i r e d i n a g a m e in which wa decide a u no elmction was uncontested (two cle?
t h e r e f o r e hawe y e t to complete a eingle the t a c t i c s . Maybe t h i s iu a good idea candidates). The second s u c c e s s was T h i s i s only one example of A H ' S
game of 1914, although I have begun a t oo g a m e s of diviaion of b i g h t r lavel.
in tb:SNCLwhere we b e c a m e the L e a w e p r e s e n t m e s s - u p . h e o t h e r major m i s -
l e a s t six. and t h i ~l e a d s m a to make T h e r e l o w e r leva1 t a c t i c s couldba taken Champions ~ l u as tournament v i c t o r y take of i m p o r t a n c e w a s committed r e -
a e v e r a l observations a n d suggeetions up by the Combat Resulta Table. o v a r A g g r e e s o r Homeland f o r M i s s i s -
f o r any future garnee a t t h i s l e ~ l w h i c h I a m i n t h e proceea of makIng a ma- cently. In i s s u e 5 - 4 of t h e General t h e r e
sippi. Our m a i n t r o u b l e was that s o Wac a n S - G r a d a r t i c l e c a l l s d "All It
you m i g h t develop. trix type battln computer. The tan by many of t h e m a m b e r s w e r e f o r m e r
Land b a t t l t s of t h e pre-gunpowder ten s y s t e m 1 a m using should p r o v e a Takee i s Efficiemt Planning.. ', by a n .
era - In this line, I had i n m i n d a 8 good setup. I w i r h that AH would come
m e m b e r s of tha IML a n d w e r a unac-
customed to anylhing but war. Two
E m m e t Dowling. 1 wonder if that a r t i -
possibilities such well. known b a t t l e r out with s u c h a c o m p u t e r . I t would cle e v e r s t r u c k the e d i t o r s a s familirrr.
chapteru r a s i g n e d i n t h e e a r l y months It ought t o have, b e c a u s e Dowling copied
a s C r e c y o r Agincourt o r p e r h a p s even r e a l l y b e quite m o r e r e a l i s t i c thandice. a 6 they couldn't make the adjustment
Marathon, Cannae, o r Zama. Also, ~t w o d d eliminate a r g u m e n t e that n e a r l y w o r d f o r w o r d the whole thing
Naval battle8 of the sailing e r a - "You did not r o l l the die anough." My
t o peace.
F r o m a "warmongars" club, we have
f r o m i s s u e 3-2's "Moecow a t 3 to 1"
Along this lina, you could I n b o d w e Bystem, using v a r i o u s r a l r y s a n d flip- a r t i c l e . How that g r a b ya, w a r g a m e
hecome a friendly. d e m o c r a t i c , and lovers? !
s u c h b a t t l e s as T r d d g a r o r the Nile, flop c i r c u i t s , i s coating m e quite a sum.
competitive club. A new d e p a r t m e n t I f e e l i t ' s t l m e AH wised up a n d
in wbich wind(determ1ned by a throw of I know t h a t AH could maka a s i m i l a r has been c r e a t e d f o r g a m e d e s l g n e r e .
the die) would b e a m a j o r factor. In s y s t e m a t much l e s s c o s t to us h a p l a a e c r a c k e d down.
Fortunately, m y d u b i i e not a l m e in
l a t e r naval battles you m i g h t offer the w a r g a m e r s s t u c k w i t h uslng dice. Geoff K. Burkman
t h i s endeawlur a s the I n t e r n a t i o u l
R u s e o - J a p a n e s e bat%a of F sushirna. I a m s t i l l wondering why S t r a t e g y 8r 715 M y r t l a Avenue
F e d e r a t i o n of Wargaming i s working t o
a n d a a a follow up to Midway. you T a c t i c s c a l l a d the rule8 to Jutlarid s o T e r r a c e P a r k , Ohio 45174
the s a m e end--a club f o r w a r g a m e r s
m i g h t develop another " s u p e r " g a m e , poor. W e who played i t r a a l l y had M
d o n g Jutland lines. having t o do with - who want something out of gaming be- .
We're wiblng up, Ceoff. . & ~ ''#mow
t ar 3
the battle of Leyte Gulf.. ... problem
caught on f a s t 1
e v e o the b e g i n n e r s we taught s i d e s o r d e r s a n d r a d tape. I salute IFW
and a l l o t h e r clubs working to t h i s goal.
m 1" was three yem
h t far b ~ k ?
w,
Who can wrnember
h l w m h d m , eeverd wwle hew
P e t e r G. Hbmon SP/5 R i c h a r d R a s p e n t i M a r k A l b e r t Durndei srrd It0 d I y r Iaf#~aoM m l i m e r r t of som
2028 Delawara Lane HB 7/15 Arty. 3200 M c Gavock Pike to know prrsr the of this mine ere ~ s r
Norman, Oklahoma 73069 A P 0 San Francisco 96368 Donelson, T e n n e s s e e well md.
