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Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines i

PCARRD Book Series No. 179/2009

Agricultural Mechanization
in the Philippines LE

Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural

Resources Research and Development
Department of Science and Technology

Los Baños, Laguna

First Edition 2009

ISBN 978-971-20-0543-5

Bibliographic Citation:
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry
and Natural Resources Research and

Development. Agricultural mechanization


in the Philippines. Los Baños, Laguna:

PCARRD, 2009. 104p. - (PCARRD Book
Series No. 179/2009)

ii Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines


T he potential of agricultural machinery in realizing

agricultural development is enormous. In other
countries, wide application of farm machinery
dramatically changed agriculture production methods,
increased farm productivity and efficiency, provided
remarkable progress for rural society, and guaranteed
food security.
There have been improvements in farm inputs such

as seeds, high-yielding varieties, and animal breeds.
Yet, rarely we realize that mechanization provides the
means by which these farm inputs could be applied
efficiently and effectively. The full benefit in farming can
be achieved through mechanization along with other
improved inputs, infrastructure, and support services.

This book presents the significant contribution of


farm mechanization in the overall development

of agriculture. It assesses the state of agricultural
mechanization as applied in crop and animal production

and postproduction operations. It identifies the


constraints and corresponding interventions that


will improve the productivity and sustainability of

Philippine agriculture. Moreover, this book deals with
the state of agricultural mechanization R&D, the areas
for further research, and the challenges and opportunities
foragricultural mechanization.
With the information found in this publication,
we hope our readers, the policy makers, researchers,
academicians, and extension agents would be aware of

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines iii

the state and importance of agricultural mechanization
in the country and thereby identify specific points for
further improvement and areas where we can contribute
whatever available resource we have.

Executive Director


iv Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines


P CARRD would like to thank Dr. Delfin C.

Suministrado for substantiating the contents of
this publication and Dr. Arsenio N. Resurreccion for
his comments and suggestions. Both are professors
of agricultural engineering at the University of the
Philippines Los Baños who at the same time served as
commodity team leaders of the Agricultural Resources
Management Research Division.
This publication partly sums up the results of two

workshops held at PCARRD. The workshop on Updating
the Status and Directions of Agricultural Mechanization
in the Philippines and Stakeholders’ Consultation
Workshop on the Validation of Agricultural Engineering
Science and Technology Agenda for Philippine
Agriculture 2020 were held in 2005. Hence, PCARRD

is indebted to those who actively participated in paper


presentation and in the workshop sessions.

Similarly, PCARRD would like to thank the members
of the Agricultural Engineering Experts Pool who actively

participated in the formulation, validation, and updating


of the R&D Agenda during commodity team meetings


from 2005 to 2007.

Finally, PCARRD would like to recognize the efforts
of researchers, agricultural engineers, and manufacturers’
association for their endless efforts in establishing the
significant contribution of agricultural engineering in the
country’s economy.
This document is open to feedbacks for improvement
and updating most especially of its contents. Hence, we
are thanking in advance those who would share valuable
comments and information for future publication.

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines v


Foreword iii
Acknowledgment v
Production Team x
Acronyms xi

Introduction 1

Impact of Agricultural Mechanization 3

Socioeconomic Impact 3
Labor productivity 3
Women and family labor 4
Farm income 5
Yield and Cropping Intensity 6
Impact on Other Crops and Livestock 8

Levels of Mechanization 10
Rice 10
Corn 14

Vegetables 15

Coconut 16

Abaca 17
Fruits 18
Rootcrops 18
Sugarcane 18
Livestock and Poultry 19

Postharvest Mechanization 22
Postharvest Facilities for Rice and Corn 23
Transport and Storage 27

Ownership and Utilization of Machines 28

Sources of Agricultural Machinery Supply 34

vi Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Sales and Demand for Agricultural Machinery 35
Imports and Exports 37

Problems, Issues, and Constraints 38

Small Farm Size 38
Decreasing Supply of Hired Labor in the Farm 40
Appropriate Machinery and Technology vs.
Mechanization Needs 40
Innovative Machines vs. Market-Driven
Machines 41
Inadequate Technology Transfer Mechanisms 41
Inadequate Support Services 42
Policy Constraints 43

Areas for Intervention 44
Research and Development 45
Machinery Requirements of Specific Commodities 53
Rice 53
Corn, vegetables, and other upland crops 53

Coconut 54

Banana 55
Other fruit crops 55
Livestock and poultry 55
R&D Results Utilization 56

Capacity Building and Institution Development 57


Policy Advocacy 58

Strategies and Recommendations 61

Targets 61
Strategies 62

References 65


A Agricultural Engineering Technologies/Information

for Dissemination Generated from R&D
(2001–2007) 71
vii Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
B Completed Agricultural Engineering R&D Projects
(2001–2007) 75
C Agricultural Engineering R&D Areas (2006–2010)
D Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
(SWOT) Analysis of Agricultural Mechanization for
Crops, Livestock, Forestry, and Environment 95


