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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF RECTENNA FOR RF

ENERGY HARVESTING

Muhammad Waqas
Muhammad Naeem Akbar
Bilal Mughal
Irfan Ullah Khan

Supervised By

Engr. Maria Bano

Submitted for the partial fulfillment of BE Electrical Engineering degree to


the Faculty of Engineering & CS

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES


ISLAMABAD
APRIL, 2019

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ABSTRACT
There is a growing attention in energy harvesting. The rectenna, which is an collection of a rectifier
and an antenna, is a tool to reap RF extra energy in the air. This project is targeting the evaluation,
design and measurement of compact rectennas for radio frequency (RF) wireless power harvesting
applications. Due to vast use of Wireless technology large amount of ambient energy is present in
environment. This energy may be utilized for purposes other than communication. This project
proposes one such method by which the energy available in the radio frequency band may be
harvested. In this project a single patch antenna is used to make this ambient energy useful for
driving small devices like LEDs or smart sensors which require low voltages for their normal
operation.
Antenna is designed using HFSS software. Whereas rectifier and matching network will be
designed on ADS or Genesis software. The proposed system will operate at 2.45GHz frequency
band known as ISM band available.
RF energy harvesting is used to operate and charge low-power appliances. In short range, this
power is used to charge a number of devices including of GPS and RLTS tracking tags, wearable
medical sensors, and purchaser electronics including eBooks readers and headsets.

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CERTIFICATE

Dated:

Final Approval

It is certified that project report titled ‘Design and Fabrication of Rectenna for Energy
Harvesting’ submitted by Muhammad Waqas, Naeem Akbar, Bilal Mughal and Irfan Ullah
Khan for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of “Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical
Engineering” is approved.

COMMITEE

Dr. Muhammad Akbar


Dean Engineering & CS Signature:

Col (R) Engr. Jamil Ahmad Zia


HoD Engineering Signature:

Engr. Saima Zaheer


Head Project Committee Signature:

Engr. Maria Bano


Supervisor Signature:

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DECLARATION

We hereby declare that our dissertation is entirely our work and genuine / original. We understand
that in case of discovery of any PLAGIARISM at any stage, our group will be assigned an F (FAIL)
grade and it may result in withdrawal of our Bachelor’s degree.

Group Members Signature

1. Muhammad Waqas ___________________


2. Muhammad Naeem Akbar ___________________
3. Muhammad Bilal Mughal ___________________
4. Irfan Ullah Khan ___________________

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter Page
Chapter 1:Introduction ................................................................................................................ 9

1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 10

1.2 Problem Domain ................................................................................................................... 12

1.3 Problem Statement ................................................................................................................ 12

1.4 Proposed System ................................................................................................................... 12

1.4.1 Aims and Objectives ........................................................................................................... 13

1.5 Development Methodology .................................................................................................. 13

1.6 Resource Requirement .......................................................................................................... 13

1.7 Benefits of the Project ........................................................................................................... 13

1.8 Report Layout ....................................................................................................................... 14

Chapte2:Background and Existing Work ................................................................................ 15

2.1 Energy Harvesting ................................................................................................................ 16

2.1.1 History.................................................................................................................................. 16

2.2 Types of Energy Harvesting ................................................................................................. 17

2.2.1 Photonic ............................................................................................................................... 17

2.2.2 Thermal ................................................................................................................................ 18

2.2.3 Piezoelectric energy harvesting ........................................................................................... 19

2.3 Literature Review.................................................................................................................. 19

2.3.1 RF Energy Harvesting.......................................................................................................... 19

2.3.2 Rectenna Design .................................................................................................................. 20

Chapter 3: Hardware Description ............................................................................................. 22

3.1 List of components .................................................................................................................. 23

3.2 1*4 Microstrip Patch Array .................................................................................................... 23

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3.3 SMA Connectors ..................................................................................................................... 23

3.4 Schottky Diode........................................................................................................................ 23

3.5 Light emitting Diode ............................................................................................................... 24

3.6 Aluminum Foil ........................................................................................................................ 24

3.7 Printed circuit Board ............................................................................................................... 24

3.8 Rectifier circuit ....................................................................................................................... 25

3.8.1 Full wave rectifier ................................................................................................................ 25

3.9 Matching circuit ...................................................................................................................... 26

3.10 CLC Filter ............................................................................................................................. 26

3.10.1 Working of CLC filter (π- filter)........................................................................................ 27

Chapter 4: System Hardware and Software Design ................................................................ 28

4.1 System Working and Block diagram ...................................................................................... 29

4.1.1Working ................................................................................................................................ 29

4.2 Schematic Diagram of the system........................................................................................... 30

4.3 Software Design ...................................................................................................................... 31

4.3.1 HFSS Software..................................................................................................................... 31

4.3.2 Advance design system(ADS) ............................................................................................. 32

4.3.2.1 S-Parameter Simulation .................................................................................................... 33

4.3.2.2 Harmonic Balance ............................................................................................................. 33

Chapter 5: Testing and Simulation ........................................................................................... 34

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 35

5.2 Characteristics of Designed Antennas .................................................................................... 35

5.3 Single Patch Microstrip Antenna ............................................................................................ 35

5.3.1 HFSS Simulation ................................................................................................................. 35

5.3.1.1 Optimization of Patch Antenna ......................................................................................... 36

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5.3.1.2 Radiation Pattern Simulation Result ................................................................................. 38

5.3.1.3 S11 Measurement ............................................................................................................... 39

5.4 Microstrip Patch Array Antenna ........................................................................................ 39

5.4.1 HFSS Simulation ............................................................................................................... 39

5.4.1.1 Radiation Pattern Simulation Result ................................................................................. 40

5.4.1.2 Gain of simulation result ................................................................................................... 40

Chapter 6: Future work and Conclusion .................................................................................. 42

6.1 Limitations of Project ........................................................................................................ 44

6.1.1 Power utilization ................................................................................................................ 44

6.2 Improvements .................................................................................................................... 45

6.3 Future Scope ...................................................................................................................... 47

6.4 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 47

REFRENCES .............................................................................................................................. 49

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Caption Page


3.1 CLC Filter ............................................................................................................................... 27
5.1 S11 Simulation Response for Original Single Patch Dimension ............................................. 36
5.2 Single Patch Optimized Simulated Radiation Pattern ............................................................ 38
5.3 S11 Measurement Process Using Network Analyzer .............................................................. 39
5.4 Simulated S11 Response for Original Array Antenna Dimension ........................................... 40
5.5 Optimized Simulated Radiation Pattern................................................................................. 40
5.6 Gain of microstrip patch array ............................................................................................... 41

