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THE GENERAL PAGE 2

;he ~vA{i)N "'HILt m~~)]l~lb


... a losing venture published bi-momMy
pretty close to the middle of January,
March, May, July, September. and Novem-
II~A~va~l~o~n~H~i~ll~P~h~il~o~s~o~p~h~y~~P~a~r~t~2~9~11
ber. The General is published by The Avalon In this installment of the Avalon Hill Philos· the Designer's Notes column from GAME OE·
Hill Company almost solely for the cultural ophy we turn 'the podium over to one of our SIGN NO.3. Games you see mentioned in the
edification of the serious game aficionado. It oldest, iJnd certainly highest paid, "irregular" article that are unfiJmiliar to you (such as
helps sell our merchandise, too. employees. Jim Dunnigan has been working for KURSK. GRUNT, Tac 14, BARBAROSSA, etc)
Articles from wbscribers are considered us since 1966, primarily designing games (includ- were published by Simulations.
for publfcation at the whim and fancy of ing JUTLAND, 1914, PANZERBLITZ AND
members of our erudite editorial staff and ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR 11). He has not been
idle in other areas. His ("incorrigible" as he pUIS One may wonder. "Why all this innovation?"'.
company basebalf team. To merit considera-
if) curiosiry has led him to poke inlO just iJbout Is it innovation for the sake of innovation? To a
tion, artldes must be typewrirren double- certain extent, yes. A good game should be
spaced and not exceed 1,()()() words. Ac- every facer of the game business, often to our
benefit for he has not been stingy with his iJdvice simple enough to be played and understood
companying examples imd diagrams must be easily. This means that you can't have too much
drawn in black or red ink. Payment for and observations.
"dirt" in it. "Dirt" being defined as the necessary
occepted articles is made according to the Jim is also the presidenr of the SimUlations mechanics (read rules) to make the game go. Too
dictates of the voting subscribers. Publications Corporation, iJ New York firm which much dirt and there isn't much energy or
A flJlI.yPaf .<JJh.<rrir>rinn en,,,, $4..QfI (nVf!f' he founded. Simulations. in addition 10 doing allention left for what the game is trying 10 "''1_
seas subscribers add $6.00 to cover airmiJil.) considerable contract work for Avalon Hill and How does the game say what it's trying to say?
other game publishers, also publishes Strategy & By allowing the players to "play" with it. But
BiJck issues cost $1.00 each: out·of·stock
Tactics magazine (among others). S&T is one of you don't get much playing done if it takes ali
issues are Vol. 1, No's. 1,2,3, 4, 6; Vol. 3, the oldest, and certainly the most successful,
No.1; Vol. 4. No.4. your energy and attention just to get the play·
imitator of the General. In fact. they have done thing going. Try to cover too much in one game
To facilitate correspondence, we suggest the GeneriJl one better by publishing games right and you cover nothing. What this all boils down
that all envelopes to Avalon Hi" be marked in the magazine along with the history articfes, to is the fact that you should build into the game
in the lower left-hiJnd corner iJS lollows: etc., that comprise the rest of the magazine. Jim only the most important elements of the sitlla·
Purchases of The General: Subscription also is the editor of S& T ('natch). tion you are studying. Thus the game on the
Dept. - Gertrude Zombro. Jim CiJme to write this installment of the AH Franco-Prussiao war should emphasize the fact
Purchases of games, play-by-miJil kits, and Philosophy by way of a request. on our part. for that two armies blundered into each other for
game parts: Order Dept. - Christy Shaw. permission to re-print an article from Game most of the "campaign." A series of errors and
Questions concerning play: Resean:h & Design (another SimUlation's product) for the chance engagements, so to speak. This was one of
Design Dept. - Randy Reed. General. About the same time Jim saw the the more important aspects of the campaign on a
July·August issue of the General and, from our strategic level. The armies blundered in a fashion
Articles for publiciition: Editor·in-Chief.
vantage point, went through the ceiling at a few familiar to armies before the use of air reconnais-
Requests for Brochures: Advertising Dept. of the things said in the last installment of the
Requests for PiJrts Lists: Parts Dept. sance. Without this one element you car'l't really
Avalon Hill Philosophy. We stand corrected on have a game that realistically r(f(;reates the cam-
Letters to the Editor Editor·in-Chief. some of the things siJid, partly due to ignorance, paign. But this does not apply to all pre·air
partly due 10 crossed wires. WhiJt with all the r(f(;onnaissance campaigns. The Leipzig game, for
CHANGING YOUR ADDRESS' information ffowing between Baltimore and New example, show> that the "cemral position" was
York it's suprising that worse occurences don't
You'",. IPt to I.t "' '"'''''' .' "os' f"",
........ ," adv.""._ a. ""'" '0 Ie, u, ~oo", t~. happen.
more important. Particularly in view of Napo-
leon's superior use of what reconnaissance then
,;p coo. 01 bO'~ yOu' Old''''' """,odd,.., Specifically. the foilowing errors in faet oc- available to him. This, however. was unique to
curred. FL YING FORTRESS was withdrawn campaigns conducted by Napoleon. The American
Typesettmg. ColonIal Compos11lon from the Luftwaffe design competition before we Civil War had no Napoleon. Most campaigns were
Printing: Monarch Office Services, Inc. reached a decision on which game 10 publish. of the "blunder" type.
This was done because Jim had reached the Can you see it now? Concentrate on the most
COO";",,, '971 To. Av.10~ H;II COmpoov
a.IHmo". M.,y"~' P,;n'od ;n USA conclusion (with which we stiff don't entirely important aspectls) of the situation. Do it well,
agree) that air games do not have sufficient To do it well you often have to create new ways
appeal. He iJlso wanted to re-work FL YING of doing it. Looking at things this way. game·
COVER STORY FORTRESS but didn't have the time.
At this point Simulations had just completed
PANZERBLITZ and hiJd to beg off participating
simulations have gone through three distinct
phases so far. When this type of game was first
developed in the mid-'50's the emphasis was on
WHO REALLY STARTED WORLD WAR II? in the production of our Spring '71 game re-creation of modern "semi-strategic" (divisionail
(LUFTWAFFE). Our interpretation of the results level simulations. With few exceptions this "rut"
The streets of our country are in turmoil. of the 12 O'CLOCK HIGH/FL YING FORTRESS continued right up until 1914. The sole excep·
The universities are filled wilh students rebelling tests were also a bit off. This is understandable 8S tions being the naval games (MIDWAY and
and rioting. Communists are seeking 10 destroy Jim uses a computer and some other mathe- BISMARCK) which. of course, required a dif-
our country. Yes, the republic is in danger from matical mumbo·jumbo in interpreting his test ferent approach. JUTLAND and 1914 were hints
within and without. We nced law and order. results and we're not always sure. after he's given of another solution, in my mind an incorrect one.
Without it our nation cannot survive. us a report who's on first. Bigger does not mean better. ANZID proved this.
The scoreboard. as we understand it now. is ANZIO was supposed to be the "compromise"
If YOll think that's a typical Spiro Agnew
supposed to read like this; using the popUlarity of game between the unwieldiness of 1914 (although
commentary on what's happening today, be pre- PANZERBLITZ (which scored highest on the it's strong historical "realism" was considered.
pared for a shock: it's an excerpt from a latest available survey) as 100, LUFTWAFFE with some validity, to be a positive feature) and
campaign speech made in 1932 by one A. Hitler, scores 76.1, FLYING FORTRESS 72. I and 12 the popular "playable" simplicity of BATTLE OF
who went on to promise. "elect us and we O'CLOCK HIGH (Luftwaffe's predecessor) 66.9. THE BULGE, STALINGRAD and D-DAY. It
shall restor~ law and order. We shall by law and So in this case we were both right and wrong. didn't work. ANZIO will no longer be available
order be respectcd among the nations of the Also, it was pointed out to us that the seeming once the current inventory is sold. JUTLAND
world." inaccuracy in FL YING FORTRESS pertaining to will also be dropped, as will the other naval
On the strength of this promise. it is easy to the use of B·29's. P·51H's and P·80's was clearly games. through no fault of their own, of course.
see why the infamous Third Reich came into marked as a 'What if?" scenario Order of Battle. Naval games simply don't sell. GUADAlCANAl
being with Hitler ascending as the sole master of However, on the earliest (unpublished) prototypes will also go. This was a game that went out of its
of the game this WiJS not made explicit. Again we way to ignore those elements of the campaign
Gennany.
were right and wrong. Now that the truth has which were most important lmainly naval and
The rise of thc Third Reich is the subiect of
been served we will turn the soap box over to air!. Earlier games, for all their crudeness, were at
Jim. least simple. Often they did not zero in on the
(conrinued page 3) The bUlk of this article is an abridgement of critical aspects of the situation they covered. But
PAGE 3 THE GENERAL
they were simple enough lor most playel'"s to KURSK or TAC 14. A large minority of game JUTLAND, If you are willing to spend the time
handle. Al'Id their simplicity allowed what players lbut still a minority, we KNOW thaI) on it you can research backgrouncls for some
elements of the campaign that were $hown to be desire more comple>e "muscle" games las we call game situations in a hundred hoors or less,
IKplored. An outstanding example of lhis is the them), . culTent eumple is WAR IN THE depending on your previous e>eperience with the
initi.l force inbalance and later weaker side build EAST. ~ut for all iu comple>eity it still concen· subtee;1 and material related to it. Once your data