1 Mechanization levels in various operations

of selected crops 11
2 Machines and equipment locally used for specific

rice operations and their adoption level in the
Philippines 12
3 Farm equipment and facilities used in livestock
and poultry farms 20
4 Status of postharvest facilities for rice 24

5 Status of postharvest facilities for corn 25


6 Postharvest facilities inventory, Philippines 26

7 Census of agricultural equipment by farm,
number owned, and number used 31
8 Sales of agricultural machinery by AMMDA

members 36

9 Major completed R&D projects, 1990–2007 46



1 Agricultural mechanization helps increase land

and labor efficiency in agriculture 1
2 Hand tractor with ride-on attachments 11
3 Mechanization levels of various corn farm operations
in selected corn-producing provinces in the
Philippines 15
4 Mechanization levels of major farm operations
in selected vegetable-producing areas in the
Philippines 16
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines viii
5 BPRE grain moisture meter 22
6 Tools and equipment owned by rice farmers 28
7 Tools and equipment owned by corn farmers 29
8 Inventory of farm equipment of vegetable farmers 30
9 Frequency of custom-hired services/facilities
for corn in selected areas of the country 32
10 Machines and equipment employed by vegetable
farmers for custom hiring 33
11 Regional distribution of agricultural machinery
manufacturers and dealers in the country 34
12 Mechanization problem tree 39

Appendix Tables

1 Survey of machines and equipment owned and used

for rice farming in selected provinces 101
2 Inventory of machines and equipment used by
farmer-respondents in corn production 103

3 Inventory of farm equipment of vegetable farmers



ix Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Production Team


l Delfin C. Suministrado
Team Leader
Agricultural Resources Management Research
Division (ARMRD), PCARRD and
Agricultural Engineering

College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology
University of the Philippines Los Baños
l Ofelia F. Domingo
Science Research Specialist II



l Rodolfo O. Ilao

Acting Director

Volume Editor:

l Joel Eneristo A. Joven

Senior Science Research Specialist
Applied Communication Division

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines x


AFMA Agriculture and Fishery Modernization Act

ACEF Agricultural Competitiveness Enhancement
AFMeC Agriculture and Fishery Mechanization
AMDP Agricultural Machinery Development
AMIC Agricultural Mechanization Inter-agency

AMMDA Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers and
Distributors Association
AMTEC Agricultural Machinery Testing and
Evaluation Center
APCAEM Asian and Pacific Center for Agricultural

Engineering and Machinery


ARCs Agrarian Reform Communities

BAR Bureau of Agricultural Research
BAS Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
BPRE Bureau of Postharvest Research and


CAD computer-aided design


CAM computer-aided manufacturing

CEAT College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial
DA Department of Agriculture
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FFTC Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for
the Asian and Pacific Region
FIDA Fiber Industry Development Authority
GDP gross domestic product
GPS Global Positioning System
HVCC High Value Commercial Crops
IRRI International Rice Research Institute
xi Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
LAMMA Laguna Agricultural Machinery
Manufacturers Association
LGU local government unit
LSU Leyte State University
MIAP Metalworking Industries Association
of the Philippines
MPDP multipurpose drying pavement
NAFC National Agriculture and Fishery Council
NAPHIRE National Post harvest Institute for Research
and Extension
NARC National Abaca Research Center
NEDA National Economic and Development
NGOs Non government organizations

NSO National Statistics Office
PCA Philippine Coconut Authority
PH Post harvest
PhilRice Philippine Rice Research Institute
PhilSCAT Philippine Sino Center for Agricultural


PhilSURIN Philippine Sugar Research Institute

PNA Philippine News Agency
R&D research and development
RA Republic Act

RNAM Regional Network of Agricultural



SCUs State Colleges and Universities

SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and
Cultural Organization
UPLB University of the Philippines Los Baños
VAT Value added tax
VCO Virgin Coconut Oil
VELERO Vegetables, Legumes, and Rootcrops

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines xii

T he country is faced with issues of poverty and food

security. This implies the need to sustain food
production to satisfy the basic needs of the growing
population. A way to achieve this is by increasing land
and labor efficiency in agriculture through agricultural
mechanization (Fig. 1).
Agricultural mechanization refers to the manufacture,
distribution, and utilization of tools, implements, and
machines, and the provision of after-sales service for the

development of farmlands, agricultural production and
post-production processes. It includes the use of human,
animal, mechanical, and natural sources of power, and
other non-conventional sources of energy.
The goal of agricultural mechanization is to sustain

agricultural production by bringing in more lands under


Fig. 1. Agricultural mechanization helps increase land and labor

efficiency in agriculture.
cultivation, saving energy and resources, protecting
the environment, and increasing the overall economic
welfare of farmers.
Machines and equipment are major inputs to
agriculture along with good seeds and other cultural
management practices. The use and application of these
inputs to farm production is one way of maximizing
farm production and profit. Agricultural machines help
increase crop yield through better soil preparation,
better irrigation, crop protection, proper fertilizer
management, and reduced postharvest losses.
Moreover, machines help address labor shortage
during the peak of land preparation and harvesting.
By mechanizing selected farm operations like land

preparation, family labor mostly employed in most farms
in the country may engage in other income-generating
activities on- and off-farm.