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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1.1 Introduction
RF energy harvesting (RFEH) is an energy transformation method used to convert RF energy from
into the DC electricity (i.e., into voltages and currents). Specifically, RF Energy Harvesting is an
extremely engaging answer for use in different fields because it permits low-control sensors and
frameworks to be remotely fueled in different application situations. Removing Energy harvesting
from RF methods sets a testing assignment to researchers and scientists as they wind up at the
interface between the EM fields and the electronic components. In that way, learning from the two
areas is required so as to structure a superior RF Energy harvesting collector. The rectifier non-
straight impedance and execution as for frequency, viewpoint proportion, edge voltage, stacking
conditions, and info control varieties are examined. In addition, the impedance variety presented
by (adaptable) radio wires for wearable sensors is introduced and a method to beat the impacts of
impedance changes is exhibited. The decision of the radio wire rectifier interface impedance is
talked about as it assumes a critical job in the collector affectability and power transformation
productivity improvement. In the last subsection a case of a RFEH configuration is outfitted,
beginning from the framework level determination prerequisites of a wearable sensor. At long last,
a co-structure is portrayed to enhance the radio wire rectifier interface[1].
In late advancements, remote power exchange has involved an incredible consideration. Energy
can be reaped by diverse methods and techniques like solar energy harvesting, RF energy
harvesting, wind energy harvesting, thermal energy harvesting etc. Energy harvesting gathering
are utilized cell phones charging. In the between associated world, the quantity of versatile clients
is definitely expanding step by step. Likewise, the utilization of Wi-Fi associations in schools,
enterprises, programming organizations makes the accessibility of RF sources in an extensive way.
This prompts surrounding RF control collecting.
The Rectenna comprise of antenna apparatus and dc rectifier circuit. The rectifier comprises of
two small scale strip lines, a Schottky diode, a miniaturized scale strip line, a coordinating smaller
scale strip line, and output low pass filter. The circuit is carved on the substrate of FR4. A load
resistor, associated at the output side of the rectifier, indicates impedance of the device to be
powered. Energy Harvesting gathering by gathering power from media transmission framework
are normal as another power source. For instance, the electromagnetic wave energy Harvesting
gathering starting from the earliest stage TV communicate and cell base station. As it were,
Rectenna device is proposed with regards to energy Harvesting collecting applications so as to
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accomplish low utilization remote sensors or sensor systems. The rectenna has vital job in remote
energy Harvesting gathering since it gathers electromagnetic RF control from free space and
convert it into valuable dc control. The issue in energy Harvesting gathering from electromagnetic
wave is small gotten power thickness at a gathering indicate due its energy Harvesting spreading
by the separation from the source. What's more, the got power is weakened radically under no
viewable pathway condition. Accepting force relies upon transmit control, at that point high power
base station, for example, medium frequency or shortwave radio is a decent possibility for the
energy Harvesting gathering application. In any case, the region which can give enough capacity
to work electronic circuits is restricted. It is exceptionally hard to gather enough capacity to work
electronic circuits from the power thickness lower than – 20dBm, in light of the fact that the
effectiveness of rectifier diode is little. In this paper, it exhibits the structure of miniaturized scale
strip fix recieving wire for remote energy Harvesting collecting framework. The recieving wire
has full frequencies at 2.45 GHz. Additionally, a rectifier circuit is likewise structured which can
work at the ideal frequency band[2].
Over recent decades, remote frameworks have been produced and executed to such a degree, to
the point that frequency range has turned out to be th ick. These
frameworks are Wi-Fi, cell radio, radio communicate and TV communicate. Substantial measure
of surrounding Energy harvesting (for example wind, sun oriented and tide) is broadly accessible
and substantial scale advances are being produced effectively to catch it. Likewise, there are little
measures of "squandered" Energy harvesting that could end up being valuable whenever caught.
Recouping even a small amount of this Energy harvesting would have a critical ecological and
financial effect. This is the place Energy harvesting reaping (EH) comes in. The idea of Energy
harvesting gathering isn't new rather it came into picture 100 years back. The technique for
extricating Energy harvesting from condition to create power is called Energy harvesting or Energy
harvesting scavenging. This innovation offers two principle points of interest an) Energy is
uninhibitedly accessible b) It is "green" for the earth. The surrounding Energy harvesting present
around us can be collected utilizing an amending receiving wire, famously known as rectenna.
Rectenna is a correcting radio wire that is utilized to change over electromagnetic Energy
harvesting into direct flow power. The parts of the Energy harvesting collecting framework
(receiving wire, coordinating system and rectifier) are normally alluded as a Rectenna, which can
reap high-frequency Energy harvesting in free space and convert it to DC control. Reaping RF

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Energy harvesting and changing over it into helpful DC control requires cautious plan. A
productive receiving wire is intended to support RF flag and coordinating circuit to exchange most
extreme RF control from source to stack. Correcting circuit to change over info RF to DC[3].

1.2 Problem Domain


RF energy harvesting is active research area. Conservation of electricity begins by way of
recycling energy that has already been used. That power is effortlessly present in electromagnetic
(EM) form, from broadcast AM and FM radio waves to the various wireless devices that transmit
indicators around us, consisting of mobile base stations and brief-distance Wi-Fi neighborhood
area networks (WLANs). The key to harvesting or scavenging this “used” strength starts with a
devoted receiver able to receiving the to be had Wi-Fi indicators, together with some method of
converting the received sign electricity right into a delivery of electrical electricity. The scope of
this project is to design a rectenna in an effort to catch the extra RF energy from surrounding’s and
convert it into DC voltage.

1.3 Problem Statement


Energy is one the most significant feature for any active system to work. At any given moment,
RF energy is transmitted from millions of transmitters and devices through the world. Extra RF
energy is present in our surrounding’s therefore to make sure useful use of that extra energy we
will design a rectenna that will catch RF signals present around us and will convert that RF energy
into DC voltage.

1.4 Proposed System


The proposed project is a arrangement of different electronic components the simple rectenna
comprises a receiving antenna and rf-to-dc rectifier. The rectifier includes tapsered micro strip
lines, a Schottky diode, a micro strip line, an identical micro strip line, and an output low pass
filter. The circuit is etched on the substrate of fr4. A load resistor that is connected at the output of
the rectifier, shows the input impedance of the factor to be powered. Antenna converts
electromagnetic waves into low DC current for to be feed to an ac to dc converter. The software’s
used within the proposed system are Hfss used for design of antenna and (advanced digital
systems) for layout of rectifier and matching circuit.

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1.4.1 Aims and Objectives
The basic objective of the system is to rectenna that will operate at 2.45GHz for RF energy
harvesting. It will catch the ambient RF energy present in our surroundings and will convert into
DC voltage. The RF energy harvesting helps to utilize free energy available in our environment.

1.5 Development Methodology


Antenna captures Rf energy present in our surrounding’s. The matching circuit, consist of
inductive and capacitive factors, guarantees the maximum power transfer from antenna to voltage
multiplier. The incident RF energy is converted into DC strength by the voltage multiplier The
stored energy guarantees smooth electricity transfer to the load and as a reserve for periods when
external strength is unavailable.

1.6 Resource Requirement


The rectenna configuration comprises of a Microstrip patch antenna and a rectifier circuit, in which
both two operates at 2.45 GHz. HFSS programming is utilized as the simulation tool of the
suggested Microstrip patch antenna. At that point, the planned receiving wire will be created and
amassed together and tried utilizing system Analyzer. The rectifier comprises of two decreased
smaller scale strip lines, a Schottky diode, a λ/4 miniaturized scale strip line, a coordinating
miniaturized scale strip line, and a yield low pass channel. The circuit is imprinted on the substrate
of FR4. The circuit will be planned and streamlined utilizing Advance Design System (ADS), at
that point will be manufactured utilizing smaller scale strip lines with a FR4 substrate. As indicated
by the got remote power, the estimations of yield DC voltage and power have been estimated and
the best estimation of burden protection from reap greatest yield DC control has been chosen
through simulation.

1.7 Benefits of the Project


Energy Harvesting incorporates utilizing encompassing Energy that would some way or
another go to excess, basically to control devices with low power prerequisites. In time,
Energy collecting could run connected at the hip with nanotechnology and grant
independently directed miniaturized scale machines that are not limited by batteries .