up in BATILE OF THE BULGE and STALIN· trates on those aspects of the ClImpaign that were is ISRITlbled yoo have to "play" with it, This is
GRAD. O-DAY also has it to II tef"tain extent, most important. Ther-e is no "dirt" for the sake what is usually construed of as "designing." This
except thaI the anacker was initially weaker. The of "din.." At the same time the game is struc· is also where you should convert the salient
fim "wINe" of games lending with JUTLAND) tured so that as the more comp!e>e YefSions are points of yoor researeh into game mechanics. Or,
showed too many people that a much bettll'r job played the game merely gains in realism ....ithout rathe..-, into the important "aspects" of the game.
could be done. The reasoos why Avalon Hill did changing into a "diff~ent" game. All is not said in the game's rnec:hanics. Such
nol $Clive the problem and why they did do whet All the foregoing was a roundabout way of things as the seale and scope of the game, not,
they did are the subject of a future article. Such driving home the point that, for a game to do strictly speaking, mechanics, must be made to
matte", don', really conrern us here. The 1914 """at it's supposed to do, it must use unique rules reflect the "points" you wish to emphasize in the
"solution" was less a solution than it was 8 probe and othe..- design features in order to get iu game. This is important. I have mentioned before
in the dif'ection of i1lternatives.. Out 01 the message across. This presupposes, of course, a the importance of knowing what yoo want to say
1914/ANZIO debacle came the realization that fairly set idea about ....hat the "ideal" game in the game, and then trying to say it, Anyone
each game must be a unique problem with unique should be. Stated briefly, my idea of the "ideal" who tries to create a true "simulation" of an
$Olutions. Thus came the "third" wave, mainly game is one that is fairly ea$y to pley IKURSK event is chasing after the "Holy Greil." There are
the Test Series and 5&1 games (including and 1940 are about right, I feell and place major tOO many limitations inherent in the "board
PANZERBLITZj, Each game attempted to treat emphasis on the most important aspects of the game" format. Take a game which did try to do
its own problems with unique solutions. At campaign (at least as far as the designer is the impossible, 1914. Very realistic in its way,
present this seems to be the "solution." At least concerned]. These two games fit the bill, I feel, but how close did it REALLY come to "simula·
until something better comes down the pike. Even though KURSK and 1940 use essentially tion?" What it gained in "realism" (not necessar·
Which will probably happen. the same play mechanics. This, of course, is nOi ily the same as "simulation") was not equal to
Taking these games as the current "state of the as contradictory as it may appear. Both games what was lost in playability. And, as had been
art" they can be easily understood by simply covered campaigns having both motorized and $Hid many times before, if a 101 of people cannol
applying the "uniquenl!S$" principle to whatev~ non·motorized units, with air power, The seale play the game all that you have put into it is lost
game yoo are doing. This does not mean that was about the $Hrne, each he>e in 1940 equalled to a great number of people, As ye sow, so shall
every game must be as simple as, $Hy GRUNT, 13 kms, in KURSK 16 kms (identical to the ye reap.
1914 seale). Each game used two day moves. Therefore, e>ecept for games ....ith preny much
There WERE differences, however. The French identical situatiOns, yoo ....ill have to develop
army had a psychological problem the Russian fairly unique elements for each diff~ent game.
army had already gotten owr, The G~man army Again, KURSK and 1940 are about as close as
was basically the same. In 1940 the Germans you're going to come in the way of "identical"
haIIl! the edge, in KURSK the Russians do. 1940 gam&S. And even then there are many very
Avalon Uilrs br.llnd new game - ORIGINS OF significant differences. The question, now, is
emphasizes the German need to destroy the
WORLD WAR II. Extensively researched, French army as an effective force. In KURSK e>eactly how' does one build in these "unique
ORIGINS is probably the most authentic historie-- they must do the same, although because only elements?" Let's take 1940 and KURSK as
al documentation of the pre-war yean e"a" 4O'Jl, of the eastern front forces are in\IQ1ved in examples lthis way we e>eamine two games in
published, That's because over 100 dirre~nt KURSK (compared to 90% in 1940) an absolute about the amount of time it takes to do one
works were consulted in the preparation of this decision is not possible, or at least difficult to game), Of course, one of the "unique features"
brilliant expose of who really started World War obtain. More difficult than in 1940. of bOlh 1940 and KURSK was the "man for
II. The question nO\Y arises, how does one iSOlate man" superiority of the Germans over their
And if you think Gennany started the war, the "key'"' problems in a situation so that they enemies, Part of this could be seen in the number
wrong again, France, Britain, Russia, and the may be incorporeted into a game. This is .... here of weapons each side's units had. The Germans
United Stales could have stopped Germany be- Ihe skills normally listed under the job classifica· were simply more heavily armed. This advantage
tion "Historian" come into play, This point has tends to snowball. Ta.::tiC$ is important, German
fore the shooting began. Why didn't they?
probably been belabored much too often, It is tactics was often superior. Sut this was not the
Playing ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR II one true, though, you must be able to do your chief German advantage. The main German
finds out. The game re-creates the political homewoli<. A "bad" game, in this respect, will advantage lay in all the "lillie" advantages they
ballkfield as it existed between 1935 and 1940. not look bad taken by itself. But compare it to a had. Deciding just how large their "advantage"
It is a 2 to 5 player game with each player taking game on the $Hme subject done with allention to was has to be done in conjunction with Combat
the part of the diplomats of the major powers, the historical particulars and the "non, ReSUlts Table construction, The CRT will show,
anned with the same diplomatic muscle of his researched" game usually comes out a decidedly in practice, what effect the German advantage
~al life courllerpart. second best. A few eKampl~ of this eK;st. has, There are two approaches to the CRT
The game-set includes five scenarios of varying BARBAROSSA and STALlNGRAD both cover problem, bolh of which are usually combined
the same situation, Yet few people wilt insist that before yoo are finished. The first method is to
political objectives. For discussion, here, we refer
STALINGRAD is a beller game, Of course, take the "standard" casualty rates for the period
to the HISTORICAL GAME in which S partici- BARBAROSSA has the advantage of belief play (compiled, usually, from official sources, such as
pants represent the nation:s of Great Britain, mechanics, But these were developed BECAUSE staff officer's manuals for the modern period).
Fr.llnce, Germany, Russia and the United States. of ....hat research of the siluation revealed. An· This sometimes works the first time around, but
A typial game takes six turns which last approxi- other e>eample is BATTLE OF THE BULGE and not usually, Moreoften you have to go to the
mately one hour. Object is to gain understandings BASTOGNE. In this case BULGE has the better secood method. This entails compiling casualty
with certain nations and control over others. To play mechanics lor simpler, at least). Still, figures for the battle itself. In France 1940 the
do so, p1ayen pair orr in errorts 3t "pea~ful BASTOGNE is clearly superior as an accurate banle was, compared to KURSK, somewhat less
cotxistence," When such cooper:ltion fails, or one re-creation of the campaign. bloody. More uniU INCte destroyed due to isola-
player diSCr.llcdully reneges on his deal. such tion than to violent combat. In KURSK OUt and
Learning how to do hislorical research is
conmcts must be resolv~. Pby..n than consult oot butchery was more the rule. The CRT's, of
another project unto iUllllf. It's not really all that
course, had a game that changes considerably
the Diplomatic Conmct Table which is slanted III complicated, although it becomes easier to do
from situation to siruation, Even within the same
favor of the player woo nas excrdsed the best and mon! productive the 10rl9tr yoo're at it. This
game, as was the case with KURSK. AU this, of
political Ur:llegy, certainly does not disqualify amateurs. but you've
course, is just scratching the surface. In future
got 10 stan somewhere, I started late, not getting columns we will eKplore many game elemenu in
ORIGINS will retail for 58,98 in stor~, and into military history and "scierlCE!" (there's Quite
will be available S,-ptcmb..-r 25th on. Beginning more detail. For now, you ought to reflect on
a lot of the technical Sluff 10 be mastered) until I what was said this time. Reflection, as much as
October I. 197 I we will aCl'Cpt mail-orders. BUT was lB, and in the army, I didn't really get
- it will cost you $1,00 more throUgil the mails persistent physical effort, is responsible for bring·
around to DOING anything with all that acquired ing a game from one's mind to reality,
than at the retail level. To order direct, send trivia until I was 22 years old, when I wrote the
$8.98 plus $ 1.00 for handling - tot~1 of S9,98 - ARDENNES OFFENSIVE monograph (which GAME DESIGN is available from Simulations.
to "Order Department," The Avalon Hill Com- also got me the job 01 designing JUTLAND). 34 East 23rd St., NY 10010. A one year, six
pany, 4517 Harford Road, Baltimore, Md. 21214. Still. it took some 500 hours of research to do issue, subscription is three dollars,
THE GENERAL PAGE 4