2 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Impact of Agricultural

A gricultural mechanization in the Philippines had

a significant growth during the era of the Green
Revolution. Although the use of tools and equipment
in farming operations is independent of the kind of seed
or crop variety, these machines have become necessary
components of the package of technology that also
includes irrigation water, fertilizers, pesticides, and
management techniques.

Socioeconomic Impact LE
Labor Productivity

Different types of machines have varied impacts on


labor and labor productivity. Some machines can generate

labor by increasing cropping intensities and making
possible the full utilization of farm products and by-

products. Some can directly replace animal and human


labor. Also, some machines enable farmers to perform


tasks that cannot be done by available human and animal

power (AMDP 2005). The impact of mechanization on
labor displacement or employment generation were
investigated by many researchers decades ago and in the
more recent past, and the complicated phenomena have
been found to also influence the quality of life of farmers’
families and the structures of labor exchange in the
Ebron et al. (1983) reported that according to the
workers themselves, mechanical threshers brought more
advantages than disadvantages to the landless workers.
As the traditional threshing method was the most tedious
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 3
and time consuming of all farm operations, mechanical
threshing was fast and more convenient. Faster threshing
was also reported to give workers more time to harvest in
other fields, thus increasing their income and getting their
crop share sooner. However, one major disadvantage that
workers find is the sharp decline in their sharing rate.
Moreover, studies showed that mechanized farms
require less total labor hours to accomplish all farm
operations. They require lower family labor hours than
non-mechanized farms. Farms, which utilized two-wheel
tractors and mechanical threshers, reduced the number of
hired labor (Sison et al. 1983 as cited by Larona 2006).
Gonzales et al. (1983), in their study on the impact
of five machines on labor utilization and production

reported that tillers and tractors displaced family labor
more than hired labor while threshers displaced more
hired labor than family labor. Irrigation pumps showed
no direct impact on labor.

Women and Family Labor


Mechanized threshing provided more opportunities

to women and children. The method not only saves time
and human energy but also eliminates the tediousness

of the manual ‘hampasan’ technique. As the combined


harvesting-threshing operation used to be participated


mostly by men, the separation of harvesting and

threshing has allowed more women and younger
workers to enter the workforce as the tasks involved in
harvesting are already within their physical strength.
Manual threshing, the most physically demanding
task, has now been substituted by mechanical threshing
(Ebron et al. 1983).
Mechanizing farm operations result in changes
in the roles and tasks of household members. These
changes included reduction in the manual tasks of
land preparation, crop establishment, transplanting
rice, upland crop production, crop management, and
4 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
harvesting and postharvest activities. The researchers
further reported that the introduction of mechanical
thresher tended to change existing sharing arrangements.
As the cost of threshing labor increases, farmers tend
to mechanize the operation. Some of the factors that
influenced changes in harvesting-threshing arrangements
were the use of high yielding varieties, availability of
irrigation, population pressure, and industrialization.
The use of mechanical threshers provided advantages
over the manual methods in terms of faster operations,
reducing losses and production costs, and increasing
labor efficiency (Juarez 1986 as cited by Larona 2006).

Farm Income

Lim (1983) and Campbell (1990) had both noted that
mechanization significantly affected income beyond
certain farm size. Lim suggested that land consolidation
or formation of cooperatives may help realize economies

of scale. She also mentioned that mechanization


presented potential for releasing labor, which can be used

for other work.
In a study made by Gagelona et al. (2005) regarding
the impact of rice mechanization among farm

households who were recipients and non-recipients


of farm equipment loans, they noted that based on


the cost and returns analysis, the net income of loan

recipients who mechanized their farm operations
was not significantly higher than those of the non-
recipients (5% higher). Among cost components,
seedbed preparation, land preparation, and threshing
costs were all lower for recipients than for non-
recipients, all with significant differences.
The majority of the loan recipients considered the
acquisition of equipment as advantageous. They had
improved household income particularly because they
can also derive additional returns from renting out the
machine. The quality of their produce also increased,
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 5
thus their goods commanded higher competitive prices.
Along with increased productivity and efficiency owing
to timely farming schedule, they found satisfaction in
their ability to help other farmers (Gagelona et al. 2005).

Yield and Cropping Intensity

Without the use of appropriate machines, the

introduction of modern agricultural technology may
not bring about any increase in yield. The impact of
mechanization on yield cannot be easily distinguished
from those of other farm inputs. As in developed
countries, old and new data about Philippine agriculture

showed that increase in productivity per area was due
to modern machines in combination with other
components of new agricultural production methods.
Juarez and Pathnopas (1983) studied the benefits
and costs of thresher use in some areas in Thailand and

Philippines. They reported that small farms gained


relatively more per hectare than either medium or

large farms by switching to a thresher. The net cost
saving, the losses saved, and the yields were all larger in
smaller farms.

