0 vues

Titre original : cse

Transféré par SARITHA DASARI

cse

Mobile computing

© All Rights Reserved

- Security and Privacy Consideration for Internet of Things in Smart Home Environments
- Android Application for Call Taxi
- Strong Cryptography: The Global Tide of Change, Cato Briefing Paper No. 51
- Digitial Signature Paradox White Paper
- Security of Mobile Payments
- Three Layer Securing of Banking Data in Cloud Using Cryptographic Algorithms
- 00443-philips ocps bpdg1 4t
- Satellite Encription
- Data Security in Cloud for Medical Sciences Using AES 512-Bit Algorithm
- On Security in Wireless Mobile Networking
- se-2011-01-st
- Delay Signing of Assemblies
- Enhancing Security in the Banking Sector using Biometric and Cryptography. A proposed framework for BACCSOD in Ghana.
- Chapter 5
- 1949-4469-1-PB
- IDQ White Paper - IDQ on Quantum Technologies
- Secure Email Transaction System
- Chapter 5
- RSA Key extraction with low bandwidth acoustic Cryptanalysis
- 1.INS QBQNK

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 42

Overview:

Public-key encryption schemes are secure only if the authenticity of the public key is assured. A

public-key certificate scheme provides the necessary security.

A simple public-key algorithm is Diffie-Hellman key exchange. This protocol enables two users to

establish a secret key using a public-key scheme based on discrete logarithms. The protocol is secure

only if the authenticity of the two participants can be established.

Elliptic curve arithmetic can be used to develop a variety of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)

schemes, including key exchange, encryption, and digital signature.

For purposes of ECC, elliptic curve arithmetic involves the use of an elliptic curve equation defined

over a finite field. The coefficients and variables in the equation are elements of a finite field.

Schemes using Zp and GF(2m) have been developed.

Key Management

public announcement

public-key authority

public-key certificates

Public Announcement

eg. append PGP keys to email messages or post to news groups or email list

A greater degree of security can be achieved by maintaining a publicly available dynamic directory of public

keys. Maintenance and distribution of the public directory would have to be the responsibility of some

trusted entity or organization (Bellow Figure). Such a scheme would include the following elements:

1. The authority maintains a directory with a {name, public key} entry for each participant.

2. Each participant registers a public key with the directory authority. Registration would have to be in

person or by some form of secure authenticated communication.

3. A participant may replace the existing key with a new one at any time, either because of the desire to

replace a public key that has already been used for a large amount of data, or because the

corresponding private key has been compromised in some way.

4. Participants could also access the directory electronically. For this purpose, secure, authenticated

communication from the authority to the participant is mandatory.

Public-Key Authority

then users interact with directory to obtain any desired public key securely

Public-Key Certificates

usually with other info such as period of validity, rights of use etc

Simple Secret Key Distribution

B generates a session key K sends it to A encrypted using the supplied public key

problem is that an opponent can intercept and impersonate both halves of protocol

shares secret master key with each user

rationale

which the session keys change frequently. Distribution of session keys by public-key

encryption could degrade overall system performance because of the relatively high

computational load of public-key encryption and decryption. With a three-level hierarchy,

public-key encryption is used only occasionally to update the master key between a user and

the KDC.

Backward compatibility: The hybrid scheme is easily overlaid on an existing KDC scheme,

with minimal disruption or software changes.

by Diffie & Hellman in 1976 along with the exposition of public key concepts

note: now know that Williamson (UK CESG) secretly proposed the concept in 1970

value of key depends on the participants (and their private and public key information)

security relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms (similar to factoring) – hard

Diffie-Hellman Setup

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

KAB is used as session key in private-key encryption scheme between Alice and Bob

if Alice and Bob subsequently communicate, they will have the same key as before, unless they

choose new public-keys

Diffie-Hellman Example

users could create random private/public D-H keys each time they communicate

users could create a known private/public D-H key and publish in a directory, then consulted and

used to securely communicate with them

both of these are vulnerable to a meet-in-the-Middle Attack

majority of public-key crypto (RSA, D-H) use either integer or polynomial arithmetic with very large

numbers/polynomials

y2 = x3 + ax + b

Finite Elliptic Curves

Elliptic curve cryptography uses curves whose variables & coefficients are finite