Greater Luftwaffe Realism


by Lou Zocchi

Many fans have wrinen 10 me asking if wril~ 10 him INfore he complelely flipS QUI 01:
LU{lwaffe could be played in monthly intervals 2076 Comm. Sq. Box Jj85, APO Soil Fralldsco
inslead of quarterly. In ~ply 10 those leiters [ 96276.
would like 10 say thaI both of you will be happy
to learn that it is possible. But before divulging TISgl. Lou Zoahi. a IOllg'lime od''OCrlle of boule
how this can be done, I'd like 10 pass on :it bit of gama as a form of adult "IilXiltloll, has receh"td
wi§dom leam~ al my mother's knee. or some mo" lhall his sha" of chidu roll«mlng Ihe
olher joint! Increased realism does not nCce$S3rily childishlless of playillg gomes. uMdD/ly for a
increasc playability. As a matter of rilct. too IMng (which Ihe royalties of Luftwaffe will
much realism can make a very interesting historic- «rlalllly proYide him wilh),
al silu:uion, ullerl)' unplayable.
A close study of the Campaign briefing booklet For mony yean his OWIl family called him
will show you exactly when each eombatins U.S. "immalure." due 10 Iheir lock of Ulrderslalldillg.
and German unit becomes available for combat. He "CfIlled 10 our "porter Ihe day the situatioll
It also shows when the American units change Qlme to a head: "1 WIlJ sittillg III my balhlub
equipment. r do nol recommend playina monthly listelling 10 the wUDI sllide remarks oboul my
intervals be<:aUlle it causes the &lime to last immalurity. I made some "buttal which my wife
between 20 and 30 houf5. but wtK:!' using look Sllch offense 01 that she come righl In Qlld
Luflwarre as D tje.in for a re-crealion of WWlI, sank all my boars."
lime is no longer a oonsideration since pmes of Now Ihe good Sarge is 011 an alrplalle kick. WOIl't
this dimension take days or weeks to play out. be as easy ShOOlilll doWIl his plilllts, eh LoreNe
If you would like 10 try monthly attack old dtfU. ?
inte"'als, he~ is what muSI be done. Order two
mon: selS of U.S. counlers and one more xl of
Gennan counters. Each American flghler group
will take up both sides of one flghler unit
counler. You can do the same for the bomber
unils if you want 10 assume that bombers are
Luftwaffe- a Battle of Wits...
by DenRis Milbert
able to withSland more punishment lhan fighters.
If each counter is l(l represent roughly the same Onl.' of the keys in finding a winning strategy aircraft effectiveness increases until a certain
number of planes as every olher counter. use the of a particular game, lies in the examination of combat level is reached; thcreafter, effecliveness
noles on unit strengths from the Campaign that gaml."S Combat Results Table (CRT). When remains fairly constant no mailer how high a
briefing booklet as your guide. an ecslatic wargamer tears tlte plastic off his oombat level is reached. This means thaI 20
Each full strenglhened German playing piece newly acquired copy of Luftwaffe, he fiRds a factors of fighters will kill on the averagc twice as
will represent two gnlppen of fighters instead of CRT that covers the entire front of the inside many aircraft as 10 factors. While this doesn't
one full Geschwader. The German replacement box. Fortllnately, due 10 AH emphasis on play- seem exactly earth shaking, it allows us to
rate is oorrespondingly paired down SO that 3 ability, thc CRT is extremely easy to lISC. But eJ[amine the idea of massing monstrOlls nllln-
aircraft factories make Olle full stren8th fighter even so, a wargamer may shy away from a full hers of fighters before attacking. Because, no
piece (two gruppen) each month. scale analysis of all those little Ilumbers. I immediate benefit is gained from massing fighters.
American replacClllCnt factors for bombers and performl.'d thl.' analysis since I was curious to see However, each aircraft has an Optimum Com·
fighters should be calculated from the aetllal if a "magic" combat strength existed, where one bat Level (OCL). If aircraft are l.'mployed at this
Illlmber of each type of aircraft lost dllring WWII. could employ his FW-190's and obtain a maxi· level or above, the plane will have a maximllm
Since your fighter counters now represent 75 mum kill rail.'. The results are presented here for Kill Rate (KR). If YOllr loyal fighters are used
planes instl.'ad of the 150 thcy represcnted in the your consideration. below the OCL, they will suffer a dcterioration in
reglliation game, you can multiply the number of Procedll": Basicany this involved computing l>crfonnance. Lastly, I recomputed the KR for
fighter replacement factors by 2. Getting the Ihe kill rate onl.' could expect on the average for rtghlers atlacking superior types such as a P-47
proper number of bomber replacement factors each aircraft at each combat le\'e1. As you see, and a FW-190. This gives KR (-I) and KR (·2)
depends largely upon whal strength each bombl.'f this could get quite tedious (indeed it was), but for one or two columns being subtracted on the
COUlller represents. an interesling result was derived, In all cases CRT.
When playing monthly allacks, a separate
bomber must be senl to knock 01,11 each specific German Aircrafl
targl.'l complex within each cily. In Ihe regulation
game, it is assumed Ihal all the largets wilhin a NAME FW-I90 ME-262 ME-I09 ME-\63 ME·IIO JU-88 ME-410 1~219 DE-520
specific city are deslroyed when Ihe bomber
passes over il. In the monlhly version, a city such
as Bertin with four oompleJ[es would have to be
OCL 7 9 8
liE- 62
12 8
TA-;';'
9 , ·'11
3 ,
KR 0.050 0.57 0.45 0.27 0.45 0.38 0.65 0.50 0.\7
allacked by 4 separate bomber counters to KR (-I) 0.36 0.39 0.31 gm, 0.3\ 0.28 0.45 0.33 0.10
destroy each of the oomp1eJ[cs ""ithin it. A-20, KR (-2) 0.24 0.26 0.21 gm, 0.21 0.18 0.29 0.22 0.07
A-26, & 8-25'5 will fire like 8-26'5.
One of the reasons I Iulve become known as a AlllC'Iican Aircrafl
man outstanding in his field is because I designed
Luftwaffe. The other reason is, that is ""here NAME P-39 8-26 P-38 8-11 P40 SPITFIRE
A.H. found me. I was trying to pUI OUI a fire in
my balhroom at the time. Forturullely. it never
reached the house!
OCL 2 2 , 8-24
II
P-51
8
P-47
7
KR 0.08 0.05 0.30 0.25 0.40 0.55
KR(-I) 0 gm, 0.20 gm, 0.31 0.36
AH NOTE: Apparently il tfJ!! "~h his hOuN. KR (-2) 0 gm, 0.13 ~, 0.21 0.24
Zocrhl is onrtnlly IMIII In a box . .. ful fru 10
PAGE 5 THE GENERAL
Discussion: Because of the fact that (he KR is ftghters to survive fighter attack. As has been In closing, J wish to say that Luftwaffe is the
constant for a wide range of values, an extremely shown, a stack of 24 factors can be quite hard to best example of a battle of wits I have ever seen.
powerful result can be derived that was not reduce. especially if fighters aren't available. In While German strategy is somewhat mechanistic,
immediately foreseen. Luftwaffe behaves in a order for the formation to remain intact for as he must try to foresee American plans. Converse-
manner that mathematicians describe as a differ- long as possible, you should attack ;1 high density ly, the Ami that can keep the German off
ential game. The equations are beyond the scope target area. And none of these are near the coast, balance through raids. minimum bomber air time,
of this article and, it is interesting to note, at least in the Basic Game. Here the Oschersleben and use of formations can insure that the German
Luftwaffe only approximates the situation [hat targets hold promise. This demonstrates why the panzers will not give much opposition to a D-Day
the equations describe exactly. The concept can Italian front remains secondary for air ballies. invasion.
best be illustrated by an example. While fighter airbases are sparse, so are targets Dennis Milbert
Assume 16 factors of FW- [90's jump 3 forma- and a few roving killer groups (al OCL + reserve) 2568 S. Patton Ct.
tion of 24 B-24 factors. Because the KR of the will sow havoc among the bombers. Denver, Colo. 80219
FW·190 is 0.50. we know it will kill 8 factors on
lIs lirsl tum. The B·24 KR is 0.25 so they will
gel 6 factors on their first turn. Subtracting we
have 10 FW-190's and 16 B-24's for the second
turn. The 10 FW·19Q's get 58-24's and the 16
Bologna-Anzio Mini-Game #4
a-.24's get 4 FW-I9{l's. Now the new levels are 6
FW-I9{l's and II B24's. If the attack is pressed by Tom Smiley ~~;o
for another turn, we will have 011 the average one
FW-I90 factor and eight B-24 factors at the end The only problem with Anzio is that nobody
Ii '
of 4 turns of attack. ever finiShes it. Face-to-face it takes too much
Once this technique is grasped, the outcome time. By mail it takes too mu.ch postage. This is
for an air battle can be automatically determined.
You can tell, before you commit your fighters.
the probable outcome and how long it will take.
11 will be instructive to do another example.
If 26 FW-190's altack 24 B-24's, the new levels
will be: 20 fighters and 11 bombers for the
sad because one of its main attractions is then
missed. Everyone plays the fi~t invasion, and the
Diadem offensive; but few people get to the
offensive on Bologna, and the Po valley and this
part is just as exciting as the drive on Rome:
The <;amc begins on the September 1 turn, and
"'\"
.:-.:::-- --. ~ , ,
;,."."
~.,
second turn, and 17 fighters and one bomber goes through April IV.
factor for the third turn. Remember, these are Victory Conditioflj· The Allies must pass
average results and statistical deviations will through all cities except Piacenza and Brescia,
occur. and isolate Genova. The German must prevent
If can be seen from the examples that when the Allied player f,-om accomplishing his.
sizable formations are encountered, the German The Gcnnans sets up first on or behind the
can use every fighter he can get. Not because Gothic Line. As shown, it nlnS a wavy course
larger numbers increase combat effectiveness, but from E-21 to V-22.
to insure enough fighters will survive bomber
defensive ftre. As was demonstrated, a difference On the Allied Order of Appearance, the 92nd
of 10 factors means a quick victory or a bad and Brazilian divisions are already on board and division, which was in the Middle East, is brought
defeat. German players, ALWAYS break off are not brought on again. The British 78th on Oct. I, the other units arrive as shown.
combat if you are below the OeL and the ALLIED UNITS AT START - Sept I
formation consists of more Ihan a few factors.
An examination of Basic Game strategies will
0- 0- e
illustrate all the concepts shown above. 4-&-12 )_~_11

"'"
)-4.12
~"
I8l- El-
&-&-12
0-
. 1_1_12 2·1·1:
bJ-
2.1·12
G
1_1·!2
"" "'" "'"
2·1·12 1·1.12 1.1·12
German Strategy, You should go for dose
escort fighters Of any) and bombers as soon as
possible. Drop your tanks when you do this,
because you must force the Amis to do the same.
I2ll
1-1.12 "'-
1.1_12
""" ...
1·1·12
<®5
].4-12
lCE;J~
]·4-12
,0-
2·1_12 1-1-8
e
~"12
@
&-5·12
110-
"""
5.~.11 ~"11
~
2·1·12

aJ 1m I~ 1m "'" "" ""


Then break off combat and refuel. And don't
forget to maximize distance from bombers when
4.&-11 4-&-12 4·&-12
@
4-&-12
0-
2·)·11
m-
]"·12
Id-
1-1_11 0'
,.z·\2
doing this, air base attacks can get inconvenient.
Shonly the enemy fighters must turn back,
GERMAN UNITS AT START - Sept I
leaving yOll free to jump the main formation. If
the Americans have a substantial number of BOLOGNA GENOVA VICENZA LASPECIA

[i] ~
secondary and diversionary strikes, assign a roving
g.
"" ",.
""
killer grollp or two, at OCl or belter, to mop up
what you can. Needless to say, German strategy ].4.. !2 2·]-8 4.. 12 0-1.4 ]_5.8
is to maximize combat after the "pre-emptive" ANYWHERE
strike.

America/j Strategy. This can best be described


as exercising "psychological judo" Being where
"'- "'" III '"" l<&
4·1·t2 4.. 12 ,... ]·5_12
@
]·5.8
0!
)".12
M-
1~·8
e;"
2·4·8
0.
1.4·8
100
1-3-8
""
2·]·8
your opponent isn't will insure victory. An
intelligent use of delayed strikes at widely sepa-
rated targets will be an asset. Unfortunately, YOll
<&
1·2-8
10.
)·2-8
"""
1_2-8
00
1·2·8
j§;
2.2.12
!~
1·1.12
~
1·2·8
""' "'"
1.2-8 1·2-8 iO X9
have two conflicting means of gaining success.
YOli must either, one, minimize bomber air time, Allies have ports at Salerno, Naples, Amio. and 1st Armored Infantry Brigade and the Nembo
or, two, maximize combat levels of your the Rome and Salerno invasion areas. They also division to plaee in the line anywhere.
bombe~. The first can be achieved by altacking
have one counter accumulated. Hopefully you will enjoy the challenge of the
nearby targets, like Amsterdam. In the more Allies have 10 repL factors (5 steps) accumu- Fall offensive against the Gothic line. and remem-
advanced games regions in North Germany hold lated, the Germans none. ber, the Objective is Bologna.
amazing promise, especially whcn coupled with Italian Units may be brought into play. The Tom Smiley
Baltic Sea raids. The second idea is achieved by German may station the MR and SM units in 204 So. Bradford
using large bomber formations and close escort either Genova or LaSpecia. The Allies have the Tampa. Fla. 33609
THE GENERAL PAGE 6
~me people move thIS unit 10 fhe South ",ith
the 21st Division, !.;lying that a northern advance
by this unit is 11 sheer waste. [t is my opinion

Afrika that this unit's relatively poor mobility handicaps


it in the desert. wllile the capture of Bengazi and
the destroction of 2/2sg is rather imporla'lt.
Pavia, Savena, Brescia - K5 These units are in

Korps position for a rapid advance along the ~d.


Savena can assist in 21251 isolation neltt tum.
Bologna - K3 This unit oompletes the isola·
fion of Bengazi.