Sison et al. (1983) reported that statistically,


mechanized farms had higher levels of rice outputs than


non-mechanized farms. However, they noted that this

could not be attributed entirely to mechanization since
mechanized farms used higher level of fertilizers and
chemicals and better irrigation facilities.
The Bureau of Postharvest Research and Extension
(BPRE) reported that the use of machines specifically
in planting and basal fertilizer application resulted
in higher yields, net income, and return on variable
expense. Likewise, the unit cost of producing corn was
significantly lower in mechanically planted and fertilized
corn farms (PNA 2005).

6 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

While there were studies indicating the positive effect
of mechanization, several studies have reported that
the effects of mechanization on yield increases are not
directly evident.
Aguilar et al. (1983) and Campbell (1990) investigated
the differences in inputs, cropping intensity, and yield
for non-mechanized, partially mechanized, and fully
mechanized farms in non-irrigated and irrigated areas
in Central Luzon. The study revealed that irrigation was
the major determinant of yield and cropping intensity,
and that there was no evidence of a yield effect directly
attributable to mechanization. They also reported that
mechanization shortened the turnaround interval between
crops. The turnaround time for a mechanized rice farm

was substantially lower than for a non-mechanized
farm because farmers had the control of irrigation using
their own wells and pumps. For community irrigation
systems, little or no difference in turnaround time existed
between mechanized and non-mechanized farms.

Gagelona et al. (2005) evaluated the impact of


rice mechanization among 182 farm households in

11 provinces nationwide stratified into recipients and
non-recipients of farm equipment loan project. Both
groups previously relied mainly on hired labor for

labor-intensive farm operations like land preparation,


crop establishment, harvesting, and threshing. With the


loan, the recipients had mostly availed of hand tractors,

diesel engines, and threshers. They reported that yield
differences, although statistically insignificant, were
higher for non-recipients of loan regardless of equipment
type. They however attributed the difference to the
amount of fertilizer used. Non-recipients of loan had
reportedly applied more fertilizer per hectare than the
recipients of farm equipment loan. They concluded that
the use of machine had no direct effect on yield.
Gonzales et al. (1983) found no empirical evidence
showing that tiller and tractors increased yield. They also
noted that according to Moya (1981), irrigation pumps
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 7
can increase yield from 1.5 t/ha to 3.4 t/ha compared to
rainfed rice.
On the other hand, portable threshers can increase
yield by approximately 292 kg/ha due to change in
threshing technique from manual method to machine
threshing. Juarez and Duff (1979) as cited by Larona
(2006) found that yield increase related to the use of
thresher was due to the “minimized handling losses,
spoilage, and less pilferage by dishonest laborers and
elimination of cleaning fee.” Further, field losses using
the thresher were lower than the traditional “hampas”
method as the machine removed grains from the panicle
more efficiently than the manual method.

Impact on Other Crops and Livestock

As most of the early research studies on the impacts
of mechanization were mainly on rice, later investigations

involved other farming systems like corn, vegetables, and


livestock. Amongo (2005) reported on the significant

effects on the working and living conditions of family
members of some Cebu farmers who adopted the manual
corn sheller introduced by the Agricultural Mechanization

Development Program (AMDP) of the University of


the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB). As the corn sheller


replaced the traditional method, the operation became

three times faster and operators no longer experienced
wrist pains and blisters. With the saved time, men
and women were able to perform additional economic
activities. This also resulted in more income, as they need
not employ hired labor. The sheller is easy to operate and
can be used by children such that participation of other
family members was encouraged. The shelling operation
also became a venue for interaction.
The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial
Technology (CEAT), UPLB recently conducted a survey
on mechanization needs of rice, corn, vegetables,
8 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
livestock, and fisheries in selected provinces of the
country. Based on the findings, Larona (2006) reported
that higher crop production was generally achieved
in mechanized farms. The increase related to the use
of machine can be attributed to the quality of machine
performance such as “better soil preparation, better water,
pest, and fertilizer management, and reduced harvest and
storage losses.”
The survey found other positive impacts of
mechanization such as land reclamation for agricultural
use; decrease in farm working hours; opportunity for
farmers to engage in other enterprising activities because
of reduced time in farming; possible savings due to use
of appropriate agricultural machinery; reduction of loss

of quality and quantity of product, thus giving farmers
the opportunity to increase commodity prices; improved
timeliness of operations that could increase cropping
intensity; and favorably increase demand for farm labor
in non-mechanized operations.

These literatures showed that some studies point to


positive effects of agricultural mechanization on crop

yield while others showed indirect effects. It is also clear
that increases in crop yield could not just be attributed to
a single farm input in the total production system. Each

farm input contributes in the success or failure in the


farm; not to mention other external factors like climate.


Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 9

Levels of Mechanization

T he level of mechanization of various agricultural

operations in the country can be categorized into
three major levels: low, intermediate, and high. Low
mechanization means that an operation is done with
the use of non-mechanical power source such as man
and animal. Intermediate mechanization refers to
operations done with the use of non-mechanical and
mechanical power sources. High mechanization involves
operations done solely with the use of mechanical power
source. There is a higher level of mechanization wherein

the operations are done with the use of mechanical
power source with limited human intervention such as
computerized machines or robots (UPLB-BAR 2001).
Table 1 shows the mechanization levels in various
operations in crops such as rice and corn, sugarcane,

legumes and rootcrops, coconut, sugarcane, fruits, and


fiber crops. Mechanization level in the production of

these crops is generally low, except for land preparation
and threshing/shelling operations in rice and corn.


Field and postharvest operations in rice are still

heavily reliant on manual labor with just few operations
using farm machinery. Table 2 shows the mechanization
in specific rice operation in the Philippines (Bautista
2003). Land preparation activities such as plowing,
harrowing, and secondary harrowing have been
mechanized in the intermediate to high levels using
hand-tractors as the primary equipment (Fig. 2). Crop
establishment, crop care, and harvesting are all at
low level. The introduction of new equipment for
direct seeding, transplanting, and harvesting has not
progressed well.
10 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
Table 1. Mechanization levels in various operations of selected crops.
Operations Rice & Corn Legumes & Coconut Sugarcane Fruits
Land Intermediate Low Intermediate Low Low
preparation to high to high
Planting/ Low Low Low Low to Low Low
transplanting intermediate
Crop care Low Low Low Low to high Low Low
Harvesting Low Low Low Low Low Low
Threshing/ Intermediate Low Low
shelling/ to high (legumes)
Cleaning Low

Drying Low Low Low Low
Milling/ High Low Low Low Low
village level

Fig. 2. Hand tractor with ride-on attachments.

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 11

Table 2. Machines and equipment locally used for specific rice operations and their
adoption level in the Philippines (Bautista 2003).
Machines and Equip- Level of R&D/
Operation ment Locally Adopted Adoption
Land preparation Power tiller + attach- Highly adopted in favorable areas, for
ments custom hiring in irrigated areas
Four-wheel tractor + For custom hiring service near sugar
rotavator estates. Reconditioned mini-
tractors becoming popular in Luzon
for custom land preparation
Transplanting None (done manu- IRRI manual transplanters are not
ally) widely accepted
Direct seeding None (mostly by hand Slow but continuing adoption of drum
broadcast) seeder
Crop protection Lever-operated knap- Highly adopted (imported from China,
sack sprayer Taiwan, and other countries)
Manual rotary weeder Adopted in Laguna, Cotabato, and
Nueva Vizcaya

Harvesting None (still done IRRI reaper introduced but not
mostly by sickle) popular; PhilRice reaper released
for commercial manufacture
Imported reaper-windrower highly
adopted in Bataan, nearby
Stripper gatherer newly introduced in
Isabela and Central Luzon

Threshing Axial-flow design IRRI thresher design highly adopted


in irrigated and rainfed areas with

many models and sizes
Pedal thresher Widely adopted in Northern Luzon,
Bohol, other small islands in

Drying None (mostly sun Flat-bed/continuous flow, other


drying on concrete imported designs adopted by big

pavements) rice millers/traders

PhilRice flatbed dryer slowly being

adopted with some 150 units
installed since 1994
Flash dryer, in-bin drying systems
(high capacity) introduced by
BPRE through DA programs
Milling Rubber roll/cono/steel Highly mechanized except in upland
hullers remote areas but low quality of
output from locally manufactured
Irrigation Centrifugal pumps Highly adopted in Ilocos, Central
Luzon, and few rainfed areas
Axial-flow pump Less adoption in rice farms; more
adoption by fishpond operators
Transport Power tiller + trailer Highly adopted in irrigated/rainfed

12 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Palay threshing is at the intermediate level with most
of the farmers using mechanical threshers. Approximately
more than 80% of rice fields are now threshed by axial-
flow threshers, which come in different sizes and forms
depending on the locality.
Many farmers do away with drying as they can
directly sell their harvest immediately while wet. As such
they do not have to dry their palay. They only process
the small amount, which they retain for household
consumption. Again, although the government has
exerted efforts in the 1970s and the 1980s in promoting
mechanical dryers such as the batch dryers and
recirculating dryers, sun drying on concrete pavements is
still the usual practice at the farm level.

The level of mechanization of transport systems
depends on the road network and road conditions.
Manual and animal means of transport are common when
the field is inaccessible to other means of transportation
such as hand-tractor drawn trailers or trucks.

Rice milling has long been mechanized in the country


with the prevalence of ‘kiskisan’. Currently, modern

rubber rolls and other more efficient systems have
replaced the old ‘kiskisan’ units. Portable custom mills
mounted on land vehicles and hand carried or hand-

tractor-mounted micro mills are reportedly available in


few remote areas through the promotion work of various


institutions (Bautista 2003; UPLB-BAR 2001).