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1.8 Report Layout
First chapter comprises of the introduction, review, resource requirement, proposed system,
problem statement, development methodology and benefits of project. In second chapter, the
history and the characteristics of the system are reviewed in detail. Third chapter covers hardware
description of project. Fourth chapter is about system hardware and software used in project. Fifth
chapter is about simulation and results of both theoretical and practical work. Sixth chapter is about
future scope and limitations of projects.

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CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND AND EXISTING WORK

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2.1 Energy Harvesting
Energy harvesting is the method of taking and accumulating extra energy as the energy becomes
available, storing the energy for a period of time and conditioning it into a form that can be utilized
later, for example, working a microchip with in its points of confinement. Energy harvesting
collecting holds incredible guarantee for both low-voltage and low-control applications in a wide
opportunity of compact or versatile markets, for example, restorative hardware, shopper devices,
transportation, modern controls and military. It is likewise a solid candidate for applications that
require a back-up battery, particularly if the battery is in a remote or troublesome area to reach.
The energy harvesting can be caught from an assortment of sources esteemed squandered or
generally unusable for any useful reason. The procedure, otherwise called energy harvesting
searching, catches remaining energy harvesting as a side-effect of a characteristic natural wonder
or mechanical process and is consequently thought to be "free energy harvesting." More frequently
than not, this leftover energy harvesting is discharged into the earth as waste. Precedents
incorporate mechanical energy harvesting coming about because of vibration, anxiety, warm
energy harvesting from warmth got away from heaters, ignition motors and other warming sources.
Different sources are organic, sun based energy harvesting from all types of light sources;
electromagnetic energy harvesting caught by means of inductors, curls and transformers; wind and
liquid energy harvesting coming about because of air and fluid stream; synthetic energy harvesting
from normally repeating or natural procedures; and gigantic measures of RF energy harvesting in
the earth on account of universal radio transmitters and TV broadcasting[4].
2.1.1 History
The interest in harvested energy turned into given a kick start in the late Seventies while the
primary power crisis befell. Suddenly, new technologies which include solar became all the rage,
and big-scale wind farms started out cropping up as nicely. Unexpectedly, generation had
advanced to make this somewhat realistic. And opposite to maximum ordinary technological
growth tracks, the dynamics of huge-scale wind and solar generation had been a good deal less
difficult to implement than micro- and Nano-scale era. It regarded just like the planets had united
to offer the right grouping of circumstances to provide delivery to the power-harvesting industry
and produce it into the mainstream. Of path, simply due to the fact it can be accomplished doesn’t
always mean it is going to be completed. There became a whole lot of panic rapidly after the

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primary strength disaster, and that bounce-commenced huge-scale progress of the handiest realistic
sources of scavenged or loose energy available at that time-wind and solar electricity. As fossil
gasoline fees adjusted to marketplace demands over the following few years, the bump that wind
and sun were given from the initial fright appeared to vanish into the heritage. Development
persisted, however pleasing ROIs that the hand-wringers promised with the dying of fossil fuels
in no way materialized. The cost of fossil fuels stabilized, and the cost of energy harvesting
nonetheless had a reasonably excessive amortization fee curve.
Modern business photovoltaic era turned into developed in the United States in 1954 when Daryl
Chapin, Calvin Fuller, and Gerald Pearson advanced the primary commercially producible silicon
photovoltaic (PV) cell at Bell Labs. This first silicon sun mobile presented an insignificant four%
performance. He first wind turbine to generate electricity turned into advanced by using Professor
James Blyth of Anderson’s College in Glasgow. The configuration consisted of cloth sails similar
to windmill blades. The generated energy become saved in accumulators and used to electricity
the lighting fixtures of his vacation cottage in Mary Kirk[5].

2.2 Types of Energy Harvesting


Different energy harvesting methods primarily comprise thermoelectric energy harvesting,
photovoltaic energy harvesting, piezoelectric energy harvesting, pyroelectric energy harvesting,
Rf or wireless or electromagnetic energy harvesting, wind energy harvesting, vibration energy
harvesting etc.

2.2.1 Photonic
Photovoltaics change sunlight into energy, and are regularly delivered utilizing semiconductors.
They might be sun based cells or sheets. A little, more affordable sun arranged compact can convey
a hundred and fifty watts of solidarity at early afternoon, so they may be especially notable and
great purposes behind power. The most extraordinary apparent disadvantage of photonic gathering
is that light isn't on 24 hours consistently, which impacts the measure of voltage conveyed. Voltage
is also vanished with slowing down light from nightfall or creeping light from the dawn, all of
which change the edge of occasion of the light which hits the device. Shortcoming to defilement
which join buildup that knots light from the cells may likewise more square their execution. The
insecurity of photovoltaic devices is as yet one increasingly subject. The sun control that contacts

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the earth outperforms by technique for far humanity's needs and assorted quality sources at floor
level, for instance geothermic or tidal power, nuclear energy, and non-sustainable power sources.
Sunlight based power is a supportable and feasible condition of energy. Sunlight based irradiance
incorporates infrared radiation and as a result oversees palatable ability to work sun controlled
warm headways requiring diminished sun control. Thusly, various zones of the world have enough
sun fueled irradiance to use sun controlled warming and cooling advancement. Most of the rising
and a portion of the pushed countries lie inside the tropical belt of the world in which the sun
radiation is better. Advances requiring higher light are fitting for these territories, giving
impressive use ability to every sunlight based warming/cooling ventures and sun energy through
concentrating sun control and photovoltaics. A sizeable bit of these territories moreover are semi-
dry or ruined area, permitting the execution of tremendous scale workplaces, and in this manner
potential use is perceivably raised, in view of the truth these locales are routinely no matter how
you look at it, with minimal propensities and high temperatures and about no periodic changes in
sun light. These locales can cover an unprecedented bit of their needs in warming, cooling, and
energy. For power, age may be adequately splendid to permit incredible assessed conveys also.
This section 11 presents the fundamental development for gathering sun quality and abusing this
for all intents and purposes unfathomable utmost concerning power use. The market to be had
progressions are offered, clearing up the major operational traits giving the basic and most typical
tasks. Crucial money related perspectives, total presented influence, and market regards moreover
are given. The upsides of utilization are shown along the edge of the genuine and particular
hindrances to business focus advancement. The part gives a review of the present day circumstance
of monetarily to be had sunlight based power gathering development[6].
2.2.2 Thermal
If devices are at absolute zero, they have thermal action. Differences in temperature among objects
yield thermal gradients that can be used to produce energy nearly everywhere on Earth. Of route
it isn't always practical nor realistic to use any thing in lifestyles to do this, as elements which
comprise durability, fee, and efficiency would want to be factored in.

Thermoelectric devices used for energy harvesting convert thermal energy into power are formed
from semiconductors. They don’t need generators or pumps or fluids, and don’t need copious
numbers of substances to construct. The most important requirements for process are a heat source

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and a warmth sink. Since thermoelectric elements produce DC power, a in addition requirement is
that of a DC-DC converter to make certain balance of the capacity manufactured by means of the
power source. One in their disadvantages is that they're no longer as green as Sterling engines.