• best in software

binary curves E2m(a,b) defined over GF(2n)

• best in hardware

ECC Diffie-Hellman

can do key exchange analogous to D-H

ECC Encryption/Decryption

decrypt Cm compute:

Pm+kPb–nB(kG) = Pm+k(nBG)–nB(kG) = Pm

ECC Security

compared to factoring, can use much smaller key sizes than with RSA etc

Key Terms

abelian group elliptic curve arithmetic prime curve

Review Questions

1 What are two different uses of public-key cryptography related to key distribution?

2 List four general categories of schemes for the distribution of public keys.

5 What are the requirements for the use of a public-key certificate scheme?

9 What is the sum of three points on an elliptic curve that lie on a straight line?

Chapter2: Introduction to Number Theory

Overview:

A prime number is an integer that can only be divided without remainder by positive and negative

values of itself and 1. Prime numbers play a critical role both in number theory and in cryptography.

Two theorems that play important roles in public-key cryptography are Fermat's theorem and Euler's

theorem.

An important requirement in a number of cryptographic algorithms is the ability to choose a large

prime number. An area of ongoing research is the development of efficient algorithms for

determining if a randomly chosen large integer is a prime number.

Discrete logarithms are fundamental to a number of public-key algorithms. Discrete logarithms are

analogous to ordinary logarithms, but operate over modular arithmetic.

Prime Numbers

131 137 139 149 151 157 163 167 173 179 181 191 193 197 199

Prime Factorisation

note that factoring a number is relatively hard compared to multiplying the factors together to

generate the number

Relatively Prime Numbers & GCD

two numbers a, b are relatively prime if have no common divisors apart from 1

eg. 8 & 15 are relatively prime since factors of 8 are 1,2,4,8 and of 15 are 1,3,5,15 and 1 is the

only common factor

conversely can determine the greatest common divisor by comparing their prime factorizations and

using least powers

Fermat's Theorem

ap-1 = 1 (mod p)

also ap = p (mod p)

reduced set of residues is those numbers (residues) which are relatively prime to n

eg for n=10,

number of elements in reduced set of residues is called the Euler Totient Function ø(n)

to compute ø(n) need to count number of residues to be excluded

eg.

ø(37) = 36

Euler's Theorem

aø(n) = 1 (mod n)

eg.

a=3;n=10; ø(10)=4;

hence 34 = 81 = 1 mod 10

a=2;n=11; ø(11)=10;

Primality Testing

ie. divide by all numbers (primes) in turn less than the square root of the number

but some composite numbers, called pseudo-primes, also satisfy the property

can use a slower deterministic primality test

algorithm is:

4. for j = 0 to k – 1 do

6. return ("composite")

Probabilistic Considerations

hence if repeat test with different random a then chance n is prime after t tests is:

Prime Distribution

prime number theorem states that primes occur roughly every (ln n) integers

so in practice need only test 0.5 ln(n) numbers of size n to locate a prime

sometimes primes are close together

since computational cost is proportional to size, this is faster than working in the full modulus M

to compute A(mod M)

Primitive Roots

these are useful but relatively hard to find

Discrete Logarithms

the inverse problem to exponentiation is to find the discrete logarithm of a number modulo p

whilst exponentiation is relatively easy, finding discrete logarithms is generally a hard problem

Summary

have considered:

prime numbers

Primality Testing

Discrete Logarithms

Key Terms

bijection Euler's theorem order

Review Questions

2 What is the meaning of the expression a divides b?

4 The Miller-Rabin test can determine if a number is not prime but cannot determine if a number is

prime. How can such an algorithm be used to test for primality?

Overview:

In a distributed environment, encryption devices can be placed to support either link encryption or

end-to-end encryption. With link encryption, each vulnerable communications link is equipped on

both ends with an encryption device. With end-to-end encryption, the encryption process is carried

out at the two end systems.