Thesis You may notice that the plact'ment of the


Italians around Bengazi differs slightly from oon-
vention. It is designed to discourage those irritat.
ing 1-5 allacks by 2/2sg from G2 which, if
by Tom Hazlell succeSSful, lie down three Italian units for two
elttrJ turns. If it attacks and gcts an AB2. relreat
him back through Bengasi to 12. Neltt move
BoIogI13 holds and Savena goes 10 H3. It's now
surrounded by two units instead of 3 and has 00
hope of escape.
April II - This move dt'pends somewhat on
the British lurn. If 2/Zsr, is dead. Savena and
AXIS FORCES: Though the Axis army does Bo[ogna can join the rest of the Italians in
not consist of as many pieces as the Allied Army, advancing down the road as far as possible. If the
it nearly always has more factors on board. The 21st division can join Ariete in :1 4-1 attack. the
armored units can be concentrated into a very other Italians will prevent isolation and the
TOIII Ha://'tl Is fire ",imler o[ Ihis momh s powerful force which can smash any Allied escarpment line could fall a turn early. A safer
Golden Pen Award [or his "AfrikD Korps Thtsis.·· position. Besides being stronger, the Gennan units move which is just as good is 10 send the armor
'tprin/ed by MrmJssion from Panzer[ausl MagII- are much faster than either the Italians or the 10 a southern escarpment square such as 1"22 Of
tine. This (ITt/de was roU!d MsI of 70 by ,e..dr~ Allies. Their speed. enables them to penetJ1l,te 1"26, while 21/3 moves to U29. Rommel ctll1
of Pan:erfaU5I, /24 lIIa""n Strut, SaY". Ptmul. deep behind the British line$, forcing them to either go with the 21st Division or wait a tum to
/8840. surrender \1151 amounts of territory without a assisl the 15th. Some people will argue that this
fight. Because of their many abilities, German move leaves tht' center open for the Allies to
units should be s.lVcd when possible. even at the send a unit to menace your supply lines. It is my
cost of losing Italians. contention that the British will need every factor
The Italian units, though slow and weak, are they have for defcnsc. At least fOllr factors llIuSt
valuable as garrison and sook-<lff forces. They can be positioned between M21 and 1'28 to stop the
add needed facton to a crocial attack. Heavy German armor. More units must be placed further
Although neglected by many who prefer more Italian losses makes formalion of a line very to the East to oontain the recce unit. Any spare
complex games, Afrika Karps must nnk as one difficult, thus expo$ing the German armor to ]·l.{i's can't go anywhere anyway. The Italians
of Ihe finest produced by Avalon Hill. The possible encirclement. Since the Axis Army can't blod:; the coast road. If the British want to send
simplicity of the rules, while nOI delrnctiog from really afford any 1o$SCS, it should avoid battles at out a unit. Ihey will have to use a 2-2-6. Not too
the complex slrdlegy, elimi.mtes the necemly for less than 5·1 eltcept where necessary, as at many Allied oommanders are goina 10 do that at
constantly leafing through lhe rule book 50 Tobruch. this point.
common with the morc recent games. Thus, the AXIS A7TACK: To define the German May I - The 15th Division should head for
players may concenlrate on strategy instead of problcm is very simple: drive the British into Mechili to join the Italians, who this turn move
lhe rules. Tobruch and take it or Aleltandria by November. to block the central desert against British raids.
Some rules do need to be cleared up, however, Failure to do so will probably result in an Allied The armor should continue eastward. R29 is a
Allhough the movement from E.g direclly to break-<lut since the Germans will be hard·pressed good Siquare. The recce unit should also move
FI9 has been staled to be an illegal maneuver 10 defend both areas. As the Germans you have east as far as possible. If the British aren't paying
many limes. some people stiU try it. Don'( lei neither the men nor the supplies to stop and slua allention, il can take Alexandria on June L
them succeed. it out with the British for every position, so you May] Hune I - The May I move should have
The most controversial rulings deal wilh Ihe musl tak.e each line by out-maneuverina the forced the British back 10 {he Tobroch heighls. It
capture of supply unils, with the example on Allies, living him an option or withdrawina or will probably take you a tum to clean up several
pase IS of the Bailie Manual leading the way. becoming surrounded. A position taken without a delaying units; then you mllst drive the enemy
The basis for disputing this ruling is that the fight should be considered a greater victory than off the heights and into the fortress. If you can
captured supply unit must move through an a D Elim at )·1 against the same place. The get a good shot at 2/3, take it. Otherwise pick
enemy zone of control. Still, Avalon Hill must following April I move is Siubjected to analysis the weakest square and smash it. An advance
Juve been aware of that problem when they put and suggested with the above in mind: after combat should force the defenders to
the rule in. They have further shod::ed conserva- Trenta - W) The garrisoning of the homebase retreal into Tobruch. If the British defense gives
tive playen by slatiTl& recently that supplie$ is necessary if you want to reeei\'e supplies and you strong unils on the "1" row. look. closely.
captured as the ~ull of an automatic \'ictory reinforcements. You can probably hit a nank and advance.
may be used to sustain that attack. Going one 21/3 - NI9 This unit prevents the British CUlling off part of the Tobruch defen.'lC.
step farther. they $;Iy that isolated units may from blocking the 019 pass and is ready to move If any British units managed to get behind
allack at automatic victory odds if the attack either north or south with the rest of the your lines, they did it by going to the south. It
allows them to capture a supply to sustain the division. will lake thcm several turns to get in a menacing
anack. Also, isolilted units may attack if a Sllpply 21/5 - Nl7 and 21/104 - Nl6 These are in position. You shouldn't have to worry about
unit can move ncxt to the attacking unit. For position either to strike at the escarpment line or them until you have occupied the Tobroch
example. British units on XI2 and VIO isolate all to move to the soulhern escarpment. They also Heights. ¥ou can kill thclll now by forming a line
German units to the east if the only A:<is supply proleet: Supply - 017. the width of Ihe board for two IUrns.
is at W3. However. the supply may move up to Rommel - 015 From h('re Rommel can easily During the first few months keep alert for the
V9 and sustain the attack of "isolated" units on reach any friendly unit. possibility of sneakina: into Tobroch. Supposedly
U9 apinst VIO. All of these rulings have been Anete - HJ I hIS urnt ISOlates ISengast. (It can "''''VCt''''l 1'1~~.,,~ ...Ill quite oflen leave an
confirmed by A.H. reach this point by moving from w9 to S9). Openilll. If you have a chance for a 2-1 or I_I
PAGE 7 THE GENERAL
~inSl only 1 or 3 faclOI'S. take II. especially in May I Slaying in the S3me defenscs another
To summarize, while the threat of isolalion is
PBM where (he TeSUlu :lTe more: favorabk to the nol as strong as il once wa.s, il still exists. Avoid tum would be disastrous. In Ihe west Ihe I Sth
allacker. Such an attack isn', as cosily as:l Ihree billies whenever possible, especially at Ie. Ihan Div_ and the llalians could leI an automalic
month ~~ ag:J.insl Brilish armor and wuld win Sol. Either Tobruch or Tripoli must fall by victory on the escarpment line and CUI off most
the fortress without a Joss. November. Pick one and stay with it. of the anny from Tobrueh. In Ihe south, where
Assuming your opponent hasn', made any ALLIED fYJRCl::S Like the Gennans in Ihe 21st Division has stretched the lines very
mi<l~kl"', ,II... <iI,,,"ion m,,1f1 IW' Ihi." Th.. Rrili<h thin, and automatic .i<;lu,y might be pos«Jble
D-Day, the AlI,es have a lot of pieces but lew of
annOI. entrenched in TobolCh, is corllaincd by them are worth much. The 1-1-12'5 are useful in also. The lime has therefore come to withdr:aw to
the llaliani.. You've just eliminated the British disrupting All.is supply lines since they are the Ihe heights around Tobruch. Of course, 1-1-.6'
unils behind your lines by isolation, you've gOI only ones that can malch lhe German speed. bUl should be len in the W<-Slern passes to make the
some $llpplies and you're re:ldy to move. The two of them can't pose a real threat. The few llalians wasIl' time aod supplies 10 eliminate
question is: where? The answer depends 011 strong units on tile board the first summer them. Units should also be scnl 10 llro{<-et the
British losses. If they have all three armored lmilS usually sit in Tobruch, leaving l-I-6'~ and maybe J34 pass. A careful watch definilely should be
in Tobrueh and a cOllple 2·2-6'5 available for a few 2-2.0'5 to contain the Gennans. Abollt all kept on the 21s1 Division. If it is ncar the
reinforcements, losses would be 100 greal in al\ they can do is try 10 delay the Germans and Egyptian border, scnd some units out to :sea to
atlempt 10 take thl' fortress. For onc thing. IWO disrupt their wpply lines. Though an upensive prolect home base.
llalians or an annorcd unit would be needed 10 tactic, a double TOW of 1-1-6'5 will slop Ihe When the retl'l'al is made into Tobruch itsclf.
$03k-oIT for a 3-1. Attacks at less than 3-1 against strongesl ~rman drives. since Ihe back row can'l leave a 1·1-6 outside, if possible, 10 ro~ the
alai'll' ll<lrri'iOn should be reserved for momenlS be attacked in strenglh. The British can'l mass Germans to waste another supply before gelling a
of desperntion. Under th~ circulTlStancCS head enough factots for an anack until Ihey receive clean shot at the Tobruch defenders. If the
for Alex:andria, leavilll Italians on H24 and H26 their November rcinforeemenlS. Even then they Germans atlack Tob",ch, kup it rt'inforcro by
to k~p the touchy Tobruch prriwn whert it should try to conserve every piece since they sea. With lhe rest of your army, move west from
belongs. Supplies shouldn't be 100 much of a ha>'e a long wait for their nexl reinforcements. Alexandria and threaten to surround the altack-
problem at this point sirn:e you've only made two Nol until he is permilted 10 use the substilute illl: foree. Send a unil soulh 10 keep pressure on
or three attacks. They will become a problem. counters lale in Ihe game can the Allied com- the supply lines.
however, so slill avoid combat whenever possible. mander even dream of winning a pitched bailie Sooner or laler the drive On AICll.andria will
When you do attack. space Ihe auack a couple of with Ihe Germans. stan. When il does, fall back as slowly as possible
turn aparl so you give yourself a chance to gel BRITISH DEFl::NSJ::: If through some mirncle without being surrounded. As you retreat. leave
the supply back and mov~ it back towards the lhe Allies can hold on to Alexandria and Tobruch small units behind. The Germans will have to
action. Keep units on the el,st-wesl escarpment to until November, they have practically won the waste either supplies or time and men 10 kill
threaten both sides. Recce units in the desert can lIame. The November reinforcements will, al the them. When you can afford 10 counter-attack.
threaten to cut off the Allies, especially if very least, halt the All.is advance and sJtould be don't. Your exira Iroops will causc Ihe Germans
supported by armor. Automatic victory is our able to retake some territory. Anyhow, Ihey more headaches when added to doubled defense
most potent weapon. Usilll it you may be able to should enable the Allies to hold lheir ground lines or senl weslw:lrd 10 raid his supplies.. An
break through a weak SPOI and isolate the entire unlil March when the 3 to I replaccment r:atio auack my kill an Axis unit bUI the exposed
All~d Army. Try not to let the British slip auackers will be smashed by a powerful German
will wear the Axis into Ihe ground. If the
behind your lines.. If :lOme do. you will have to Germans do capture one or Ihe objectIVes, the counter-atlack.. Only when the posilion is des-
form a line across the board to isolate them. A situation is not hopeless, but il is tougher, perate should you consider the possib,lity of
good British commander will be able to keep a especially with the new rule interprctations. Still_ attacking. unless of courne, the German is wilh-
force intaci and fonn a line anchored on while isolating a unit probably won't kill it, the out supply. If you Cln't safely ICI a 3-1, a 1-2 is
Ruweisat or Alam HaIfa that you can't outflank. Germans must waste supplies and lime to free it. the best type of attack. I'm speaking of a
Providing you have the supplies, and you should Also, they can't use ClptUred supply units to situation wherein a strong German force is driving
have, a couple of altacks on the massed 1-1-6's sustain an automatic victory if Ihere are no on a smaller Allied force. Of coune, if you
should complete the disintegtlltion of the enemy supply units to caplure. Keep all supplies in outnumber the Axis and can launch a sustained
and you can walk inlO Alell.andria. You then have Tobruch and Alexandria. If they sneak inlo one offensive, go ahead.
plenty of time to take Tobrueh. The British will of those places, Ihe game is over anyway. You When thosc inlprcssive November rcinforc<:--
run o"t of ,nen long before you do. unless you must make him fight for every gain. ments arrive, don'l get ex<;iled and Slart attacking
roll nothing but 2's. April I - Move all 1-1-6's out 10 sca. Don'l everything in sight. Thosc reinfor<;ernents are all
If, in July. Ihe Allies have lost 2/3 and a leave one at Alell.andria, If it is Ihreatencd you you gel. except for a few troops in May, for 18
couple of 2-2-.6's you probably want to go after can move a force back in plenty of lime. Bring in turns. This' force has to hold off a reinforced
Tobruk. Hit the slrongest unit at least 3-1 and a supply al Tobruch and scnd it east. II will Gennan Army unlil Augusl.
saak-off with an Italian. Make sure there are garrison the Homebase in May. Many line-ups, If TobTlKh is guarded againsl counleraltacks
enough Italians in the 3·1 so you can lose them differing only slightly, have been suaested for by IWO Ilali:lns while the rest of lhe Gennans
,n an uchange_ You don't have 'iO many units the escarpment. Mine is: 22 Gds, move east, try to move some men OUI of Ihe fon