2.2.3 Piezoelectric energy harvesting


Transform mechanical stress into electronic Signal. Piezoelectric materials can be used to
transform oscillatory mechanical energy into electric electricity. This age, composed with recent
mechanical coupling designs, can shape the idea for harvesting electricity from mechanical
motion. Piezoelectric power can be harvested to transform mobile movement from the human
frame into electrical electricity. Recently four evidence-of-idea Heel Strike Units had been
advanced in which each component is largely a small electric generator that makes use of
piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electric energy inside the form
component of the heel of a boot. The effects of the testing and assessment and the performance of
this small electric generator are supplied. The generator’s conversion of mechanical movement
into electric strength, the approaches it is going through to supply useable energy and business
applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are mentioned[7].

2.3 Literature Review


2.3.1 RF Energy Harvesting
In literature distinct studies works have been offered on RF power harvesting systems. Dual-degree
RF power harvester circuit together with seven and ten degree has been designed for unlicensed
ISM band at 915MHz with more than one antennas to growth the quantity of strength harvested.
To harvest energy for GSM 900 band at a distance of 10m from cell towers electromagnetically-
coupled square micro strip antenna has been proposed the use of single stage and six degree voltage
doubler RF circuit. This gives an opportunity source of energy and protects people dwelling in
close by regions from hazards of radiation from towers. Study of various antenna parameters,
feeding techniques, simple standards of antenna design, formulas to calculate height and width and
different parameters of antenna, layout of broadband antennas frequency range. Basics of antenna
layout, use of HFSS software program tools in designing antenna consisting of outline port, add
feed line etc. An green twin band antenna for reinforcing reception of ambient RF alerts with
extensive bandwidth in Wi-Fi bands 2.45GHz and 5GHz has been investigated in which gives an
alternative supply to power sensors in harsh environments and remote places. For GSM bands
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1800 MHz and 915 MHz the RF electricity harvesting circuit with planar twin band monopole
antenna is designed to support green era and wireless sensor network packages. Nevertheless, this
form of layout ought to be advanced in phrases of bandwidth by way of growing substrate thickness
or by adding parasitic elements. For mobile and transportable devices capacitive feed compact
micro strip UWB antenna has been introduced in to lessen size and increase impedance bandwidth.
The capacitive feed strip design provides with 50% development in impedance bandwidth and
decreases spurious radiations. The micro strip antenna with capacitive fed detail having floor
aircraft, radiating patch and small patch positioned among ground aircraft and radiating patch
analyzed using second method which gives favored frequency reaction To increase bandwidth, the
micro strip antenna with capacitive feed, slots throughout radiating and non-radiating sides has
been supplied in slotted patch is complex however provides with constant radiation pattern. For
GSM 900 band a differential micro strip antenna with improved gain for RF electricity harvesting
has been provided in a differential input to rectifier outcomes in decreased efficiency of harvesting
circuit. So electromagnetically coupled micro strip antenna with advanced benefit, efficiency and
bandwidth has been designed[8]. RF strength harvesting circuit with broadband bent triangular
monopole antenna with a strong radiation sample has been proposed which receives each
horizontal and vertical polarized waves. RF power harvesting device the usage of rectifying micro
strip antenna to harvest energy from cell phones in GSM band i.e. 900 MHz has been offered that's
utilized in low cost devices for wireless strength transmission. To achieve gold standard
parameters matching and rectifying circuit has been studied for the energy harvesting device and
multistage rectifiers to provide higher performance. In this paper a unique twin band micro strip
antenna with capacitive feed strip is designed to operate in GSM 1.8 and ISM 2.4 GHz bands. In
the subsequent section simulation and fabrication consequences of micro strip antenna are
discussed and evaluated. And ultimately end is drawn from the consequences.
2.3.2 Rectenna Design
At the initial level, in order to finish the wireless strength transmission device rectenna had been
advanced to get hold of and transform the electromagnetic wave into DC electricity.
The first rectenna became conceived at Raytheon Company in 1963 it changed into constructed
and examined via R.H. George at Purdue University. It turned into composed of 28 half-wave
dipoles, each ended in a bridge rectifier made from 4 1N82G factor- contact, semiconductor diodes
above a reflecting aircraft. In addition, a power output of 7 W was produced at an envisioned

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forty% efficiency. To growing the electricity output appropriate for helicopter experiment, an
identical network became introduced into this shape and the measured output electricity become
accelerated to 270 W.
Later, other dipole type rectennas, experiment at frequency of 2.45GHz changed into established
as well. The maximum conversion efficiency file of ninety.6% turned into made through W.C.
Brown in 1977 the usage of a GaAsPt Schottky barrier diode with enter microwave strength degree
of 8W. 2.45 GHz turned into usually used as the transmitting frequency due to its progressive and
effective generation, region on the middle of an industrial medical, and clinical (ISM) band, and
its minor attenuation over the atmosphere even in heavy rainstorms. Components for microwave
power transmission were historically directed at 2.45 GHZ. To reduce the transmitting and
rectenna aperture area and boom the transmission variety, APCP Power Technologies changed a
72% efficient rectenna element at 35 GHz in 1991. 35 GHz become concentrated as a result of a
reduction within the atmospheric absorption round this frequency. However, components for
producing high electricity at 35 GHz had been luxurious and inefficient. To lower the aperture
sizes without sacrificing component performance, generation developed at the next better ISM
band focused at 5.8 GHz has been investigated. This frequency is appealing for beamed power
transmission due to smaller aspect sizes and an extra transmission range over 2.45 GHz[9].
In 1992, the primary C-band printed dipole rectenna finished a 70% normal performance and an
eighty% conversion performance at 5.87 GHz [10]. These efficiencies were measured in a
waveguide simulator with an enter energy degree of about seven-hundred mW by using detail.
However, little records is supplied on the layout and testing of this rectenna.
In wireless electricity transmission, antennas in rectenna systems have properly-described
polarization, excessive rectification performance enabled by using single frequency and excessive
strength density incident on an array of rectennas. Applications for this sort of energy switch has
been proposed for microwave electricity helicopter, sun-powered satellite to floor transmission,
inter-satellite power transmission and quick-range of Wi-Fi electricity switch.[10].

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CHAPTER 3

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

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3.1 List of components
Hardware consists of all physical components of the system. Following components are used in
the project.
1*4 Microstrip patch array, SMA connectors (male and Female), Schottky diode, LED, Aluminum
foil, plate PCB board, coaxial cable, Rectifier Circuit, Matching Circuit, CLC filter, SMD
components.

3.2 1*4 Micro strip Patch Array


Micro strip antennas are very convenient and utilized amongst different things, to put together a
required series that isn't viable with single patch. Further, arrays are used to scan the beam of an
antenna system, growth the directivity, and carry out many different capabilities which would be
tough with someone single element. The elements can be fed by means of a single line or by way
of multiple strains in a feed circuit arrangement. One of the vital factors for the design of a square
micro strip patch antenna is the frequency at which it operates. The resonant frequency of the
antenna need to be decided on as it should be. The economic, scientific and clinical (ism) structures
uses the frequency range from 2.4GHz - 2. 5GHz. For this cause, the antenna designed must be
capable of execute in this frequency range. The resonant frequency selected for our design is 2.45
GHz[11].