Even if all traffic between users is encrypted, a traffic analysis may yield information of value to an

opponent. An effective countermeasure is traffic padding, which involves sending random bits during

periods when no encrypted data are available for transmission.

Key distribution is the function that delivers a key to two parties who wish to exchange secure

encrypted data. Some sort of mechanism or protocol is needed to provide for the secure distribution

of keys.

Key distribution often involves the use of master keys, which are infrequently used and are long

lasting, and session keys, which are generated and distributed for temporary use between two parties.

A capability with application to a number of cryptographic functions is random or pseudorandom

number generation. The principle requirement for this capability is that the generated number stream

be unpredictable.

Placement of Encryption

link encryption

end-to-end encryption

when using end-to-end encryption must leave headers in clear

end-to-end protects data contents over entire path and provides authentication

as move higher less information is encrypted but it is more secure though more complex with

more entities and keys

Key Distribution

often secure system failure due to a break in the key distribution scheme

if A & B have communicated previously can use previous key to encrypt a new key

if A & B have secure communications with a third party C, C can relay key between A & B

Key Hierarchy

session key

temporary key

master key

hierarchies of KDC’s required for large networks, but must trust each other

use of automatic key distribution on behalf of users, but must trust system

Random Numbers

session keys

note that an attacker can reconstruct sequence given a small number of values

for cryptographic applications, can use a block cipher to generate random numbers

often for creating session keys from master key

Counter Mode

Xi = EKm[i]

Xi = EKm[Xi-1]

xi = xi-12 mod n

Natural Random Noise

eg. radiation counters, radio noise, audio noise, thermal noise in diodes, leaky capacitors,

mercury discharge tubes etc

Published Sources

Summary

Key Terms

Blum, Blum, Shub generator linear congruential session key

generator (PRNG)

key distribution center (KDC)

Review Questions

1 For a user workstation in a typical business environment, list potential locations for confidentiality

attacks.

5 List ways in which secret keys can be distributed to two communicating parties.

7 What is a nonce?

Chapter 4: Public-Key Cryptography and RSA

Overview:

Asymmetric encryption is a form of cryptosystem in which encryption and decryption are performed

using the different keysone a public key and one a private key. It is also known as public-key

encryption.

Asymmetric encryption transforms plaintext into ciphertext using a one of two keys and an

encryption algorithm. Using the paired key and a decryption algorithm, the plaintext is recovered

from the ciphertext.

Asymmetric encryption can be used for confidentiality, authentication, or both.

The most widely used public-key cryptosystem is RSA. The difficulty of attacking RSA is based on

the difficulty of finding the prime factors of a composite number.

Private-Key Cryptography

hence does not protect sender from receiver forging a message & claiming is sent by sender

Public-Key Cryptography

key distribution – how to have secure communications in general without having to trust a

KDC with your key

digital signatures – how to verify a message comes intact from the claimed sender

public invention due to Whitfield Diffie & Martin Hellman at Stanford Uni in 1976

Public-Key Cryptography

a public-key, which may be known by anybody, and can be used to encrypt messages, and

verify signatures

a private-key, known only to the recipient, used to decrypt messages, and sign (create)

signatures

is asymmetric because

those who encrypt messages or verify signatures cannot decrypt messages or create

signatures

Public-Key Characteristics

it is computationally infeasible to find decryption key knowing only algorithm & encryption

key

known

either of the two related keys can be used for encryption, with the other used for decryption

(for some algorithms)

Public-Key Cryptosystems

Public-Key Applications

some algorithms are suitable for all uses, others are specific to one

Applications for Public-Key Cryptosystems

Diffie-Hellman No No Yes

DSS No Yes No

like private key schemes brute force exhaustive search attack is always theoretically possible

security relies on a large enough difference in difficulty between easy (en/decrypt) and hard

(cryptanalyse) problems

more generally the hard problem is known, but is made hard enough to be impractical to break

RSA

RSA Key Setup

note ø(n)=(p-1)(q-1)

