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TEMPERATURE CONTROL IN MASS CONCRETE

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
A common problem with the construction of mass concrete structures is the additional
money, time, and efforts needed to deal with the heat of hydration (HH) released. The HH occurs
as a result of the exothermic reaction between cement and water. This reaction causes a rise in
the temperature inside the mass concrete structure, which creates a temperature gradient between
the interior of the structure and its surface. Temperatures in the interior can reach up to 135°F
depending on the size of the structure and the mass of concrete. The greater the mass of concrete,
the higher the temperature will be. Most codes specify a temperature difference between the
surface and the core of the concrete less than 35°F. If this difference is surpassed, thermal
cracking in the concrete may occur. Thermal cracking is the result of the concrete surface and
core expanding and contracting at different rates. The concrete expands as the temperature
increases due to the release of the HH. However, the surface of the concrete structure cools
faster than its core. The heat in mass concrete escapes at a slower rate than is generated, which
keeps the core hot and creates problems in the structure. Durability and strength are crucial in
mass concrete structures; therefore the heat gradient that causes thermal cracking must be
prevented and controlled. Proper placement of concrete and mix design is the best options when
trying to reduce the heat released. For example, in normal concrete placement for isolated
footings, the heat is dissipated into the soil without creating any temperature change in the
structure. However, thermal cracking is extremely problematic in mass concrete structures, such
as matt foundations, and can cause a lot of damage.
1.2 PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVE
Several previous studies have investigated different methods for treating the effects of the
HH. The body of knowledge in this area requires proper organization to facilitate the process of
reviewing the literature for future researchers. As such, this paper aims at presenting organized
summaries of previous studies conducted on different methods used for treating the HH in mass
concreting. The main focus of this paper is the construction methods used for controlling the
temperature in mass concreting as will be discussed in detail in the following sections.

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TEMPERATURE CONTROL IN MASS CONCRETE

CHAPTER 2
APPLICATIONS OF MASS CONCRETE
The technique of improving the crack resistance of mass concrete structures is mainly
from three aspects. First of all, to optimize the ratio of raw materials for concrete, which requires
civil engineering construction technical staff through different concrete ratio for repeated
experiments and comparison, analysis of its crack resistance differences, to determine the best
anti-cracking performance of raw materials Than the program, it will be applied to the
construction of civil engineering construction, at the same time, the site construction staff should
be in strict accordance with the approved ratio of concrete preparation plan to ensure the
standardization of the preparation process, thereby enhancing the crack resistance of concrete.
Secondly, through the reasonable reinforcement of the reinforcement, to strengthen the effective
control of the weak part of the concrete structure, enhance the structural strength of mass
concrete, thereby enhancing its crack resistance. In addition, the use of additives can be used to
increase the crack resistance of concrete, the main role of additives is to control the autotrophic
characteristics of mass concrete, so that the degree of expansion and contraction to maintain a
reasonable range, and thus the overall volume of concrete structure Crack resistance is enhanced.
The control of the temperature stress in the construction of mass concrete structure can also
reduce the chance of concrete cracks and improve the quality of concrete construction. The
technical application of controlling the temperature stress can control the pouring temperature
from three aspects. Due to changes in ambient temperature will also have a certain impact on the
temperature of concrete pouring, pouring temperature increase for the concrete temperature
stress will bring a very serious impact, so that in the construction of civil engineering
construction, must be avoided in the hot summer Large volume of concrete pouring work, if you
can not avoid the construction time will be arranged at noon, must be supplemented by the
material cooling measures, through the cooling control pouring temperature, control the amount
of cement. The hydration process of cement is the main factor that produces the temperature
stress, which can be controlled by reducing the amount of cement in the construction. The
decrease of the cement quantity will affect the strength of the concrete structure to a certain
extent, which requires the use of other materials Such as the addition of water reducing agent and
the application of mixed materials, so that the concrete ratio to balance, and the application of
low heat cement, but also to control the water heat of cement, reduce the impact of temperature
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TEMPERATURE CONTROL IN MASS CONCRETE