3.3 SMA Connectors


The SMA connector is a semi-precision sub-miniature rf and microwave connector that is
substantially used, mainly for rf connections inside digital systems for frequencies as much as 18
GHz and from time to time extra. The SMA connector is available in different formats, male,
female, instantly, right-angled, bulkhead becoming and many more permitting it to fulfill most
requirements. Its sub-miniature size additionally enables it for use, even inside extraordinarily
small items of electronic device. Despite the fact that now well established, the SMA connector is
in all likelihood to peer its use prolonged as many new Rf structures see their operating frequencies
extending properly into the microwave area[12].

3.4 Schottky Diode


A Schottky diode is a instrument, which comes in the category of a metal-semiconductor junction
diode. Barrier diode and low voltage diodes are the other names for Schottky diode. While

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compared to a PN junction diode, strength drop is lower in Schottky diode. A scientist named
Walter. H. Schottky first located Schottky diode. Normally, in a PN junction device, whilst high-
quality type (p-kind) and poor type (n-type) are joined collectively they form a PN junction. But,
in a Schottky diode, substances like aluminum or platinum are used instead of p-type
semiconductors. The most essential bodily parameter of this Schottky diode is their rapid switching
fee and much less forward voltage drop. It's far a metallic-semiconductor junction that does not
have the ability to shop expenses at their junction. The purpose in the back of that is due to the
absence of the depletion layer. Generally, a voltage drop takes place across the diode terminals,
when modern flows thru a diode. Schottky diode voltage drop is typically among 0. 15 and 0. 45
volts while in comparison to a normal diode. An ordinary PN junction diode has a voltage drop
ranging among 0. 6 to 1. 7 volts. For higher efficiency and output, voltage drop ought to be low.
When manufacturing the diode, n-type semiconductor acts as a cathode and the metallic aspect
acts an anode of the diode. While a voltage is given to the diode, the modern flows within the
forward path. When this contemporary flows thru the diode, there will be a minimum voltage loss
throughout the terminals of the diode. This lack of voltage is known as-as the voltage drop[13].

3.5 Light emitting Diode


A light-emitting diode (led) is a semiconductor device that enerate visible light once an electric
current passes through it. The light is not specifically bright, but normally it's monochromatic,
going on at a single wavelength. The output of an led can range from red (at a wavelength of
approximately 700 nanometers) to blue-violet (about 400 nanometers)

3.6 Aluminum Foil


Aluminum is the 3rd most element found on earth. Its miles extracted from bauxite. Bauxite is
delicate to make a pure aluminum oxide name alumina. The alumina is charged by electrical
current. This technique is also famous as electronic reduction. The metal gained from this system
is introduced to different types of alloys letting them offer precise traits applicable for a selection
of applications.

3.7 Printed circuit Board


A printed circuit board (Pcb) is an electronic circuit used in devices to give mechanical guide and
a way to its electronic parts. It is made with the assistance of going along with unique sheets of

24
non-conductive material, alongside fiberglass or plastic, that without inconvenience holds copper
hardware. Pcb is alluded to as printed wiring board (pwb) or carved wiring board (ewb). A pcb
takes a shot at the copper films/meeting/circuit which can be put within it to give a way to the drift
of present day. A pcb can keep up different electronic added substances that might be joined
without the utilization of seen wires, which permits its utilization. Pcb's are situated in pretty much
every electronic and registering device, together with motherboards, organize cards and pics cards
to internal hardware found in intense/CD-ROMs drives.

3.8 Rectifier circuit

A rectifier converts an alternating cutting (ac) into a direct current(dc) by one or more than one p-
n junction diodes. At the same time as the voltage is applied to the p-n junction diode when positive
terminal of battery is connected to p-type semiconductor and the negative terminal of the battery
is connected to the n-type semiconductor, then diode is into forward biased. When this forward
bias voltage is executed to the p-n junction diode, electrons (majority carriers) within the n-type
semiconductor experience a repulsive pressure from the negative terminal of the battery further a
big wide range of holes (majority carriers) in the p-type semiconductor revel in a repulsive pressure
from the positive terminal of the battery.

There are mainly two types of rectifier

Half wave rectifier

Full wave rectifier

3.8.1 Full wave rectifier

The full wave rectifier is one which transforms the AC input current (positive half cycle and
negative half cycle) to pulsating DC output current. In the half wave rectifier signal is missed but
in full wave no signal is unexploited. The performance of full wave rectifier is more in comparison
to the half wave rectifier[14].

25
3.9 Matching circuit
If your Rf circuit consists of components that did not have matched impedances, you have got two
choices, either change one of the components or add a circuit that matches the source impedance
with the load impedance. Nowadays the first choice is usually no longer sensible; it would be tough
certainly to modify impedance by way of physically enhancing an incorporated circuit or a
manufactured coaxial cable. Luckily, though, the second one choice is flawlessly ok. The extra
circuit is referred to as an identical network or an impedance transformer. Each names are useful
in know-how the essential concept: a matching network permits right impedance matching through
transforming the impedance dating between supply and cargo. An identical circuit is attached
between a supply and a load, and its circuitry is normally designed such that it transfers almost all
electricity to the load even as providing an input impedance this is identical to the complex
conjugate of the supply’s output impedance. Rather, you could think of a matching circuit as
transforming the output impedance of the supply such that it's miles identical to the complicated
conjugate of the burden impedance. (in actual-existence circuits that supply impedance frequently
has no imaginary part, and as a result we don’t want to always confer with the complex conjugate.
We are able to genuinely say that the weight impedance need to equal the supply impedance,
because the complicated conjugate isn’t relevant while the impedance is purely real.)
typical matching networks (known as “lossless” networks) use most effective reactive additives, i.
E., additives that save energy in place of use up power. This function follows certainly from the
motive of an identical circuit, namely, to permit maximum electricity transfer from source to load.
If the matching circuit contained additives that dissipate strength, it might consume some of the
power that we're trying to supply to the burden. As a result, matching networks use capacitors and
inductors, and not resistors. It is difficult to design a wideband matching circuit. This is not
unexpected when we understand that the matching circuit consists of reactive components: the
impedance of inductors and capacitors is dependent on frequency; therefore, changing the
frequency of the indicators passing via the matching network can motive it to be much less
powerful[15].

3.10 CLC Filter


Pi filter consists of a shunt capacitor at input beside with the L-section filter. The output from the
rectifier is directly given through capacitor. The dc output voltage is filtered first by method of the

26
capacitor connected at the input after which by choke coil and then by some other shunt capacitor.
The building arrangement of all the components resembles the form of Greek letter pi (π). As a
consequence it's also to as pi clear out. Except, the capacitor is present on the input. As a result, it
is also referred to as capacitor input filter.

Figure 3.1 CLC Filter

3.10.1 Working of CLC filter (π- filter)

The output voltage generating from rectifier besides consolidate cooling parts. Properly, it is a
basic need to put off these forced air system swells to improve the execution of the device. The
yield from the rectifier is truly completed to the data capacitor. The capacitor shows a low
impedance to cooling swells present in the yield voltage and high security from dc voltage.
Therefore, cutoff of the forced air system swells get kept away from through the capacitor in data
degree generally direct. The rest of the cooling portions which might be regardless found in filtered
dc sign gets isolated after they skip by methods for the inductor circle and through the capacitor
associated parallel over the stack. Thusly, the capability of filtering will fabricate distinctive
events. Inside the example of l-dispense with channel, one inductor and capacitor were favoring
so if some forced air system swells state 1% is left in the wake of filtering that may be cleared in
pi-filter through. Subsequently, pi get out is contemplated extra green[16].