The study conducted by Gavino et al. (2006) gave
the same levels of rice mechanization in various farm
operations in Regions 1, 2, and 3. Mechanical power is
used in 95% of all land preparation activities (high).
Crop establishment is 100% manual, of which 0.3%
makes use of the drum seeder (low). Crop care is 100%
manual (low) with the manual sprayer very much used
in pest control. Irrigation is largely by gravity system
(85.5%, low). Harvesting is 92.55% manual (low) and
threshing operation is 93.9% by mechanical thresher
(intermediate). Transport is 35% manual, as road
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 13
conditions must have precluded the entry of animal and
mechanical transport means in many rural areas. The
use of animal power is 40.55% and the use of machines
like carts, jeeps, and trucks is 23.35%. Drying is 96.7%
by solar energy (low) and milling is 100% by machine


Mechanization of corn is generally at low level

and concentrated in land preparation, shelling, and
transport operations. Some farmers perform plowing
and harrowing with mechanical source of power but
furrowing is mostly done with animal-drawn furrowers.

Farmers prefer animal-drawn furrowers because they
can make straighter and better aligned furrows than
with 2-wheel or 4-wheel tractors. Figure 3 shows a
comparison of the levels of mechanization of various
operations in selected corn-producing provinces of the

country (Franco et al. 2003).


Seeding operation has been found to be at low level

as farmers use bare hands and/or hand tools to seed
the furrow beds. Crop care, which includes weeding,
fertilizer, and chemical application also falls under low

level. Farmers mostly employ animal-drawn plows in


weeding and hilling-up operation. Harvesting operation


is also low as most farmers use hand tools such as sickle.

Shelling operation is at intermediate level as corn shellers
and threshers/shellers with small engines are used in the
operation. Some farmers also use hand-operated corn
shellers. Corn drying mechanization is low since sun
drying is still the most widely used method.
The level of mechanization of transport operation for
corn varies with farm locations and traditional practices
of farmers. Animal-drawn transport systems are used if
the farm is inaccessible but motorcycles, jeepneys, and
trucks are used to transport corn if road network and
conditions would allow.
14 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
Fig. 3. Mechanization levels of various corn farm operations in selected

corn-producing provinces in the Philippines (Adapted from Franco
et al. 2003).

Mechanization level of vegetable farming is generally


low as indicated in a survey of 13-vegetable key

producing provinces: Albay, Batangas, Bohol, Bukidnon,
Camarines Sur, Laguna, Leyte, Misamis Oriental, Nueva

Vizcaya, Occidental Mindoro, Pangasinan, and Quezon

(Fig 4). Except for land preparation, irrigation, and

transport, farmers using hand tools and animal drawn


implements manually do all other major operations. In

certain limited areas, washing, sorting and packing are
somewhat mechanized but generally, the use of machines
is very minimal. De Asis et al. (2003) reported that
renting of farm machinery for vegetable production is
widely available in majority of the surveyed provinces.
This was true for farmers who do not have the capacity to
buy their own machines. Wealthy individuals and farmer
groups who have the machines rent these out to other
Furthermore, marketing fresh harvests took more
priority than village level processing. Besides, farmers
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 15
Fig. 4. Mechanization levels of major farm operations in selected vegetable-
producing areas of the Philippines (Adapted from De Asis et al. 2003).
indicated inadequacy in performing postharvest and
by-product processing activities like canning, bottling,

vegetable preservation, fermentation, and repacking,


among others.
The farmers’ interest in mechanization technologies
was overruled by farmers’ other perceived problems in
vegetable farming such as recurring incidence of pests

and diseases, environmental, and marketing problems.



Mechanization in coconut production is nil as

traditional tools and systems for farm operations
have not virtually changed for decades. In addition,
mechanization has not advanced the postproduction
operations particularly at the farm level. The ‘tapahan’
system is still the most prevalent copra-making
procedure while ‘lambanog’ production has almost
disappeared in the Southern Luzon areas as the risky task
of gathering ‘tuba’ atop the coconut tree has discouraged
new generations of farm workers. No alternate and/
16 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
or improved method has yet been developed to do the
same activity to continue if not expand the farm level
alcohol production system.
In recent years, the growth of village-level processing
systems declined along with the decline of the coconut
industry itself. Whole coconut fruits are now directly sold
to intermediaries for transport to large processing centers
instead of being processed in the farm. The potential for
the utilization of various products and by-products from
the ‘tree of life’ has long been identified but only a few
of these have been commercially successful in the village
level. Recently, however, the coir has been developed
for coconet (geotextile) production. For this purpose,
decorticating machines of different designs and capacities

emerged. In addition, machinery systems for production
of oil (including the virgin coconut oil) became available
but only for large-scale processors.


Abaca stripping is by hand or mechanical means.

Hand stripping is practiced in about 80% of the abaca
fiber in the country and is practiced mainly in Bicol and
some parts of Leyte and Samar provinces. The remaining

20% of the fiber is produced through spindle stripping


machine in Mindanao and Leyte provinces.