stress on the concrete structure of the effective measures, mandatory Cooling treatment. When a
more special situation is encountered, the temperature control of the concrete must be achieved
by a mandatory countermeasure, such as the use of a method of embedding water pipes inside
the concrete, to promote the discharge of cold water into the pipe, the effect of internal
temperature.
The control of binding should proceed from both external binding control and internal
constraint control. In the control of external binding, the binding force of the foundation to the
mass concrete structure can be reduced by setting the sliding layer, so that the concrete has
certain flexibility and control the generation of the crack. The setting of the sliding layer is
mainly There are sand cushion and asphalt felt. Internal control of the constraints, mainly from
the control of the temperature stress to start, you can through the greenhouse method to reduce
the temperature of the water temperature, etc., to improve the internal and external temperature
difference between concrete structure.
o In metropolitan cities
o High rise buildings
o Columns and foundations
o Metro railways
o Other infrastructural developments
o Piers, bed blocks, flyovers etc.
o Dams, reservoirs, retaining walls and maritime structures etc.

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CHAPTER 3
CRACKS IN MASS CONCRETE
Due to the characteristics of mass concrete structure, the mass concrete structure is in the
construction of civil engineering construction, prone to cracks, affects the quality of mass
concrete structure, but also affects the overall quality of civil engineering construction. The
problem of mass concrete cracks can be divided into three types: surface cracks and deep cracks
according to the different forms and degrees of cracks. The effect of surface cracks on the quality
of buildings is relatively small, but it may be developed if it is not processed in time. For the
penetration of cracks, and then the quality and structure of buildings have a greater impact, such
as any of its continued development, when the formation of deep cracks, it may cut off the
concrete structure section, serious damage to the stability of the building. The main factors that
lead to the common cracks in the construction of mass concrete structures in civil engineering
buildings include the following aspects.

Fig 3.1: Cracks in mass concrete

The deformation of the foundation is a major factor in the formation of cracks in mass
concrete structures. As the foundation is subjected to different forces after the construction of the

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TEMPERATURE CONTROL IN MASS CONCRETE

concrete structure, the uneven settlement may occur or the lateral displacement may occur. The
stress inside the concrete structure, when the stress exceeds the tensile strength range of concrete,
it leads to the emergence of concrete cracks.
Large volume concrete structure due to the larger volume, the construction process of
internal water heat generated by the reaction of a large amount of heat, difficult to timely
conduction to the concrete surface and discharge, easily lead to the accumulation of heat within
the concrete structure, resulting in deformation of the concrete structure, resulting in cracks. In
addition, when the external temperature changes, the concrete structure will be affected by the
thermal expansion and contraction of the impact of deformation, and large volume of concrete
structure due to the larger structure of thick, in the external temperature changes, the concrete
structure surface and internal temperature changes The speed of the differences will lead to
different degrees of deformation, resulting in internal binding, when the internal binding force
beyond the scope of concrete structures, it will cause the emergence of cracks

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CHAPTER 4
METHODS OF REDUCING THE HEAT OF HYDRATION
The construction method used for treating the HH in mass concrete structures is the main
focus of this study. There are several construction methods that can be used to control the
temperature inside the core of the concrete structure, such as: 1) pre-cooling of concrete, 2) post
cooling of concrete, 3) Insulation and 4) low heat materials,