, that you can afford to lose an extra one through


carelessness. AI'iO. make sure thaI British forces in
Egypt can't 5tIcak through and Clpture a supply
G 18,213 -Hl7, 9A/20 -K 18, 7/3IMtr. -L19. Many
people attack oul with 2/25«- Oflen, I prefer nOI
to, since if the ~ltack is unsuccessful. 12 Italian
for a 1-3 on the Italians so you have 10 relreat
outside the fOri. If you Cln shake some men
100!ie this far behind lhe Axis lines. the Genn:ms
or isolate your army. After Ihree or four attacks factors will face the escarpment line on May I may have to retreal from Egypt. If a 1-3 isn't
Ihe British will have only 1-1-6's in Tobruch, If inSlead of 8. That could be Ihe difference IJ'05Sible, Iry a 1-2 10 push the Ilalians back.
you have 18 factors left, you're in. If you have belween a S-I and a 4-1 on a 1-1-6 on Ihe In conclusion. Afrika Korps is a game of
less than 18 lefl, suggeSI a game of Bismllrck. The escarpmcnt. If successful the attack will delay maneuver, more so than any Olher Avalon Hill
turn you're ~re to capture Tobruch, move your two Italian units for an extra turn, but Ihey game. Because of the small ~rmies and unu~al
homeba:se garrison. If you then think you're aren't badly needed on May II ~nyw;,y, The supply rules. one misplaced unil can snatch
slrons enough 10 take A1ell.an(lria, charge! In Ihe threat of lh<- I Sth Division is enough to force a defeat from Ihe jaws of victory.
far more likely event Ihat yOl,r army has been wilhdrawal from the escarpment. I would like 10 hear from anyone who disa-
shaltered by the siege, relall., bllild up supplies April II the 1·1-6'5 should be deployed to grecs wilh my opinions which I've advanced in
and reinforcements, allack just often enough to the south to block any Germans on the soulhern this article. If I don't hear from anyone, I'll
keep tile enemy off balance, and, along aboul escarpments. The weSlern escarpment lines should assume that everyone thinks my strategy is
February, head' for Alexandria. Al Ihis poinl even be held another turn. If the 21 st Division is out perfect. (fhat should get some letters.)
Mussolini would have a 10uSh lime losing. of range and only 8 Italian faclOrs are in the
arca, you can replace the 2-2-.6·s with 1-1-.6's. The
In Iheir hinls on str:alcgy Avalon Hill mentIOns 2-2-6's are Ihen freed for olher duties.. If you'rc
something about a prrison at Bengazi. This idea feeling adventuresome you can e>'en send one Tom Hallell
is ridiculous! A unil wasled therc will be dearly west. However, it would be beller 10 send a 6 Echo Point
missed al the scene of action. Wheeling, W, Va. 16003.
1-1.0.
THE GENERAL PAGE 8

Airborne Panzerblitz
ISI Lt. Shelby L Stanton, USA

This ar'liocJ,e is included for thost' who would like transport in "Iarge planes.'· For a number of The Panzer regimenl, according 10 General
10 ex]Xrimenl Wilh air assauJI (parachulilll and reasons this project was dissolved. not the least Schmalz, would have been oomposed of four
air larldina) in Panzerbllt:. but who cannot find being Ihe facl thai inadequate gasoline supplies "Panther" tank ballalions. [ tempered this
any practical juslification in real history for it. were available for the required training. scheme wilh one reflecting (in my opinion) I
While it is relalively well known Ihat the cHIc Howewr, though the manuscript is very general more probable organiz~lion as of lale 1944; that
Genna" Air Force Parachute-Armore<! Division and perhaps 100 optimistic, General Schmalz did is. consisting of two "Panther" battalions. one
"Hermann G<lring" was transierred to the include two vital pieces of information; a landing "Tiger I" battalion, and one "Tiger 11" banalion.
Ostfront in mid-1944, it is also common knowl- schedule and proposed organization chan. Unfor- Since General Schmalz specifically stated that the
edge that Ihis unit was "airborne" in name only. tunately the chart was very simplified, but oon- parachute artillery regiment would be completely
The lack of any historical documentation would sultation with that priceless reference, TM-E replaced with rocket projectors. I copied a rocket
make any late-war air assault seem not only 3Q-4S I, Handbook on GermalJ MiiNary Forces, projector regiment right out ofTM·E JQ-4Sl. All
unrealistic but totally absurd. provided a fairly detailed analysis of whal might battalion organi~.ations and so forth were derived
Being a paratrooper myself and determined to have been. from this source as well and rencet accurately
"jump" into Situation 13, I began researching the My organization chart has been listed in German TOE calc"lations.
famed "Ilerrnann GOring" Division for visible "counter format" so one can readily assemble il Now that I have explained the organizalion of
evidence to back up my plans. An almost with his Panzerblitz pieces (though the Nebel- such a division let us study its proposed air
unknown SOUfce suddenly made the whole enter- werfer counlers would have to be composed as assault procedure. According to Gener.tl Schmalz,
prise nol merely feasible but very pl1lctical as they are not available in the game). the first wave was the only actual one to
well. The Department of Army Historical Division For those interested in the basis for my chart I parachute in, as the following five waves would
MS No. 8-628, An Airborne Panzer Corps. by must admit making modifications 10 GellC:ral be airlanded. The first wave would include all
Gen. Lt. Schmalz (unclassified Jan. 1954) was Schmalz' plan, but I confined Ihese to reasonable airborne qualified personnel and equipment.
uncovered al Fort Benning. In this brief sludy interpretations of his orpnizational vieW:l. He Turning to my orpniz.alion chart allow all rine.
GellC:ntl Schmal:t explained lhat the Fallschirm- dl"Sired an airborne division composed of six submachinqun, mortar, and engineer units an
Panter Division "Hermann GOring" was in fact regiments; three airborne rifle, one flak, one airborne capability. The Division and Rifle regi-
planned as a force capable of conducti", an air ar1iUery (to be comprised entirely of rocket ment CP$ may also jump. However. no members
a!l¥ault. Accordingly its members were 10 be projectors), and one armored. My chan clearly of the Engineer Banalion or the Panzer-Grenadier
Intined as pafllchulists and the division's huV)' shows the rifle regimental orpniz.ations of ItIm: ballalions should lake part in the fint (para-
equipment (Ianks, artillery, elc.) prepared for rifle and one Panzer..grenadier ballalions each. chute) wave.
.,
PUJiNED ORGANIZAttoll OF nu: PARi.Cf\Un; PANZER DIVI~ION "I1EP.KAl'Rl OORlNG" UTE 19hh:

D1v1aloA Headquarters 1 1 2

Reoonna1asance Co. 1 J 1 J
Engineer an J J
Al1t1-Tank Iln 1 1 1 1 1

Mortar en J J

Para Panz. r Rgt 2 1 2 1 2 20 9 9


,
Para Rocket. Projector Rgt.

Para .u Igt
J
J
1 1

1
16

7
1

1 , ,
8

Para R1fie Hit {J per Div} 1 2 1 1 1 J J

Para RUle Bn {J per R Rgt


1)
Para PsGR &l (1 per R Rgt.)
2
1 2

1 1
1

1
9
9
, 10

8
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8
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PAGE 9 THE GENERAL
The Second Wave (airlanded) would then in-
clude tile Pallzer-Grcnadicr battalions of the rifle
regiments. oTgilnic transpOrt 10 those woo landed
as needed. and Ihe remainder of Division Head·
Stalingrad Breakthrough
quarters itself. by Lawrence R. Valencourt

The Third Wave (airl:lIlded) includes the P:lnzer Have you ever tried to play Stalil\iJ1ld using I feel this method of combat results is more
Relliment. The Fourth Wave (airlanded) is com- the Blitzkrieg or Guadalcanal attrition tables realistic bei:ausc at first the Germans make deep
prised of lhe Anti-ain:rart regiment. While the instead of the usual combat results table? By penetrations but the RusMirn replacement rate
Fifth Wave hirlanded) is composed of the Rocket using this type combat results table the German st[ll pb.ys a major role in the outcome. Who has
Pro~ctor rCl\iment. armor is able to explOit its brealr:lhrou&hs after a ever reached the outskirts of Moscow by Decem-
bank. This type of CR usc also pl3ees a grealer ber, 1941 except against a remarkably inferior
Finally. the Iils! and Sixth Wave (airlanded) burden on the Russian defenses.. In this game the Russian commander: the rcal Germans did.
contains anyone not already brought in to in- Russian needs a defense in depth - tough to do Give this system a try and see how it changes
clude the Engin«r battalion, de. with only 34 corps. However. careful play by the initial battle but not necessarily the war.
both players gives a more realistic came. You can
Fi&ure I,
Thoulh you would have to OCliously aller the usc a YBM sheet to keep track of your Io$SlC$.
OO~ of the war 10 pl:.ly out Ihe hypothetical
Russian replacements ean stili be aCC\lmulated bUI
situation this scheme would demand, il coukl to be restored to strelllth the weak unit must
I Ilave hap~ned! 11 is late 1944, the wflwaffc'
~ts ha\"C' conquered Ihe skies over the Ostfront.
return to the supply city. Also Russian uniu can
reach a point where they ha,·e no attack capa-

I and the "Hermann Gorin.," for months buildina


up and training in reserve, is now airlifttd on an
bility but still have defense factors remainillJ.. As
in the normal game defense factot'S are what are
air assault mlsaon apinst the Russian forces.. counted as replacements.
Panzerblitz Situation No. 13 (Airborne) is about For the GennOlll a new method of attack must
to begin! be used. At least three coordinated aUacb are
necessary to insure I penetration. Two anacks by
infantry and armor on either $Ide of I weaker
unit being anacked at say 5.... 1 will pennit the
armor in the center attlllck to advance deeper A- 3to 7 I to 3
lsi Ll. Shelby L Stanton. USA 3 to I
after the baltle - lhe nanking attacks would B - 18 to 6
200 N. Dougherty Ave. C - 16 to 3 5 to I
Ft. Bragg. North Carolina 28307 hopefully eliminate the enemy tones of control
D-18to 6 3 to I
from the immediate batlleftcld. See illustration.
E _ 4 to 14 , to 3

Figure 2:

I
ResulU'
J
roll results:
A 3 A-I. back 2
B 3 Q.l. lxaek. 2 A+ I
roll last,
C
o 2 A-I.o-I (Bad
results)

- E 5

C 6
A-2. back. 2
Now roll Battle C:
A-4,back4 A+3
(elim)


." ,9
.•-= Had lxaule 0 gone favorably we
could have adYolnlX'd to Squares X_

Thus you sec. there are all kinds of advances


.. . . . likltli to Spot 88's with Half·trad<s?" possible for the Gennan.
THE GENERAL PAGE 10

,
lin
'" - ~
\1 r!
0
7
I I
~

,
• -i
\~j

• ~-
.'