The Fiber Industry Development Authority (FIDA)

and the National Abaca Research Center (NARC) are
among the agencies in the country engaged in developing
machines and equipment for abaca processing. Some
of the products of FIDA’s research undertakings are:
multifiber decorticating machine (which can also be used
for pineapple, maguey, ramie, and banana), mechanical
tuxer, mobile spindle stripping machine, and abaca
dryer. NARC, on the other hand, has developed, among
others, portable engine-powered abaca spindle stripping
machine and village-level machines such as twisting

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 17

and twining machine, pulping machine, and handmade-
paper dryer.


Generally, low level of mechanization exists in

fruits production. Imported and locally-manufactured
processing equipment are generally found in large-
scale processing plants. Machines for small-scale and or
village level processing of fruits like canning, bottling,
preservation, repacking, and many others have yet
to be developed or adopted. Also, machines for the
diversification of products and by-products are not
currently in use. For example, while pineapple is grown

extensively in the country mainly for its fruits, its leaves
are discarded as farm wastes. No machine or system is
used to extract the fibers as raw materials for textile and


The level of mechanization for the production of

root crops is generally low and can easily be considered
similar to those of vegetables. Machines for processing

are available but they have very limited application as


farmers choose to sell their products in raw forms after


harvest particularly in the rural areas. The Philippine

Rootcrops Research and Training Center is among the
few agencies, which developed machines for rootcrop
processing such as cassava grater, dryer, flourmill, and


Highly mechanized systems are available for

sugarcane, however most of these are imported and
widely used in large-scale sugarcane plantations. These
are tractor-drawn plow and harrow; tractor-drawn
18 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
planter with fertilizer applicator; tractor-drawn chipper-
cultivator for exposing the germinating seed pieces to
sunlight 2–3 weeks after planting to promote uniform
cane growth and tillering; and a cutaway implement
used to cultivate deeply into the sides of the growing
stools to disturb growth of emerging tillers and remove
weeds along sugarcane rows (PCARRD 2001).

Livestock and Poultry

Manual labor with or without the aid of tools or

specialized equipment is still used extensively throughout
the whole range of livestock and poultry production
operations. Machines are rarely used in animal

production except for pumping water and feed milling.
Only large-scale farms are using high mechanization
technology in their operations. Table 3 shows the various
operations in livestock and poultry farms surveyed by
Franco et al. (2003) and the levels of mechanization of


Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 19

Table 3. Farm equipment and facilities used in livestock and poultry farms (Franco
et al. 2003).
Percentage Level of
System Equipment Total % Mechanization
Deep well/ stream/bought in 224 18 Low
Water supply Manual water pump 334 26 Low
Water pump 330 26 Low
Piped water system 321 25 High
Piped water system + pump 28 2 High
Not indicated 36 3
Grazed/ Not necessary 108 8 Low
Cut and carry/ manually 100 8 Low
Feed Prepara- prepared
Commercial feeds 1052 83 Low
Hammer mill/ grinder 7 1 High

Forage chopper 1 0 High
Mechanical mixer 9 1 High
Grazed 119 9 Low
Feeding Trough/ floor feeding 1111 87 Low
System Tube Feeder 41 3 High
Mechanized feeder 2 0 High

Heater with blower 0 0 High

Increase of Heater (kerosene, LPG, electric,

Temperature etc) 69 5 Intermediate

Side Curtains/none 1204 95 Low
Ventilation Fan 3 0 Intermediate
Decrease of

Temperature None 1270 100 Low

Air conditioning 0 0 High

None/Stream/Pond 92 7 Low

Drinking Trough 1028 81 Low

System Semi automatic 34 3 High
Nipples/automatic 119 9 High

Manure Re- Not necessary 172 14 Low

moval Broomstick/scrub and pails 735 58 Low
of waters
Broomstick/scrub and hose 233 18 Low
Power sprayer 132 10 Intermediate
Fully automatic 1 0 High

20 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Table 3. (Continued).

Percentage Level of
System Equipment Total % Mechanization
None/canal 787 62 Low
Pit /balon 181 14 Low

Waste Treat- Manure lagoon/septic tank 160 13 Low

ment Lagoon w/ aerators or sludge
pump 9 1 Intermediate

Biogas Digester 8 1 Intermediate

Fertilizer 127 10 Intermediate
Dryer 1 0 High
Manual collection/ cleaning/ 31 100 Low
Layer sorting
Mechanical 0 0 High
Manual 4 57 Low

Automatic 3 43 High
Manual 7 100 Low
Mechanical 0 0 Intermediate

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 21

Postharvest Mechanization

A n efficient postharvest system aims to reduce losses

and maintain the quality of the crop until it reaches
the final consumer. Reduced postharvest losses help
increase farmers income and yield. Thus, postharvest
facilities and equipment like dryers, shellers, mills,
and storage facilities are significant inputs to farm
Research-development-extension programs have
been geared towards efficient drying and dehydration

for increased farm productivity and appropriate
handling, storage, and processing techniques for
increased value. The programs have resulted in
significant research-generated technologies such as
grain moisture meter, mobile flash dryer, in-store dryer,

multi-commodity solar tunnel dryer, and flatbed dryer


(Fig. 5).