THE GENERAL
Cathey, you dingeling - Big R d really sDen& for
Germany, not USSR. The term Red probably
eonfused y w on this nmtter. In the w w d s of our
arti~ulada president Richard Nixton, "let mme
make one thing very dew," the tern blue and
red alway8 mfw to the winner and t h e l w r ,
rwpwdwly, in military talk lviolatidn of thls
pmmpt In Stdingrad has d w a p b w a muma of
BEITEA THAN A SERMON was TlME Magb ver/ shwtly. Sukribers, of coune, will mhmment d m In wrr dsigmm' den1 In
z i d publicity on our two new religious be among the first W be told of the exaet Bl-mkrlw therefore, G m t Blue Is Great Brltein,
Jwtmys of S t Paul and Y w of the Lord availability dab 81g Red is Germany. Cathey n a m the d m
'*BeyondKngd'as the ankle on 51, January country Tib'e with cities named Riboflavin, Ben
31, 1909 iswe mads, mptures the light-beartad IT'S NEVER TOO EARLY to p m o t e a good Nauara, El EvaWr among others. Cltlas In hts
splrit In whkh the Barnes were intended. ' T h e -
deal. Kmp them dam In mind August 23 and Balkan mnm are Griplp, Brackwum and
church ~ o a gthrough the whde life of Christ once 24, 1989 - that's when h e Chicaga "chapW' of Perhapsburg. Need we my more. ..
a year,"fimerel&s... "thIsmakesfafaswell the IFW will rwlsit b k e Genava, Wiwonsin, for CONTEST NO. H WINNERS w r e Wayne E.
mutmk for a game, through Advent into Christ- their 2nd annual wargame convention. Set your Salsim, Podand, O m ; Edward Vomacka,
mas, off again to Epiphany, around the corner m plans now; cmptete info forthroming whm final Valley Stream, N.Y.; Arthur Lasky, Flushing,
Holy Week and E m , and finally circle the arrangemeno for Montgomary's visit are corn- N.Y.; Joseph P. NMS, Saxonullle, Mass; John
b r d to Pentecost" In Journeys, in whiih St. PI&. Phillip, Houston, Taxae; Tom Henthorn, Flock-
Paul must reach R m to win, the picarm NEW SUBSCRIBERS who thirst for additional ford, Illinois; Ray M ~ o l e y , Albuquerque, N.
captim mads, "Ths winner can m i d e r h i m l f mws on the wbjm of gaming Bhould take nota Mex.; Paul Hutchins. Meedham, M=; Stewn,
beheadedv Well, a spoof h better d m no of the following: St John's U. MItitary S u m C t d l l l , N.Y.; and David F a r ~ t t ,St.Louis, Ma
pubticity a all, ispecially when you ~onslderhow Club H e w s l m , Grand Central and Utopia Fw y a i Laws, the U-Boat was f w n d to ba In
many millions of persons haw been elrinrhated in
t h e n a m of religion.
Pkwys, Jamaica, N.Y. 11432 - free to club quare W at 2W. You winners - congratulb
mernhs, 50 Eentr to ntm-mbars; Sparten tions; you're all getring gift certificates
Glad-# 682U John Avenue, N. Long k h , KUDOS to Robert W. Olson, Atlanta, Ga,for
HATS OFF to Editor Phil Pribchard, af tk 1211, 90805; Penadwr, 80x 280, RD No. 2, mn-away honors with the h t h c l e of the
I.F.W. monthly, far Justifying all type mmr In Sayre, Pa. 18WO; M) mtp per copy; Wawmer's Issue, The Reel Afrika Korpa Other authon of
s q u d up columns flusb laft and right What IllaWarmr, 6s Hi11 Lane, Southampton, Hamp writ Imlrrded John Rancourt, Orono, Malne for
thk mems Is a heekwa lot of extra work typing shire, England. SUI, EAD, $5/~r.; The K ~ ~ m a mChicken Bktn~mk, Prof. .I. E, Pwmelle, h d i o
out every p i e x of copy to give It that p r o w o n - W r , R. E. J o h m - Editor, aOU, Howard City, Cal., for The M m l e Faetw, Nmml Gold-
al appearam We also n o M one of their Dr'we, Bergenfield, NJ. 07621, frea to AHIKs wasser, New York City, for K?M Golobvm6r Test
edltorlals echojng comments found in wr PMIchp- memkro; The W w h , same ap lFW address - M i d , and Chris Meagher, Rochester, N.Y.