Does it always ~m Ihat your opponent in any average shoutd be 74-12" 62. For the Russian Wt'
game you piny has personally bought control of have: 112-11·101. The partial loss factor for
the New York. Stock. Exchange? Why is it tlut
you can neycr roll a one and your friend 011 lhe the Germans is liven by the actual losses divided
other side of the board can never shoot a two, by the 3verJge losses = 74/62 • \ .19. For the
espet;ially when the bailie is 3·] doubled? We arc
Russians. Ihis parlial loss factor
all victims of bad luck alone time or another. I is = 112/101 = 1.11. To gel the LUCK FACTOR
have developed a primitive system that will allow
you to figure oul how lucky you've been and (finally), we divide the G<'rman partial luck factor
which will suggest remedies for your luck (if your by the Russian p,artial luck faclor. This results in
opponent will agree). Maybe just once, you'll be the Luck FacIO'" 1.19/1.11 = /.07
able to lelt your friend who has laken 10
bemoaning his luck every time he loses to you
that in reality, you had the worse luck.. Now what docs all of this good stuff mean
The Combat Results Table has been so anyway, I can htar you ask. Vcry simply this; if
thoroughly analyzed that J will simply extract either ~ide's lo>scs have been exactly a~ they
probabilities of certain results occurring from il. now in should have, given average luck, then the partial
For example, at &1 odds, 80% of the lime, you loss factor for that $ide should be 1.0tl The
Odds Actual Garne N Wei&hted Avenge muller the PLF. the belt..r your luck has b«n. If
1-6 G-2 2 0.4-1.6 each side has had equally bad (or good) luck,
1-5 No~ then the luck (actor should be 1.00. By puning
1-4 2-1 3 5-5 !.S·l.S your partial luck (actor on top in the division for
1-3 5-8 13 1-3 9.1·3.9 the luck faclOr, we find Ihat again, Ihe smaller
1·2 1-1-2-2 6 2·2·3-3 l.2·1. 2-1.8-1. 8
I-I. 2-1 None the luck coeFficient, the better your luck has
been. From this discussion, you can see that my
3-1 2-1-3 6 4-3-3 2.4-1.8-1.8 luck has (typically) becn not the bc~t. but !ltill
4-1 6-2.(1 8 5.J-2 4.0-2.4-1.6 reasonably close to average, so I really don't have
5-1 3-2 5 6-4 ~2
too ItliIny grounds for griping..
6-1 2.(1 2 8-2 1.6-0.4

Now we SUblMlcl the aClual game results from Now that we GIn actU3l1y ~ how lucky we've
Ihe weighled average l\"SlJlts. As a crude way of differences, but I'll leave that to other anicles. At been, whal good does aU this do us (besid~ beilll
COltllaring resulls of luck, I assign facton to Ihe 1-6 we Sl."e that the Gernt.:ln h..s lost 0.4 more able to impress your opponenl the next time he
results of the ballies. LeI an A-.:lim at 1-2 or A-elims than if he had had average Iud::, so we compbins about his misfortunes in bailie)? One
worse be equivalent to 4 factors; let a German credit the Wehrmacht with 4 times 0.4 • 1.6 possibility would be to return the factors in
exchange take 10 factors and a Russian exchange factors. At 3-1 we see that the German s1lOUld imbalance as we rigured out tarlicr as ropl;lce'
7; a Russian O-.:Iim takes 7 factors. Admittedly, have had 0.4 more D-.:lirns (2.8 more Russian nlllnts at certain time intervals. This would not
this system ignores the difference between AB-2 factors off the board), and the German sltould negate the territOrial gains taken through skillcxl
and DB-2 at various odds, but this is a crude have had 1.2 fewer exchan&eS thus returning 12 generalship or good fortune, but it would seO'e to
approximation to reality only. Pcrltaps a point German facton and 8.4 Russian factors. PUlling minimize Ihe whimsjc;jl effects of Lady Fortu~.
system could include some of the more sublle all these results in table form aNO:S: I slill feel thaI Ihe main advant. of rtgllring out
Ihe Luck Factor is just the sake of knowin, ho....
Difference well Dame Fortune has bestOwed her gifts on
Odd' (Actual Weighted) German factors Russian facton you. I rc.. lize that the use of factors in r,&uring
out a Luck Factor is not the best of all systems
1-' -0.4-0.4 Return 1.6
and a different method has to t~ used for a game
1-4 0.5-{-0.5) Remove 2.0
1-3 -4.1-(4.1) Return 16.4 like BIIIg... Anyone having suggestions for good 01
1·2 -.2-(-.2)-."2-.2 No change Remove I 2 bad is wclcome to write me at:
3-1 -.4-{-.8)-1.2 Return 12.0 Return 5.6
4-1 2-(-.4)-(-1.6) Remove 16 Return 3.8
S-I No change No change No change
6-1 .4-{-.4) No change Return 2.8
I S Ludlow Manor
TOTAL FACTOR CHANGE. Return 12.0 Relurn 11.0 E.ast Norwalk. Conn. 068S5
PAGE 11 THE GENERAL

French
Strategy -
1914
by Louis J. Jerkich

When making stratcJ.!C or taclical plans.. one


mu~ ask as the French Genenl Foch did: "What
is lhe esscn~ of the problem?" In 1914 the
problem which both players face is how 10 obtain
u many victory points as possible. thus winning Renault fT·I'
both the campaJI.ll and the W1lr. The Alhe$ have
an initial 66 poin15 and the Genn;ans have 30. MS-23 ."., German forces bl=tween the Rhine and Moscl1oe
How can the AllIeS prevent the Germans from MS-24 (2).1-4 will bl= forced to pull back to prevenl bl=ifll
pining points and how can they gain some for MS-25 (2}-1-4 outflanked. The German player will also bl=
themselves? MS-26 (2).1-4.6-10-3 forced to draw from his right wing in an effort to
The key 10 Ihis problem lies in !'ruining MS-21 (2).1-4.6-0-2 halt the French.
....IUilbk tl'rT1lin and acquirina the only 1.....0 MS-29 (2}-1-4
~rman..tJeld squares of any poinl value - Melt While the French drive for the Rhim:. their \eft
and Strassburg. Allhou,h the Alhes obtain 40 wing must halt the German adnnc:r. All French
points for taking Melt, since the Germans in tum forces from Lille to MS-16 are used for this
~ 10. the real value of Melt to the French is At first glance this plan may bring back echoes purpose. These can be reinforced by the 6-9-3's
60 points. Likewise, the real value of Stnssburg of the French Plan 11. Most of the French foTCe$ in Verdun. Tou!. and Epinal. The French lefl
is 30 points. The conclusion is obvious: Men: and are again amaSSJed on the German border while wing can form a barrier stretching from Antwerp
Str.nsburx are very much worth the effort to take the Belgium frontier seems relatlvcly unprotected. Ihrough Brussels and Otarleroi to Givet. and then
them. However. the execution of Plan VI-L docs not along the southern rough terrain squares to
The Allied slnltegy, therefore. should not only disregard the German strategy as Plan 11 did. I Longwy in twO turns. Later. the line can be
provide for defensive countermeasures to the will now proceed to show how the French strengthened by the arrival of the BEF and a few
German plan. but should also provide for a strong offensive should be conducted and what the "A" Corps from the right if absolutely necessary.
offensive on the French part. Both of these benefits of Plan VI-l are in relation to the
considerations must be renected in the initial various German strategies. For the Germans to halt the French right. they
deployment on the mobiliz.1tion chart. will probably need to take enough units away
The following initial deployment. which I call from the Belgian front that they will be SUS-
French Plan VI-l. provides the basis for the In conducting the offensive. the French player eeptable to a French counteroffensive there. If
French strategy. must try to gain ground at tile fastest rate the French reach the Meuse. their front will be
possible. The forst of Metz should be attacked shorter and luore defenSible. A decisive victory
FRENCH PLAN VI-L: immediately 011 turn one and the ridge south of will be within their grasp.
Men should be secured or regained (if the Supposing that the Germans build up behind
(Deployment squares are indicated by either
Germans have taken it on their first turn). French the Meuse before marching into Belgium. the
grid coordinates. mobilization squares (MS). or forces should push into the clear terrain east of
the name of a city.) French will have about six turns in which to
Mea and also try to destroy the fort on 11-26 prepare a defense. At the same time they should
l>eployment S<IUare Unit and the forts of HH-14. At the same time. drive as deep into Germany as possible. The same
Verdun, Toul, Epinal. another force should advance up the valky to holds true if the Germans march through Holland
Belfort 6-9-3 in each Strassburg while other units converge on it from first.
>9 6-9-3. (2).1-4 the SQuth. If the Germans can be forced to give
T·JO 6-10-3 up the rough terrain between Metz and Strass- Any Gennan "inverted Schlieffen" Plan is. of
Maubeuge 6-9·3. 2-4-3. (2}1-4, 6-0-2 burg. by all means take it. course. doomed from the start by an impassable
MS-IO 6-10-3 wall of troops - a ready-made deFense for the
MS-12 2-4-3 Using P1a.n 17 against the Schlieffen 1906 plan French.
MS-lJ 6-9-3. (2).1-4 I have managed to #t the French to UU·2S In
MS-15 6-9-3. (2).1-4 thirteen turns. Metz was captured an'd the Ger-
MS-16 6-10-3. 2-4-3 man right wing gOl no further than Ghenl, The In the event that the Germans are strong
EE-2J 1-1-3 French barely missed CUlling off the German enough to hold the French 01T in the SQuth but
FF-23 6-10-3.6-0-2 supplies and the Germans obtained a I>brginal yet stron& enough 10 attempt an advance throup
FF-24 6-10-3 Victory. My Plan VI-L however. makes up for Be:lglUm in the north. the French will be forced
FF-15 6-10-3 the defi~ncy of f'bn 11 when used apmsl the to play defensively. This will moSI likely result in
FF-26 6-10-3 Schlieffen or similar plans with a stron& ript a stalemate which will bl= won by the person
Nancy 1·1·3 wing. As long as the EB units and Supply using better lactics - but that's a subject for
Epinal 1-2-4 Umitations aren't bl=in& used the strong French another article.
Ll-J8 6-10-3. (2).1-4 riYJt wing can sw~p into Germany and reach
All t...·elve (12) of Mainz in less than thirteen turns. altempllfll to
the mobilization cut the German supply line. Having besi*d Louis J. Jerkich
JQwtre5 from MS-12 0., 6-10-3 0. each Strassburg, as many French units as possible 418 E. 274th Street
to MS-33 inclusive. square should blitz to Mamz via the Rhine Valley. EuclJd. Ohio 44132
THE GENERAL PAGE 12

The Organized Wargamer


by R. C. Reed - Staff .. Fiauces A, AI' A2' C &. 0 show a compact Scotch ·'Green Plaid" upe, not enough ··slick")
method of oTlanizing countersl'leelS for immedi- should be placed at the sides away from the
ate set-up, use during Ihe game, and storage. It hinged side. This tape, six shown in C, provides a
The response to the laSI installment of the has the distinct advantage of being adaplable to slick surface for the tape holding straps and
Organized Wargamer was so bountiful that we <IllY Avalon I-lill game. It does not require a prevents the straps from picking-up the under-
had to skip an issue to get the infommtion myriad of tiny boxes, bags or other home grown neath posterboard during periodical application
organited in some sort of coherent order. [ had bulk. It does have two disadvantages: il requires and removal of the tape.
asked for $Uggestions for sorting and separating the use of Ihe counler frame that the unit
unit countcn; in the previous column and pre- counlers came in, and the holding straps for the
sented here are some of Ihe best and most kit musl be periodically replaced every several
representative suggestions. yean. Of COUf$le, it requires in construclion one
Raben Freisseis. an IFW member from MiIWlllt- elemenl thai is saved later on: time.
k~. Wisconsin writes: "You can use egs cartons:
this is a good way to keep home-made games or