4.1. Precooling of Concrete

Precooling the concrete is the process of decreasing the temperatures of either the
aggregates or the mixing water or both. This can be achieved using different methods, such as
storing the aggregates in the shades and continuously sprinkling the coarse aggregates with
water. Another method is using cold mixing water or replacing it with ice. Also, using liquid
nitrogen (LN) either by injecting it in the mixing water or the fresh concrete is a frequent method
for lowering the temperature of the concrete. Cooling the aggregates is more effective than
lowering the temperature of the mixing water [3,4]. The rule of thumb is that decreasing the
temperature of aggregates by 2°F can lower the temperature of concrete by 1°F. To achieve the
same effect, the temperature of the mixing water should be decreased by 4°F. The maximum
reduction in the temperature of concrete that can be obtained using cold mixing water and shaved
ice are 20°F and 10°F respectively [3, 4]. Sometimes specifications limit the placement
temperature of concrete to 50°F, which means a drop of 20°F or more in the concrete
temperature is needed. In this case, shaved ice will not be effective; the alternative would be
using LN. Injecting LN in the concrete can lower the temperature by 35°F [3]. The process of
injecting Liquid Nitrogen (LN) into a cement mix starts by transporting it into a cement truck
outfitted with a special tank capable of keeping the cryogenic temperature of the LN [5,6]. A
truck must drive into a frame that will then be connected to a LN tank with an injection lance;
the substance is then poured into the ready-mix trucks rotating drum via injection lance (which is
a safe process). The truck then drives to the work site where it begins to pour the concrete mixed
with LN.

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Fig 4.1.1: Precooling system

4.2. Post-Cooling of Concrete

The cooling pipes method, typically referred to as post-cooling, has been one of the most
common methods for controlling the temperature in mass concrete structures. In this method,
cool water is circulated through small diameter pipes embedded in the body of the concrete
structure, as shown in Fig.3. The use of cooling pipes is very popular in dam construction.
Several thermal studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and drawbacks of the
use of cooling pipes in mass concreting.

The determination of the size of the pipes, spacing between pipes, rate of flow, and
temperature of the cooling water can be a sophisticated task. This is due to the fact that there are
several factors that affect the heat of hydration in a mass concrete structure that should be taken
in consideration when designing the cooling pipe system. Some of these factors are: type of
cement, supplementary material, temperature of mixing water, formwork, lift thickness and rate
of placement, and climatic conditions. Other factors that pertain to the design are the type of

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pipes used, rate of flow of water, and the temperature difference between the cooling water and
concrete. Usually the pipes are equipped with control valves to control the rate of flow.

Also, special attention should be given to the outlet water as the discharge temperature
can be high enough to compromise the safety of workers. The source of cooling water is usually
public drinking supply; however, in remote areas, water trucks and onsite chillers can be used to
supply and cool the water (Roush & O’Leary 2005).

Fig 4.2.1: Mass concrete with cooling pipe

4.3. Insulation

Insulation is another method that has been used for reducing thermal cracking. The
surface of the concrete is insulated to decrease the rate of cooling, hence, minimize temperature
gradient between the surface and core of concrete. It is important to note that thermal cracking is
caused by the large temperature difference between the interior and surface of the mass concrete
structure. As concrete cools, it starts to shrink. The resulting temperature from heat of hydration
can exceed the temperature of the immediate environment. Insulation assists in maintaining the

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same shrinkage rate for the surface and the core of concrete, which prevents thermal cracking.
Insulation is inexpensive, but must be in place for a long time. This can lead to prolonged
construction durations, which cost additional money. The materials used for insulation can come
in many forms, but it all depends on how much the temperature needs to be reduced.

Fig 4.3.1 : Cross section of concrete slab with insulation

4.4. Low heat materials

Select low heat of hydration cement or mixture cement. Fly ash generates about half it
replaces and is often used at a replacement rate of 15 to 25%.Ground granulated blast furnace

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slag is often used at a replacement rate of 65 to 80% to reduce heat. Use large sized aggregate
75-120mm high aggregate contents up to 80% of total.

WAYS TO LOWER THE HEAT OF HYDRATION


A. Cement Content
With the help of several methods cement contents as low as 100 kg/m3 in mass concrete
suitable for the interior structure of gravity dams can be achieved. With such low cement
contents, even ASTM Type II Portland cement is considered adequate. 20 % pozzolan is
substituted by volume of Portland cement which leads to a further drop in the adiabatic
temperature.