ophy for this month. Practically w i d of the abwe. We am sorry to announce that T .& far Surprise at Midwy. Gift c e r b c e r b fa'n L an
usual propaganda material, the IFW is a very Verlanm hlrs foldsd. M r way, gentlema
inforrnatrve newsletter, An incorpmtlon of The IN PANZERFAUH racmtly, an article by
Spartan and The Ambn*this monthly is actual1y Rodney Scott &&bed hi visit ta the axacutive
a pot pourri of new culled from t h e main offices of Avalon Hill. Baskally a fine, cmise
m h i c a l a m r6pfesented by their T u m n , Wlclq ?hew is one Scott statement It behoovas
Philadelphia, and Chi- editmial add- We us in defend Scott attscked Avalon Hill's pdky
auagast you write to their Editorial officw lo~a- of "discoureg1ng" visitors to w r ofti- and
ted at 6758 East 7th S m T'umon, Arizona plant The problem lim in lxk of personnel.
86711 for additional info on this top newsletter. There isn't the demand for full-time amployment
OUR THANX to Myron B r u m , Gary Gy- of glli&. It is not fair ta the other amploy= -
gax, Bill Hoyer, LOUZ d i , T m Stafford. Len the artf~tr~admen, p M m m n - to expact
Lakofka among athers who helped wwd: the thm ta break away from their duties to give
Avalon Hill booth durlng the annual Hobby gulded tours to vlslto~sdropping in unannwmced
Show. This muemion, held at Chioago's Sfier- I m d , this duty falls under the batlwkk of the
man Houm in Februq, acted es the showease marketing dlmor. And since he is &n a w y , It
for new produrn Here, the trade was i n a o d u d is folly to advertia a policy of ~ h u p e .
to Avalon Hill's W @ffwts, the a O / 8 & O lmd, this man gwn h$ weekly work-load
game, and the Anzio game, both wt for official around making h l ~ l maltable
f on the one day
(Tuesdays) that doors are w n g open for vi~itors.
CONVEMTtOlU TlME for the m t e m amhoot 3XVI LLE GIRL in the 'Tennessee" song
of tha IFW wlll be hetd July 5-6 in the Junior oftheaamenanaatsthestoryof awomanvvho
Ballroom of the U n M l t y of Arizona Student advertkd her wares and mtw M a d m r d l y end
Union in T u ~ o n ,Arixma. Luncheon and Dinner &use of It. Not so wrth Sara C. k k l o r ~ She's
.
a t t a m lot the Saturday and Sunday advertised her wares right smadc in the front
shwld so i d - when -ring witb C o r n window of her stare, The H O W Shop (above],
tion C h d m , Phl Pritcbard, 6756 E. 7th St., and is living happity aver after. Why nor? The
Tucson, Arizona 85711. A luncheon and dinner Hobby Shop, SO6 Clinch Avenue S.W., Knomille,
fee of only $2.00 and $2.60 lgswtrvrly must ba Tmn. 37902, Fs rapidly Waning Knomrtllr's
charged ahmd of time. If you kicked y o u d f for center of Avalm Hill activity. Glue her a EeH at
mmming out on the IFW's last cornrention, at lake
622-3414 and reserve your copy of C&O/B&O
Ceneve, here's your chance to avoid bungling it and ANZIO ra't now.
@n. R q k w rww, At leapt wriw fw crtmpleta
FROM THE W . C L comes news of a PBM
&ail% doubles tournament set to begin May 1, 1 m
Earn's Dwwnent stom - T m t o , m w &
bbmd Avalm Gum@ during t4% wlnmr simm PAUL CATHEY, 8aM1 MscArthur Rd, Phila., and run a full 2 ywm A $1 entry fm entltlm
( h k h ts August to July In CmedsI wim thk Pa. 18118, mt an interestiw way-out article you to taam matches In gamao of yaur choice -
entided 'Naming T h m Nameless Cities (Bli7z- ma& uup to be made by the sponsoring wgani-
rnagnificmt display In tha s ~ a t i w Wrtment
Thank be m our new m e d i m dktrlbum, krieg]." While our dditorhl sbff was not werly zation, Further datalls are avallaMe from W.C.L..
C m d a n Medmdi881~,3077 Banrknst St, Tor fond of publishing it in toto, m y we p& along ..
879 Sunvisw St., Eugene, O r w 97402. d ~ d -
onto 19, &m& for w'neen'w M s d W 8 ~ . a cwpte of amusing dd-bits from sam First - line: Aprll 16, 1969.

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