RSA Use

computes: M = Cd mod n

note that the message M must be smaller than the modulus n (block if needed)

in RSA have:

n=p.q

ø(n)=(p-1)(q-1)

hence :

Cd = Me.d = M1+k.ø(n) = M1.(Mø(n))k

= M1.(1)k = M1 = M mod n

5. Determine d: de=1 mod 160 and d < 160 Value is d=23 since 23x7=161= 10x160+1

encryption:

decryption:

Exponentiation

and multiplying in the ones that are needed to compute the result

only takes O(log2 n) multiples for number n

c = 0; f = 1

for i = k downto 0

do c = 2 x c

f = (f x f) mod n

if bi == 1 then

c=c+1

f = (f x a) mod n

return f

Efficient Encryption

Efficient Decryption

can use the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) to compute mod p & q separately. then combine to

get desired answer

only owner of private key who knows values of p & q can use this technique

RSA Security

Mathematical attacks: There are several approaches, all equivalent in effort to factoring the product

of two primes.

Timing attacks: These depend on the running time of the decryption algorithm.

Chosen ciphertext attacks: This type of attack exploits properties of the RSA algorithm.

The defense against the brute-force approach is the same for RSA as for other cryptosystems, namely, use a

large key space. Thus, the larger the number of bits in d, the better. However, because the calculations

involved, both in key generation and in encryption/decryption, are complex, the larger the size of the key, the

slower the system will run.

Factor n into its two prime factors. This enables calculation of f(n) = (p 1) x (q 1), which, in turn,

enables determination of d e1 (mod f(n)).

Determine f(n) directly, without first determining p and q. Again, this enables determination of d e1

(mod f(n)).

Determine d directly, without first determining f(n).

Timing Attacks

countermeasures

Constant exponentiation time: Ensure that all exponentiations take the same amount of time

before returning a result. This is a simple fix but does degrade performance.

Random delay: Better performance could be achieved by adding a random delay to the

exponentiation algorithm to confuse the timing attack. Kocher points out that if defenders

don't add enough noise, attackers could still succeed by collecting additional measurements to

compensate for the random delays.

Blinding: Multiply the ciphertext by a random number before performing exponentiation.

This process prevents the attacker from knowing what ciphertext bits are being processed

inside the computer and therefore prevents the bit-by-bit analysis essential to the timing

attack.

• or use Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OASP)

Summary

have considered:

RSA algorithm, implementation, security

Key Terms

chosen ciphertext attack (CCA) public key cryptography

Review Questions

- Security and Privacy Consideration for Internet of Things in Smart Home EnvironmentsTransféré parIJERD
- Android Application for Call TaxiTransféré parRam Prasad K
- Strong Cryptography: The Global Tide of Change, Cato Briefing Paper No. 51Transféré parCato Institute
- Digitial Signature Paradox White PaperTransféré parProofSpace
- Security of Mobile PaymentsTransféré parMarko Udovč
- Three Layer Securing of Banking Data in Cloud Using Cryptographic AlgorithmsTransféré parInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- 00443-philips ocps bpdg1 4tTransféré parlegalmatters
- Satellite EncriptionTransféré parARVIND
- Data Security in Cloud for Medical Sciences Using AES 512-Bit AlgorithmTransféré parEditor IJRITCC
- On Security in Wireless Mobile NetworkingTransféré parAnonymous vQrJlEN
- se-2011-01-stTransféré parВ'ячеслав Ільчук
- Delay Signing of AssembliesTransféré par2vamsi2
- Enhancing Security in the Banking Sector using Biometric and Cryptography. A proposed framework for BACCSOD in Ghana.Transféré parIRJET Journal
- Chapter 5Transféré parJojo Cansino
- 1949-4469-1-PBTransféré parstephenlim7986
- IDQ White Paper - IDQ on Quantum TechnologiesTransféré parravish177
- Secure Email Transaction SystemTransféré parGautam Sharma
- Chapter 5Transféré parSumitGuha
- RSA Key extraction with low bandwidth acoustic CryptanalysisTransféré parFlavio58IT
- 1.INS QBQNKTransféré parKiran Kumar
- Secure Data Storage on Cloud System for Privacy PreservingTransféré parAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- EMV v4.2 Book 2 Security and Key Management CR05 20111118072236762Transféré parsystemcoding
- IPU MCA Advance Computer Network Lecture wise Notes(Lec31(DigSig and Hash Algos))Transféré parVaibhav Jain
- 20080550.pdfTransféré parGururaj Dafale
- securityfinal_unit8Transféré paronesnone
- Crypto 05Transféré parTom_Babej_5778
- public key cryptographyTransféré parharimohan
- Internet SecurityTransféré parManish Agarwal
- WSEC01.pdfTransféré parRaoni Timo de Castro