27
CHAPTER 4

SYSTEM HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE


DESIGN

28
4.1 System Working and Block diagram
The system is an aggregate of different digital components the proposed rectenna includes a
receiving antenna and Rf-to-dc rectifier. The rectifier includes two tapered micro strip traces, a
Schottky diode, a micro strip line, a matching micro strip line, and an output low pass filter. The
circuit is etched on the substrate of fr4. A load resistor, linked at the output of the rectifier,
represents the input impedance of the device to be powered. Antenna converts electromagnetic
waves into low power electric alerts with a view to be feed to an ac to dc converter.
The software’s used inside the proposed system are HFSS used for design of antenna and ADS
(advance design systems) for layout of rectifier and matching circuit.

4.1.1 Working
The system is divided into two parts, one part is Antenna Fabrication and the other is rectifier
circuit. The block diagram of the system is shown in the Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1 Block Diagram of Rectenna

29
The rectenna configuration includes a The rectenna design comprises of a miniaturized microstrip
patch antenna and a rectifier circuit, wherein them two resound at 2. 45 Ghz. HFSS programming
is utilized as the simulation instrument of the Microstrip patch antenna. At that point, the planned
recieving wire will be created and amassed aggregately, and inspected the utilization of system
analyzer. The rectifier comprises of decreased miniaturized scale strip lines, a Schottky diode, a
λ/four small scale strip line, a coordinating smaller scale strip line, and a yield low skip sift through.
The circuit is laid out on the substrate of fr4. The circuit could be structured and advanced the use
of increment design contraption (ads), at that point might be created utilizing miniaturized scale
strip follows with a fr4 substrate. Steady with the got Wi-Fi control, the estimations of yield dc
voltage and Energy harvesting had been estimated and the extraordinary cost of burden protection
from reap most extreme yield dc power has been chosen through recreation. Also, a rectifier circuit,
wherein them two resonate at 2. 45 Ghz. HFSS writing computer programs is used as the
amusement instrument of the proposed littler microstrip patch antenna. By then, the organized
radio wire will be made and assembled everything considered, and assessed the usage of
framework analyzer. The rectifier includes diminished little scale strip lines, a Schottky diode, a
λ/four littler scale strip line, an organizing scaled down scale strip line, and a yield low skip filter
through. The circuit is spread out on the substrate of fr4. The circuit could be arranged and
redesigned the usage of augmentation position contraption (commercials), by then may be made
using little scale strip pursues with a fr4 substrate. Relentless with the procured Wi-Fi control, the
estimations of yield dc voltage and Energy harvesting Harvesting had been assessed and the
unimaginable expense of weight insurance from gather most outrageous yield dc control has been
settled on through simulation

4.2 Schematic Diagram of the system


The circuit diagram of the 1*4 patch array antenna and rectifier is shown in figure 4.1 and figure
4.2. The wireless power may be stored by using the antenna related to rectifying circuit through
filters and an identical circuit. The rectifying circuit converts the received Wi-Fi strength into dc
voltage a low pass filter and a dc pass clear out before and after the circuit. The low-pass filter can
protect the antenna with the rectifier and block the noise frequencies generated through the
rectifying diode a great manner to reap high Rf to dc conversion overall performance. The

30
rectifying diode is the center detail of the rectifier circuit. A load resistor is placed at the output
terminal to degree the dc output voltage.

Figure 4.1

Figure 4.1 Microstrip patch antenna

Figure 4.2 Schematic diagram of Rectifier Circuit

4.3 Software Design

4.3.1 HFSS Software


HFSS is a full-wave electromagnetic(EM) field test framework for optional 3D volumetric latent
device exhibiting that abuses the common Microsoft Windows graphical UI. It consolidates
amusement, portrayal, solid illustrating, and computerization in a straightforward condition where

31
answers for your 3D EM issues are quickly and absolutely gotten. Ansoft HFSS uses the Finite
Element Method(FEM), flexible cross area, and impressive delineations to give you unparalleled
execution and comprehension to all your 3D EM issues. Ansoft HFSS can be used to process
parameters, for instance, S-Parameters, Resonant Frequency, and Fields[17].
The item used to show and copy the Microstrip fix exhibit is HFSS. HFSS is a prevalent full-wave
electromagnetic (EM) field test framework for self-self-assured 3D volumetric detached Device
showing that abuses the outstanding Microsoft Windows graphical UI. It arranges generation,
portrayal, solid showing, and reenactment in an easy to-learn condition where answers for your
3D EM issues are quickly and unequivocally obtained. Ansoft HFSS uses the Finite Element
Method (FEM), flexible grid, and stunning representations to give you unparalleled execution and
comprehension to all your 3D EM issues. Ansoft HFSS can be used to learn parameters, for
instance, S-Parameters, Resonant Frequency, and Fields. Microstrip accepting wires are used as a
solitary segment just as acclaimed in shows. Rule limitation of Microstrip is that it transmits
successfully a little more than a tight band of frequencies and they can't work at the ground-
breaking measurements of waveguide, coaxial line, or even strip line. This can be constrained with
the help of various show structures, reinforcing strategies, dielectric materials and ground planes.
Radio wire shows are used to channel the light outflow gathering device system, to extend the
directivity, increment and improve diverse limits which would be troublesome with single part
getting wire.

4.3.2 Advance design system(ADS)


ADS is a test system and simulation tool like spice, cadence Yet, it focuses on the RF and
microwave structure, so the vast majority of its Devices on the library are microwave Devices. The
ADS Main Window enable you to make and oversee ADS workspaces. A workspace is a
coordinator where you can gather everything about a structure inside, for example, libraries,
innovation, schematic, format, recreation information, and Momentum information. The whole
ADS UI and reproduction works inside a right now opened workspace. The File View page of the
Main window enables you to cross to your current workspaces (situated in the default organizer).
To open any of these workspaces, select and right-click on the workspace and pick Open
Workspace or double tap on the chose workspace. When a workspace is open, ADS naturally
changes to the Folder View page where it shows every one of the substance of that workspace, and
you can begin planning schematic or format, or perform errands like reproduction of the structures
32
previously made. From ADS Main Window, see the File menu alternatives for progressively broad
workspace the board directions[18].

4.3.2.1 S-Parameter Simulation


You can insert an S parameter simulation where you can define a range of frequencies and a
step. For those frequencies you can obtain the four S parameters and visualize them in a table
on a Smith chart. Those will be the S parameters for the bias defined in your circuit (IB=1mA,
VCE=1V). For that purpose, you need to include the 50ohm generator and load (TERM). You
also need to include two capacitors for ac coupling (DC BLOCK) and two inductors for dc
coupling (DC FEED). These elements can be found in LUMPED ELEMENTS.

4.3.2.2 Harmonic Balance


Harmonic balance is a frequency area analysis procedure for simulation nonlinear circuits and
frameworks. It is appropriate for recreating simple RF and microwave circuits, since these are most
normally taken care of in the frequency area. Circuits that are best broke down utilizing HB under
substantial flag conditions are control intensifiers, frequency multipliers, blenders, oscillators and
modulators.
Consonant Balance Simulation calculates the size and period of voltages or flows in a conceivably
nonlinear circuit. Utilize this strategy to Compute amounts, for example, P1dB, third-request
capture (TOI) focuses, complete consonant mutilation (THD), and intermodulation twisting parts,
perform control intensifier load-pull shape examinations, perform nonlinear commotion
investigation, and reproduce oscillator sounds, stage clamor, and adequacy constrains conversely,
S-parameter or AC reenactment modes don't give any data on nonlinearities of circuits. Transient
investigation, for the situation where there are music and additionally firmly separated frequencies,
is very time and memory expending since the base time step must be good with the most
astounding frequency present while the reenactment must be kept running for enough time to
watch one full time of the least frequency present. Consonant equalization recreation makes
conceivable the reenactment of circuits with numerous info frequencies[19].