~,,:~:;,-:t'
varienlS separate, but it is not tlle best idea for
games which you move around all lhe time.
Another, the best I think, is to use stamp
holders. available in mOSI stationary and hobby ,I
stores, these heavy ~per-like compartmented
sheets are excellent for boldil1.l units. You can
:, A
write unit 10's on the stamp holders or Xerox ,,I
the oounters and paste their pictures below the
counters.. I find this especially good for Ihe
, Figure 0: Ihe complete ··kit. ,. The darkened

~c:?'A.
areas of the tapes extending are "slicky" and the
Panurblilz game. It takes only four sheets for a white ends are where the tape has been folded
complete set of Panzerblitz counters. but this is over to form a '·tab" for easy grip. Tilese Ilolding
also good for uny game with a large number of straps as well as the binding are removed during
pieces such as J9J4 or Allz/o. This is also good the game, leaving only the posterboard-backed
for games with step reduction to keep tnck of oounler sheets. Of oourse. the arrangement of
the various sleps .. _.. units within the counter frames should follow
J. P. Hope of Arlington, Vi~nia says that '·1 either a ··play" or ··PB.\l·' set-up, depending on
have found that 'Diamond Safety Matches' make how the counters are 10 be used.~
excellent counter conlainen. The plastic tny in
Pallurblitz will hold Ihirty_two of IJicse bolCe5 Fiaure A I shows counter fr1lme with counters
and game sel-up is much quicker using labelled removw. A2 shoW5 a piece of cut poslerboard
boltes. The entire game can be stored in its pencil outlined 10 aid in Ihe application of rubber
original container without additional space re- cememt, which is applied to the back of A I and
quired for tackle bolCes, ice cube trays, etc. These to tile top of A2. Pressed together, excess cement
bolCes come in packages of eight each und sell for should be removed with a rubber "magnet"
II cents per pa~kage. One problem [ have found (easily made by forming a ball of excess, dry
in converling eleven games, being a non-smoker rtlbber cemenl). Figure B: counter sheets of a
and having an eleclric stove, is lhal there is a simillr size (as in Panzerblitl:) may be Slacked
areat surplus of matches in my ap<lrtment ..... after being set-up in fJgUre A. For unequal sheets
A simple solution, offered by W. K. Moro of of similar size, the laTler sheels go to the bottom.
Sparwood, British Columbia, is to "orpnize In special cases separate kits can or may have 10
counters by amxing a piece of hard cardboard to be made to accOmodate dissimilar oounter sheets.
tile back of the troop counter card and making a
tape hinge to anotller hard cardboard slleet for
tile front; one can keep the counters In their
position as per the new games simply by using a Thai should give you an overall view of what
paper clip on Ihe opcn end." gamers are doing to diminish an annoying prob-
Another residenl of British Columbia. Gr1lham 6 lem associaled with the hobby.
F. Lucknoll (rom Victoria wriles of his gaming The nexl question I would like to ask the
goup: "We have developed a syslem (sample readenhip is whal tricks do you have for facili-
enclosed): place phOlocraph comer mounts on lating the actual progress of play in games like
sheets of paper or cardboard in any Order of Allzio, /9/4, and those olher games where
Ballle. These corner mounts provide neat pockets constant referral to the rule book is necessary to
which hold tile units in place under most condi- keep track of ranges, distances to objectives etc.
tions. Each comer can he marked to indicate This problem is especially acute in Anzio, an<\
which unit it is for."' This seems to be one of the Luftwaffe, and to a lesser extent, Pallurblitz and
quickest and simplest melhods reported. GlladalcanaJ. This is a wide open question. As un
Finally, we reproduce in its entirety an article eXira added incenlive, the subscriber who sends
from Bill Freeman of Concord, Mass. Bill has Fiaure C: two additional posterboard sheets are in Ihe best trick or idea on the question will be
presenled a ·how-tO'do--it' Ihesis for thoge readers cut to the dimensions of the ··bouom" counter awarded a $5.00 gifl certificate. Other good ideas
who require a method presented in specific sheet. These fonn the ··binding" for the counter will be included in the next OWG oolumn. Send
detail: sheels. PlaSlic or pla5tic-cloth tape (don't use in your comments; oommullicale!
11 _ oltll" to mo thoc oU __
OI:,ion ..... cho F'onoh .my II'ld lIioc! lift.".,..
_ld ,.,... 1l'O'O'I'd. if net UO'ioIlly. ","cogltlily
_ _1"1 '" u;»ouing clio ) \ I _ t . Ono 01
the ......., lm,pcnont loe:..... 01 1. . . . '" lOin
the IftitlOf;.o. _hing tho .. I """ld _ . bu'
~Iy '"IIOtI co ..... PoII,all" W.,....
V._·.
o-s;n., ~,

Ill•. ... ~..m t.- wnne<! ,,*,y Ii...., - . olliciol ct>b ' . . . . . lor you I ...ttIIngo m'gtlt """ ""lovod s.o.;., .......
EI"d<>*l
IlIbt>inQ 01 PcI_. thili. mlnor._.
_ w.
I~...... e.- 01 No<mM<Iv...<.1 !Iol' h;o ..;11 .... y _oddl.""", inlo lor _ fi ....
M,. _itlll _ Ie b o _ CH!'.NCELLOIISVILLE. '" the op;n;on of cM.

_hi.. . . .
Tho AIM'rian ~ . AsIo<Gtion
...... _"'" - "Gcnytbu", Who!. Pr'" Vi<-
lOtyr .. _ _sly _C 'rom ...... 1m. ... ''''''''''_8..-...._''''' _ , ... _ inooc:uroIO. Lot '" <On- mtl. w. probobI'f AYIIort Hilr. billiot' mitlok•.
WIIIIo h _....... - . . _ , II _ u_.
;0 aIffe« in pOintil'lil "'" ...........
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co thll _ _ illll
publilhod. _
oidor his •........,.. '" ...... ion .... F _ 1,,",*
"'~_.'lI3Il.F"".IIo_ol_
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_ i _ in ~ to belliur .... thr"ll ...... _ Getmony'. P"",. "ivIIions _ ...... """",,,,"fit. 8cIuoo ,110 """'" III ,.

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urAIIlim:. His ....... - . _ . ;0 Iii'" bon•• _io< to ..... "'Ilioo. lion _ good ... '110 _ .... SOUthl..... Z ... II yotllill_ ....
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. . 0IlIIIl*'" bCIIpt 10< .... top. So _ ..
_ b o _ . _ . _ I f ..... ....., ...
II-.P_ _ ... tI_ .... _~. ~"", ""'id>""""'_",._ Tho __ GorftIII'l .... _ tht 1'II<p11' 115 """
_ . :10 ...... - . 1 . ThoF_ _ ."., .... - - ' to ..... ion 011 _
80~

fout _ _ i<nl •
001-. ;..,.., . . . . -
_1 __.
_ . . , - ; 0 _ _ 0 < _... ,..,.. -. _ , of oruda to _ dod _ off 10

Moro 1CDlf_. _
I.... _ld bo I .......
-...-Tho ADA
........... "'" .......... _
$-3I!i 56 mill _
.............J """
• • J mill

_
ltho Somuo.
""n _
0>11"8. eo
I 15 mill .,nt.
JuIot-Aug ll1Jl ....... M-""" _ _ bod
.... tit tho SO.1I8 _ I prico 01 ~
_ _ . _ I n .... y ""P_itt """idl_52.50' _ _ 1 U > . _ F...."'.-... ..icIo _ ()roIy to..- _ .. _1obIo. n.., wi. tit ...
--..w;u,I-'Oboonf "'_ -....."" • ...-.Aloo _ty- ... in I bc~ _ thin ..... C I . _ .. ~10 lid; "'"
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Contest No. 45
R_IIt ltII,.,.... _ 18a.-s..-_
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co....... _ York 'J178


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I'm """",111"9 • list 01 hot'.. <Iub It",*",•• rod G_oi i. 2Q .. or<ll. IfIOkJdirlli oddr_ II"Id
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locI1lon with th ....
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TIIo Opor.tion CcrtllCl_...... _ tho~ yOU - . .m to ,""lily. "'"'" licultion "'"CUll 01 thio con"". _,_ 10<1 legibility- will
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with _ i l l in_,
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irtIormo'ion _ _ to -..mot. '0 lcQl """'" 1II",,,oco<l in 'Ile d""'" V..... Job. """'ld .,.... BATTLE CH... IIT
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25e SEPT ·DCT 11


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ATU.CH LUEL HUE.


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_ ........ _ " _ _ ... 600.- ... _
Discount - "..,-. ~ - - - - by
""----------
N>;o< C00u01J)' .._ ... ~ "'nooodIy~
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Coupon . ."" _No,.,...,.,....,,-.


_ •...,.,..-in..,,..... """'Ud or or ... ....... __ CioooopI<I< OLO _ _
"""1f<Jl lIwll . . _ _. . . . . . . .
~ FORIIU City SIft
odpcnl '0 ,II< ci,y,
P!I)'IIi<:ol cap...... or • M_ CoIInuy c"y _

25¢ 'ha'
25¢ GOOD TOWARD THE PURCHASE OF ALL PRODUCTS
.... . - . I I y
f.... lldly. All "',
.... 11 "'" ""l',
IIuI cny - .
ill • palio111ar M_ Cou8Iry
(Wllb "'" M _ Cou8Iry City
.~-,--------
~. r.__
c.p,ur< T.bIoJ III ........ For .. y '" ..... to b<

--------------------- --------- - -- -----,-----


, -- - -- - ---------- - - -- - -- - ---- - - -- --

Opponents ,,, 2nd Annual Wargamers' Survey


,, In "",,"urctiofl wilh C7EA"TION CONT"CT••• 111..... _ inltia'ed by the 1",",...,io",,1 f_ion
,, ot W.. ~ . Tho a-..
is ..-printing tho 10110).,;"11 .-..y. III _ _ is to dotenni.... tho _
Wanted STAn ,
direc:t.... in ""'""" to _ _ tOf _ ' I n ; impf_ """ '0 the ~'. In Ofdo< to lIU......'N
mo."""m _ , . 1 1 Contolt .5 on,,1n wltl bo..,;dod unlm """"""P¥';od by tl",1UtYOY. A photos,..
, Of" ha'-i"on OOI'Y II all,...., i. '''''''Ad _ t"",,",ding 11111 """"y wi1l1 vour con"" ont..,..
11',',.. .~--.cmg ""wI"f /»11M. ill"'" "'''',I!>tI<f " - " """" 11'...., A<*. 1I";v<' Qon', IJnf II>< tpOCf: .1 Tho , w..-gomirIQ ""bli..,iono, in o.-tNr of prt~, 'ha' I ,.... bes' ..,i.li.. my ..... ~min;
::=,,.,::,:~~ w;. ";,.'::t A'7t ~~t~t~:. ':~'::.:;:,.=: :::::"t:/ ::n~;: imw.." , I) 21 _
."ply.
,, " I