B. Admixtures
For cement contents as low as 100 kg/m3, it is necessary to use a low water content so as
to achieve the designed one year compressive strength which falls in the range of 13 to 17 MP
which is normally specified for interior concrete of large gravity structures. Around 4 to 8 % of
entrained air is routinely incorporated into the concrete mixtures for the reduction of water
content while maintaining the desired workability. A constant increase in water-reducing
admixtures is being employed for the same purpose. Pozzolans are used primarily as a partial
replacement for Portland cement for the reduction of heat of hydration; most fly ashes upon their
use as pozzolans have the ability of improving the workability of concrete whereas reducing the
water content by 5 to 8 %

C. Aggregate
With concrete mixtures for dams, every probable method of reduction of water content
which would eventually lead to a corresponding reduction in the cement content (i.e. maintaining
a constant water-cement ratio) has to be looked upon. In this context, the two economic methods
are the choice of the largest possible size of coarse aggregate and the selection of two or more
individual size groups of coarse aggregate that should be combined to produce a gradation
approaching maximum density after compaction (minimum void content). An example of this
way is shown by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation’s investigations on mass concrete for Grand
Coulee Dam. Aggregate content has a huge influence on the properties that are vital to mass
concrete, such as strain capacity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus and

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diffusivity. The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is one of the parameters


determining the tensile stress on cooling. Everything else remaining the same, the choice of
aggregate type can decrease the coefficient of thermal expansion by a factor greater than 2.

Comparison of construction methods used for controlling temperature in


mass concreting

Construction Methods Advantages Disadvantages

● Expensive
● Effective for large structures ● Might lead to thermal
Cooling Pipes
(dams) cracking around the pipes

● Concrete strength may not


develop properly due to
● Effective at cooling
localized freezing
Liquid Nitrogen ● Readily available
● Needs special lining for the
● Cheap
concrete mixer

● Not as effective as other


Insulation ● Inexpensive methods
● Requires longer durations

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CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION
This paper presented a thorough review of the different construction methods used to control
temperature in mass concrete structures. The paper presented concise summaries of previous
studies and publication that focused on the construction methods used for controlling the heat of
hydration. The majority of the studies conducted focused on thermal analysis of cooling pipes of
different arrangement, materials, flow rates, and cooling water temperatures. The review shows
that liquid nitrogen is a cheap and effective way of reducing the heat of hydration. While cooling
pipes can be very effective in dam construction, it is very costly and there are concerns about the
posing risks to the integrity of the structure. Most error associated with these methods can be
avoided by having experienced engineers and personnel to monitor the progress of the concrete
structure. In addition, some method works best for certain locations, because climate does play a
role in curing of cement. Some areas that are colder would benefit more by using the insulation
method, and locations with warmer climate should use the cooling pipe method and Liquid
Nitrogen injection method. The paper should prove useful in providing a recent review for the
current construction methods used in controlling temperature and treatment of heat of hydration
in mass concrete structures.

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REFERENCES

[1] Portland Cement, Concrete, and Heat of Hydration. (1997, July). Concrete Technology
Today, 18(2), 1-4. Retrieved July, 2014,

[2] J. Gajda (n.d.), Mass Concrete—How Do You Handle the Heat? Retrieved May 12, 2016,

[3] K. Basham, How To Plan and Manage Curing for Mass Concrete Pours (2014). Retrieved
March 25, 2016,

[4] A. Patil, Heat of Hydration in the Placement of Mass Concrete. International Journal of
Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-4 Issue-3,
February 2015

[5] J. Hemssa, Effects of Liquid nitrogen on concrete hydration, microstructure and properties.
University of Texas at Austin, 2007.

[6] M. Juenger, J. Hema, S. Solt, Effects of Liquid Nitrogen on concrete hydration,


microstructure and properties. Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin,
2007.

[7] Nakane, S., Saito H., Ohike, T., Strength development and microstructure of cement and
concrete precooled with liquid nitrogen, Proceedings of the international conferenceo on
concrete in hot Climates, Concrete in hot Climates, 1992.

[8] W. Beaver, Liquid Nitrogen for Concrete Cooling. Concrete International, 2004.

[9] E. Castilho, N. S. Leitão, C. Tiago, Thermal analysis of concrete dams during construction,
second international dam world conference, Lisbon, Portugal, 2015

[10] K. Roush, J. O’Leary, Cooling concrete with embedded pipes. Concrete international,
27(1), 2005,

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