33
CHAPTER 5

TESTING AND SIMULATION

34
5.1 Introduction
The results of simulation and measurement for the single patch and array antenna of Microstrip
are presented in this chapter. The simulation is performed by using HFSS software and Advanced
Digital system. The layouts are obtained on the basis of these results and then sent to manufacture.
The antennas will be tested after manufacture using the Agilent Network Analyzer.

5.2 Characteristics of Designed Antennas


This section can be focused to decide the characteristics of the designed antenna both it carried out
the objective of this assignment that's to design 2. 45 Ghz Microstrip patch array antenna for wlan
application. The characteristics with the intention to cowl are go back loss reaction (s11), radiation
sample and the capacity of the antennas. The consequences obtained for simulation and dimension
can be separate to single micro strip patch and micro strip patch array antenna.

5.3 Single Patch Microstrip Antenna


The characteristics which have been targeted are return loss (s11 ) and radiation pattern. The results
are divided into two sections which are in simulation result the use of Hfss and measurment effects.
As an addition, the network performance trying out additionally executed to check the capability
of the antenna in wlan software.

5.3.1 HFSS Simulation


The first step for using this software is to determine all the parameters of the substrate used. In this
case, FR4 is used. The parameters are the dielectric substrate, thickness of conductor, tangent loss
of conductor, surface roughness and the frequency that the patch will be resonant which are clearly
visible in Figure 5.1.
HFSS provide circuit and EM simulation, and support the designing of simple circuits to complex
RF applications. Therefore, simulation of the antenna is possible in HFSS. After constructing the
layout of the single patch, and illustrated in Figure 5.1. Then after simulation finish, the results for
the simulation are shown in Figure 5.1. For the simulation, the result will be focused on return loss
(S11 ).

35
Figure 5.2 S11 Simulation Response for Original Single Patch Dimension

S11 is the input reflection coefficient and it is supposed to have the lowest dip at the operating
frequency. S11 is equal to the ratio of the reflected wave and an incident wave with the load
impedance (antenna impedance) equal to the line impedance. It measures the antenna’s absorption
of the fed power over the total power fed. A good antenna should indicate a return loss of less than
-10 dB, which indicates that the antenna absorbs more than 90% of the fed power.
From the simulation response result, the S11 for single patch antenna is -23.95dB at 2.43 GHz. This
result is not ideal with the objective in this project which is the resonant or operating frequency for
the antenna suppose at 2.45 GHz. Therefore, optimization process need to be performed to improve
the result as the calculated dimensions does not take the minor losses into considerations.

5.3.1.1 Optimization of Patch Antenna


Advancement process is performed manually in this task by altering a different element of the fix,
for example, width and length to accomplish the longing working recurrence. For the radio wire
resounding recurrence, decide by its length. To discover how the different elements of the fix
receiving wire impact the task of the reception apparatus, the different measurements were
balanced and the few outcomes were recorded in Table 1

36
Patch (mm) Frequency

(GHz) S11 (dB)


Width Length

36.26 27.90 2.43 -23.95

36.20 27.40 2.53 -26.13

36.26 27.70 2.48 -27.18

36.30 27.60 2.48 -24.49

36.27 27.55 2.46 -27.59

36.25 27.50 2.44 -27.20

36.25 27.60 2.45 -28.45


Table 1 Various Dimension Effect on S11 Response

The table 2 shows how the S11 is affected by the various dimensions of the patch antenna. From this, a clear
understanding of what dimensions need to be adjusts to optimize the antenna in order to achieve
the desired response.

Patch Original size Optimized Difference

(mm) size (mm) (mm)

Width 36.26 36.25 0.01

Length 27.90 27.60 0.30


Table 2 Optimise Dimension Versus Original Dimension (Single Patch)

37
From the Table 1 shows that the differences between the original and the optimized patch antenna
are very small. This shows that the dimensions calculated are quite accurate. Therefore, the
optimized patch antenna’s dimensions are put to simulation and the simulation response.

5.3.1.2 Radiation Pattern Simulation Result


The radiation pattern estimates the capacity of a receiving wire to get or transmit in a specific
direction. It additionally gives a proportion of the increase and the half-power bandwidth (HPBW),
and directivity, which likewise attempts to accomplish a similar objective, which is to measure
how a receiving antenna performs at a particular heading. This can be resolved when the
polarization designs for E and H plane are plotted. A decent receiving wire ought to have a 0o
seclusion of in excess of 20 dB, which is the distinction between the co-enraptured esteem and the
cross-spellbound incentive at 0o.
The radiation design fundamentally is influenced by the width of the fix, w and the substrate
stature, h. The littler the estimation of w, the more extensive the H plane example will be, while
the slenderer substrate, h, widens the E plane

Figure 5.3 Single Patch Optimized Simulated Radiation Pattern

38
5.3.1.3 S11 Measurement
The S11 of the antennas is taken with Agilent E5062A network analyzer. Basically the network
analyzer is capable of measuring signals from 300 kHz to 3 GHz. For measuring of S 11, the setup
of the equipment is fairly easy. The antenna is connected to the network analyzer through a SMA
connector. The figure 5.3 shows the S11measuring using the Agilent E5062A network analyzer.

Figure 5.4 S11 Measurement Process Using Network Analyzer

5.4 Microstrip Patch Array Antenna


In this section, the results for Microstrip patch array antenna will be focused on S11 response,
radiation pattern and network performance. For S11 response and radiation pattern simulation and
measurement results are presented.

5.4.1 HFSS Simulation


The step for simulation array antenna is same with the single patch antenna that has been discussed
previous. The step will be repeated for the array antenna. Figure 5.4 below show the result for S11
simulation response for the original dimension of array antenna.

39
Figure 5.5 Simulated S11 Response for Original Array Antenna Dimension

5.4.1.1 Radiation Pattern Simulation Result


The simulation result for optimized radiation pattern is illustrated in the Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.6 Optimized Simulated Radiation Pattern

5.4.1.2 Gain of simulation result


The gain result for microstrip patch array is given in 5.6 is approximately equal to 6db on 12
passes. As we increase number of passes the gain increases.

40
Figure 5.7 Gain of microstrip patch array

41
CHAPTER 6

FUTURE WORK AND CONCLUSION

42
6.1 Limitations of Project
The project is successfully completed, each of the goals and objectives have been achieved.
However, in this project there are certain limitations. The technology is developing day by day
so by applying it with new technologies and components this Rectenna can also be improved.
There are some constraints to this project which are discussed as following.