1) P,in, ~OU' CIty tnd It... in


2) C,o.. ou, """elI_
80. A ,bo..
phr_ bflow not appli<:abl•.
3) In.." c<>PV wh... '""ul,od on Ii..... pn""dtd
,
I bl Tho 'hFN pa,_.,
in ordtr Of acl''''_'. I 'hir>l< hlo"" mado ",,,,un'i,1 oont,i!>u,ion. '0 ....prnir'!ll
4) P,in, ,OU' Ilf"," tnd O<I<jr... _ . iodlcatod, : wi,h,n,ho"st 12 mon,h,,,.: II 21 _
W. canno' Ii" ",""iIi<: i.."" tor .... or ,,_. Inw..tod
pat'in ""'" wri'...... di'''''' lor c'''''''~" "'toll,. , ,,-------
cI Tho potion wIIo 1 IH1 h. mado ,110 """"I" mot, import,n' ronll'ibu'ion '0 'ho 'I'O<ili<: _p-mi"ll

,21 0""""",,,,, -:;;;:;;;~======~


am: novice. average, expert player of: high school, college, liold is: Il B.......... lrIQ
3) P•• WIII ~in",,,,.. ..1 Poo,WIII ~in;"ur..

adult age desiring: FTF and/or PBM opponents for


<II Tho 1 _ "'"'9O"'me """"izatio"". ill ....... 01 tdI--..,. 1 I" " - COfWibutfd . . .ili<afl,IV to
...,......I"lI ... i1l1in lha .... 12 ...",,,,,, ..t; 11
Also seek
,,--------
members for ------,,",••,0"'.",.,-----------
01 Tho 5 Author-<. ~ ... 01 _ .... I "'. . _ _ .....-liod my int...... "'............ IIl..-y
_ _ . Will trade or sell games. Please reply to: _110"11 WI',,"" .... INI 12 _"'" art:: 11

.". ."."
NAME (in all "p.II _ Do NOT .......... _ . UPart _ . ,h A be _ _ from _ . . . . . . - on..., O l d _
u.. wi. bo ....., on Oct_ 15. 1971. R..,r" "';M bo
10 .. _ _ '-'Y _ _
-...... in thO -.c.
1'11 n......, po..--...I .. Iorma.... _ . . 01 you. in .... t--.,:
STREETI PHONE _ "",__ .111 , ..... .111 y . . . in--.--v .~Maiorl_-"""- 1
""" ... _ 01 ~ II bo"'I'im.):
_-........
..._ _..Iov. _-......D.9\
_DopIomacy.
l'ootWWl ............... _ _ ............... _ _ ~ & V........_ .... WWI
-ou-.r _
CITY STATE ZIP~_
All ......... I/o ..... .".0.1 _ _ tomo.. .. I/o acap<lOd:
PAGE 15 THE GENERAL
"CONVENTIONS 72" is Spartan International's DON GREENWOOD has Published his long·
newsletter detailing all pet"linent info on upcom. needed Sr,'ingrarJ Strate<,ly Booklet. This fifty
ing conventions. A five-i$SUe subtcription is avail· page manuscript represents Ihe first in a projected
able lor 50 cents total Irom SICL Convenlions series of Booklets that will eYentual1y cover orner
WesI, 4121 Long Beach BIIICI., Long Beach, Cal. AH ilIfOe5. In this firS! effort, anicles on Stillin·
CONTEST NO. 44 was a bit of a "bummltr:" II 90807; or from SICL Conventions Em, 3600 grad h;rye been gleaned from othef wllf"gaming
seems .5 jf some~e between the rough draft Chestnut Street, A·119, Philadelphia, Pa. 19104. journals and the best of these h;rye been
and the lin<ll printed vtnion the words "with A Sil~ling of info included is the following presented in this mimeoed rnanuteript as covering
,,-,pply No.2" _re deleted after "15th Pan~.. listing of their convenlion itinerary through the all the aspeclS and controversies of StlIJingnKJ.
Division ilt M5US •.." Obviously. this made quite next 12 months: New York - Nov. 20, 1971; The Stalingr.td Stratll9Y Booklet is available from
a part 01 the contest obsaJre. Disastll" was Philaclelphia - April 22-23, 1972; East Con. (Fall Don Greenwood and his Panzerfaust Publicalions
lYOided. however, because enough 01 our reader5 River) - June 23, 4, 5, 1972; South Con. for 51.50 postpaid. Mail to: 124 Warren Street,
are acute enough to see through these difficulties. IBinnin9ham) - July 8,9, 1972; L. A. Con. V - Sayre, Pa. 16840.
Below is the correct ilnswer assuming the "with Aug. 12-13, 1972; and Capilal Can. - Washin9-
$Upply NO.2" had been included (which quit. a Ion - August 1972 (date to be announced). In EFFECTIVE END OF PRICE FREEZE, IFW has
number of our oontl!$tants assumed anyway); addition, Mini·cons are tentatively scheduled in announced they will increase their prices to
Attacks ill 3·' on 4/5 and 9AllO means thai Los Angeles during November, February, and $7/yr. for dues and $6iyr. for Subscriptions. But
Tobruch can only be defended by two 1·1·6'$ May 1972 for Ihe increase of the extra dollar Ihe IFW plans
which can easily be overcome on the next nel't year to hold five nalional conventions,
German attack. This contest illustrates iI common publish the International Wargamer as a 24·page
weakness found in bad "Tobruch tactics." The mag, and increase the number of frlll1 tournies
British disposition looks relatively strong bel:ause and games. Intereued? Write: IFW, 1806 N.
of the interlocking positioning of the light units. Richmond, Chicago, III. 60647.
But the final purpose of ilny tactics should be to
bottonup the heavy units the turn before the IT HAS BEEN BROUGHT to our attention, with
Juoo reinforcemenlS. The aforementioned German some partisan delight no doubt, that Interest
allack precludes this. The !}arne is all but over Group 8allimore wargamers have been cornering
after this point. the markel on EaS! Coast Convenlion tournament
victories. They have copped first place honors in
SEVERAL SCORES OF CONTESTANTS sub· five major tournies since lasl ThanksgiYing includ·
milted Ihe winning solution and from thew • iog Fall River- and MilCon Ill. Plans are currenlly
THE MSC put together anolhef successful con· underway for their Third semi·annual Open
random dl1lWing was held to pick the ten win· Vl!fItion in MilCon III which was held July 10-11
ners. They are: L. R. Mi:Anemy, SilYe<" Spring, HollSe to be held during the Thanklgiving holi·
at 51. John's, Jamaica, New York. Total atten-
Md.; Mike Loomis, Santil Rosa, Calif.; Chude. days this yeilf. If you WOlJId like to learn mort
dance for the IWO day evenl was almoSl 350. about this unique group write: 1GB, 4118 Glen
Jensen. Chicago, III.; W. Lee Penn, Darien, Coon.; Eye-witness accounts Silid the displays and tour·
Brian libby, Ponland, Me.; George Paulik, Pari< Road, R"'timore, Md. 21236.
naments irwolving minialures was truly impres-
Manistee, Mich.; Les Lightstone, Southlield, sive. The AH diYision tourny was the largest on
Mich.; Thomas Fisher, Elizabeth, N.J.; William the East Com. It was, of course, no surprise to S & T MAGAZINE, in issue No. 28, once again
Searigtll, Sealtle, Wash.; Robert Harmon, South learn that AH staff member and convention shows that il is the best bargain for the Simula·
San Franc;i5co, Calil. Congrats and a lull dress representative, Randy Reed, won first prize in the tions Gamer. 115 literary subject matter broadens
Sillute to these gentlemen. AH diYision. The convention was so successful wilh every issue; from the very line "Saviel and
that plans were immediately made to hold German Weapons & Tactics" article by James F.
CONGRATULATIONS also to authors of the live another convention in mid·winter. But the MSC Dunnigan to one on "The Dark Ages Mililary
ben articles lead by Prof. J. E. Pournelle's "Sim. leadership is undedded as to whether Christmas Systems Profile:' by Stephen B. Patrick. A
ulating the Art of War - Part III"; followed by or the end of January is the most convenient re·review of luftwaffe is included in lhis issue
Daniel Kronmeyer's "What? Another Stalingrad time 10 hold this new get·together. If you have also. Their earlier review resulted from "crossed·
Variant"; Dennis G. Mehaffey's "Panzerblitz an opinion or preference drop MSC a I;ne at wires" in that it was prepared without the benefit
MSM"; Mitch Gniadek's "A Look at an Old 89·67 Hollis Ct. Blvd., Queens Village, NY of the correct set of rules. S & T apologized for
Favorite"; and co-aulhors John S. Hathaway and 11427. this mis·assumption aOO will see to it that it
Harley Anton lor "Waterloo Analysis. Y doesn't happen again.

LEN LAKOFKA writes: "The first Mount WE HAVE BEEN INFORMED that the National
HIGHEST BIDDERS in the Auction 01 Col· Prospect convention is now history. Ninety war- Invitational TO'urnament has begun its recruil-
lector's Items obYiously wem beneri< in their gamers enjoyed the one day convention which ment ea~aign. Any wargarner inten!S!ed in a
quest to cDnlllete their library 01 vintage games. featured a twenty player OlWal competition, A new type 01 tournament play should look into
Led by J. Rictwd WllQnel"s highest oYerall bid of Napoleonic "Little Wllf"S" series of battles and the N.I.T. All entrants rate themselves and then
$35.00 for Civil War, other winn.ers were as other miniatures battles." Over $100.00 worth of are matchecl with opponents of equal ability.
lollows: The remaining two Civil W. games went prizes and trophies were awarded at this firsl Entrants play six games in each toumy; write Tim
to Theodore D. Fosdick 530.01 and James (hopefully) annual affair. The firsl annual
Fox, 58 Cutler, Grand Rapids, Mich. 49507.
Eggerman $26.76. Both Dispatcher games went to "Gateway-to-the-West" convention was held in St.
NOlTis Morton $7.00 and KeYin Hohensee 56.00; Louis on July 17. The IFW featured a nu~ of
the Balliefieid version of Gettysburg went to AH games and armor miniature lou'mies which
James T. Reilly $15.51; both Management games netted the winners over $150.00 in prizes and BECAUSE IT EMPHASIZED the 9 Principles of
went 10 Cllf"1 Kotde. $15.00 and Louis Moynihan Irophies. The seventy·f~ garners who attended, War, S1udents in the Department of Mililary
$15.00; the lWO Nieuchess games wenl to William look lorward to nexI year's event tentatively Science, U. of California at Davis, h;rye been
Spahn 515.00 and Jules F. KoelSCh $8.75; 000 slaled for the third or founh weekend in July. experimtnlingwith Blitzkrieg. U.s. Army Capl.
original Verdicl went to James T. Heslin $10.00, Reponing on Ihe 41h Annual Lake Geneva Justin R. Hughes, Military History InstruClor
the remaining game was found to be incomplete Convention, Lakofka related, "the two day event there. claims the experiment "was reasonably
thus nOI sold; both Verdict II games went 10 greeted 241 games on Saturday and 157 addi- successful" in getting those points acrcm. A fellow
Peter Valeri $15.50 and James Eggerman $14.24; tional on Sunday plus unnumbered visitors who instructor, CPT Art Hotop, was so impressed with
four JZ Advertising games went to Arnold Smith came to gape. Over 5300 in prizes were the games' use that he authored a fealure article
$15.00. Stephen K. Howard $10.13, Sidney awarded." In 1972, the convention has grown to "Teaching Methods:' which appeared in Ih~
Sackson $?32, and Thomas L. King $7.01; no the extent where two halls will be used at Lake Army ROTC Newslener nationally circulated by
bids were received for Imagination end Word Geneva, along with more evants and larger cash HQ, U.S. Continental Army Command, FOri
Power. All lower bids have been returned. prizes. Monroe, Virginia 23351 ....
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