- Indirect TCP, Snooping TCP, Mobile TCP--Mobile Transport LayerTransféré parMukesh
- cse.pdfTransféré parsrivani boddepalli
- NS1.pdfTransféré parSARITHA DASARI
- Mobile-IP goals,entities, packet delivery, encapsulations, tunnelling and DHCP (Unit-3)Transféré parMukesh
- MACA, TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, SDMATransféré parMukesh
- Computer OrganizationTransféré parSARITHA DASARI
- Computer-Organization.pdfTransféré parnskprasad89
- 82681049-IS-Unit-1.pdfTransféré parSARITHA DASARI
- cseTransféré parSARITHA DASARI
- results sheet.pdfTransféré parSARITHA DASARI
- cseTransféré parSARITHA DASARI

- Advanced Marine StructuresTransféré parJorge Cipriano
- Discussion Lab RefrigerantTransféré parBroAmir
- haleuavTransféré parapi-252750024
- media miles a radio ads monitoring companyTransféré parmian hussain
- Receipts Orders InvoicesTransféré parAyush53
- C-SAS-2012-p037-p046Transféré parJonathan Douglas
- Vectrix User ManualTransféré parGeorge Smits
- Java Book and TutorialTransféré parparvathi
- Engine Number Guide_PP827!01!09[1]Transféré parTaz Uddin
- CURS 2 3 Hydraulic Machines ConstructionTransféré parOvidiu Sabloschi
- Best practices Running SQL Server in Hyper-VTransféré parDeepak Gupta (DG)
- DownloadFile 3500 VTransféré parpollux23
- Introduction to PlcTransféré parJagadeesan Kaliyaperumal
- adult-smsTransféré parapi-19779124
- chapter1-Rosenblatt’s PerceptronTransféré parHugo Avendaño Romucho
- Rr411809 Light Metals and AlloysTransféré parSRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Hummer8.0- 10kWTransféré parfazar
- E691 - 99 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test MethodTransféré parLupita Ramirez
- Secondary-Side-Regulated Soft-Switching Full-Bridge Three-Port Converter Based on Bridgeless Boost Rectifier and Bidirectional Converter for Multiple Energy InterfaceTransféré parLeMeniz Infotech
- Nature of job report (Yahya)Transféré parYahya Saif
- Smart Attendance Management SytemTransféré parLuvv Wadhwani
- 201172-HUAWEI HG655b Home Gateway Quick Start(V100R001_01,General,English).pdfTransféré parvizlat
- A Comparison of Robustness Fuzzy Logic, PID, And Sliding Mode ControlTransféré parFabiola Gonzalez
- Tekman India.pptTransféré parTekman seo
- Structural Design and Verification of Locomotive Bogies Using Combined Analytical and Experimental MethodsTransféré parPrenţa Valeriu Gabriel
- BM3388 Strategic Brand Management Module OutlineTransféré parMunish Nagar
- Dino Buzzetti, Maurizio Ferriani Speculative Grammar, Universal Grammar, Philosophical Analysis Papers in the Philosophy of LanguageTransféré parLaura Izabel Drake
- Christiaan HuygensTransféré parsarayoo
- IB Physics HL Internal AssessmentTransféré parZinzan Gurney
- astm-f442f442m-13-6943Transféré parBinodh Daniel