6.1.1 Power utilization


The visible intrigue of encompassing RF Energy is that it is fundamentally "free" Energy
Harvesting. The amount of radio transmitters, especially for versatile base stations and
handsets, continues extending. ABI Research and iSupply review the amount of wireless
enrollments has as of late cross 5 billion, and the ITU evaluates there are more than 1 billion
participations for adaptable broadband. Phones address a generous wellspring of transmitters
from which to procure RF Energy Harvesting, and will possibly engage customers to give
control on-solicitation to a variety of short closeness identifying applications. Furthermore,
consider the amount of Wi-Fi switches and remote end devices, for instance, PCs. In some
urban circumstances, it is possible to really recognize numerous Wi-Fi ways from a single
zone. At short range, for instance, inside a comparative room, it is possible to gather an
unassuming proportion of Energy Harvesting from a customary Wi-Fi switch transmitting at a
power measurement of 50 to 100 mW. For longer-run action, greater recieving wires with
higher expansion are required for sensible gathering of RF Energy Harvesting from convenient
base stations and impart radio towers. In 2005, Power cast demonstrated encompassing RF
Energy Harvesting gathering at 1.5 miles (~2.4 km) from a bit, 5-kW AM radio station.
RF Energy Harvesting can be imparted in unlicensed gatherings, for instance, 868MHz,
915MHz, 2.4GHz, and 5.8GHz when more power or more obvious Energy Harvesting is
required than what is open from incorporating sources. At 915MHz, government rules limit
the yield power of radios using unlicensed repeat gatherings to 4W fruitful isotropic radiated
control (EIRP), as by virtue of radio-repeat recognizing verification (RFID) analysts. As an
examination, earlier periods of PDAs subject to straightforward advancement had most
outrageous transmission force of 3.6W, and Power cast's TX91501 transmitter.

44
6.2 Improvements
Since Tesla’s first wireless power transmission (WPT) experiment in the 1890s, transferring
energy from a power source to a load without the connection of electrical conductors has
attracted a lot of interest over the past century. In 1963, long distance wireless power
transmission via microwave was first demonstrated at the Raytheon’s Spencer laboratory
where 100 W DC power was delivered. One year later, William C. Brown et al. demonstrated
a microwave-powered helicopter in flight 60 ft. above a transmitting antenna. In 2007, a group
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology demonstrated a new approach for transmitting
energy over larger distances using resonant inductive coupling, providing 60 W to a lamp
placed 2 m from the transmitter with an efficiency of 40%. These significant milestones and
successful achievements have motivated the research of WPT, which includes inductive power
transfer (IPT) and radiative microwave power transfer over a frequency range from several
kHz to GHz or even up to THz. The development of WPT is of great significance to the modern
industry, since a range of potential applications have been found in such as wireless
communications, sensor networks, RFID, Machine-to-Machine (M2M), and Internet of
Things (IoT).
In addition to the aforementioned WPT technologies that normally deliver the power from a
predetermined source to a load. In the recent years, wireless energy harvesting (WEH) from
ambient electromagnetic fields has been developed where the energy can be obtained directly
from wireless signals in the air, such as the mobile, DTV, and Wi-Fi signals. It sounds like a
great idea if we could use this technology to replace the battery for many electronic devices.
But, some major challenges have been identified when the WEH was used in practice, which
include the relatively low power level (e.g., < -30 dBm) and the instabilities in the ambient
environment (e.g., multi-path propagation effects). Therefore, the available DC power
obtained from real ambience is normally very small while the output power level is
consequently very unstable[20].
Multiband and broadband rectennas could be a promising solution to overcome this
challenges, since the ambient wireless signals are distributed over a wide frequency band
(from 200 MHz to 4 GHz). Such rectennas can accumulate more energy from different
channels and different sources simultaneously and thus produce a higher DC output power.

45
But, due to the nonlinearity of the rectenna, the design of broadband or multiband rectennas is
very challenging, while its performance can be easily affected by the variations in such as the
input power level and the load impedance. So far, there are very few multiband or broadband
rectennas reported with good performance. A need exists for rectennas with high conversion
efficiency, a wide frequency bandwidth and also consistent performance in different operating
conditions. In this paper, we firstly present an overview of recent progress in multiband and
broadband rectennas for WEH and WPT applications from the literature (in Section II). Then,
we introduce a number of new technologies developed by us to design broadband rectennas
for WEH and maintain their performance in a varying operating condition (in Section III). We
have significantly improved the overall conversion efficiency and the total output power of
broadband rectennas, especially when the input power to the rectifier is relatively low (e.g., -
30 dBm). In addition, a novel technique to eliminate the complex impedance matching
networks for broadband rectennas is presented. The proposed broadband rectenna without a
matching network still remains high conversion efficiency and consistent performance.

46
6.3 Future Scope
As future work, RF Energy can be utilized to charge or work a wide scope of low-control
devices. At short proximity to a low-control transmitter, this Energy can be utilized to stream
charge various devices including GPS or RLTS following labels, wearable restorative sensors,
and buyer hardware, for example, digital book checks and headsets. At longer range the power
can be utilized for battery-based or sans battery remote sensors for HVAC control and building
computerization, auxiliary observing, and mechanical control. Contingent upon the power
necessities and framework task, power can be sent persistently, on a booked premise, or on-
request. In extensive scale sensors organizations huge work cost evasion is conceivable by
taking out the future support endeavors to supplant batteries.
Accessible power from a 3W transmitter will be low plant watts inside a couple of feet and
many microwatts at around 40 feet. This measure of intensity is best utilized for devices with
low-control utilization and long or visit charge cycles. Commonly, devices that work for a
considerable length of time, months, or years on a solitary arrangement of batteries are great
possibility for being remotely revived by RF Energy. In certain applications basically enlarging
the battery life or balancing the rest current of a microcontroller is sufficient to legitimize
including RF-based remote power and Energy reaping innovation.
A system of transmitters can be situated in an office to give remote power on a room-by-room
premise, or for a many-to-many charging topology. Cell phones can be utilized as compact
power hotspots for various sans battery remote devices. Envision a cell phone fueling a battery-
less, body-worn sensor that sends information to the telephone by means of a normally utilized
convention, for example, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or ZigBee[21].

6.4 Conclusion
RF waves are present everywhere over an ever-increasing range of frequencies and power
levels, specifically in highly populated urban areas. These radio waves represent a unique and
widely available source of energy if it can be effectively and efficiently harvested. The growing
number of wireless transmitters is naturally resulting in increased RF power density and
availability. Dedicated power transmitters further enable engineered and predictable wireless
power solutions. With continued decreases in the power consumption of electronic
components, increased sensitivity of passive receivers for RF harvesting, and improved

47
performance of low-leakage energy storage devices, the applications for wire-free charging by
means of RF-based wireless power and energy harvesting will continue to grow[21].

48
REFRENCES
[1] W. A. Serdijn, A. L. R. Mansano, and M. Stoopman, “Introduction to RF Energy
Harvesting,” Wearable Sensors, pp. 299–322, Jan. 2014.
[2] A. M. Shire, N. Abdullah, and E. Mohd, “Design of rectenna for wireless energy
harvesting,” Proc. - 14th IEEE Student Conf. Res. Dev. Adv. Technol. Humanit.
SCOReD 2016, pp. 8–11, 2017.
[3] R. Krishnamoothy and K. Umapathy, “Design And Implementation Of Microstrip
Antenna For Energy Harvesting Charging Low Power Devices,” in 2018 Fourth
International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronics, Information,
Communication and Bio-Informatics (AEEICB), 2018, pp. 1–3.
[4] M. Kinman, “What is Energy Harvesting and How Does it Work?,” 2010. [Online].
Available: https://www.ecnmag.com/article/2010/04/what-energy-harvesting-and-
how-does-it-work. [Accessed: 18-Feb-2019].
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