Fig. 5. BPRE grain moisture meter.

22 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Postharvest Facilities for Rice and Corn

Rice and corn have been the focus of postharvest

mechanization programs for the past years because of
their importance as staple crops and source of food for
man in the case of rice and feed ingredient for animals
in the case of corn. Tables 4 and 5 show the status of
postharvest facilities for rice and corn in the Philippines
(BPRE 2003). The ‘Production-Postharvest (PH) Losses’
column shows the available volume of rice or corn
processing. It can be noticed that losses are incurred in
every postharvest operation performed, the highest of
which is during drying.
The capacity of existing postharvest facilities at 100%

utilization is 60 days/year for the mechanical dryer and
90 days/year for the multipurpose drying pavement
(MPDP). Likewise, at 75% utilization, the capacity is
45 days/year for the mechanical dryer and 67.5 days/
year for the MPDP. However, the 75% utilization data is

normally used as this reflects a more realistic situation


since in actual, the utilization may even be lower.

In Table 4, BPRE computed the total loss incurred
based on the average losses in each of the postharvest
operation, which was 1,885,766 t or 13.86% of the annual

rice production. It can be noted that there is a deficit


in the facilities for drying and storage at 75% utilization


and facilities for storage even at 100% utilization.

For corn, BPRE likewise computed the total loss
incurred based on the average losses of the postharvest
operations, which was 328,946 t or 12.12% of the total
annual corn production. The deficit in the facilities
for drying and storage at 75% utilization and storage
facilities even at 100% utilization is evident, the same as
in the status of facilities for processing rice. Generally,
the postharvest facility inventory conducted by BPRE
indicated a total of 102,011,189 units of threshing,
shelling, drying , and milling facilities (Table 6).

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 23

Table 4. Status of postharvest facilities for rice.a
Aver- Available Rice Existing Capacity, t/yr Surplus/(Deficit), t/year
PH Operations age PH PH for Processing, 75% Utilization 100% Utiliza- 75% Utilization 100% Utilization
Losses, % Losses, t t/year tion
Harvesting 2.35 319,665
& Piling
Threshing & 2.17 288,243 O 13,283,097 64,076,760 85,435,680 50,793,663 72,152,583
Cleaning T
Drying 4.50 584,768 12,994,854 11,270,070 15,026,760 (1,724,784) 2,031,906
Mechanical 437,130
MPDP 10,832,940
Storage 2.72 337,554 12,410,086 912,600 1,216,800 (11,497,486) (11,193,286)

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Milling 3.10 355,536 12,072,532 17,846,938 23,795,917 5,774,406 11,723,385

Rice Production = 13,602,762 t; deducted 5% from the volume prior to milling for seed purposes.
BPRE 2003. LE
Table 5. Status of postharvest facilities for corn. a
Available Corn Existing Capacity, t/year Surplus/(Deficit), t/year
PH Operations Average PH PH for Processing, 75% 100% 75% 100%
Losses, % Losses, t t/year Utilization Utilization Utilization Utilization
Harvesting & Piling 2.30
N 62,413
Shelling & Cleaning 2.70
71,582 2,651,187 4,424,400 5,899,200 1,773,213 3,248,013
Drying 4.60 118,662 2,579,605 2,113,020 2,817,360 (466,585) 237,755
Mechanical 27,810
MPDP 2,085,210
Storage 3.10 76,289 2,460,943
R 141,540 (2,319,403) (180,943) (2,272,223)
Corn Production = 2,713,600 t.
BPRE 2003. SA

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Table 6. Postharvest facilities inventory, Philippines.a
Number Capacity
of Units t/hour t/year
Threshing/Shelling Facilities
Rice thresher 78,097 1.00 56,229,840
Multipurpose sheller 5,751 1.00 4,140,720
Pedal thresher (manual) 23,010 0.25 4,141,800
Pedal thresher (motorized) 1,198 0.50 431,280
Corn sheller 4,941 1.00 3,557,520
Total 112,997 68,501,160
Drying Facilities
Flatbed dryer (2 t) 380 2.00 34,200

Flatbed dryer (6 t) 47 6.00 12,690
Electric grain dryer 970 4.00 174,600
Mobile flash dryer 1,345 0.50 242,100
LSU type 5 6.00 1,350

MPDP 47,845 4.00 12,918,150


Total 50,592 13,383,090

Rice mill (single pass) 29,959 0.54 16,908,111
Rice mill (multi pass) 477 1.45 933,728

Micro mill 17 0.20 5,100


Corn mill 3,040 0.50 2,280,000


Total 33,493 20,126,939

BPRE 2003.

26 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Transport and Storage

To facilitate transport of goods from inaccessible

farms to the nearest road network, BPRE has developed
a National Tramline Program. The agricultural tramline
system is a system of cable lines and pulleys used
for hauling agricultural products. It is an alternative
transport system that facilitates efficient delivery
of agricultural products at an affordable cost from
production areas to the market. This system has been
implemented in Buguias and Atok Benguet and in
Alimodian, Iloilo.
The cold chain system has also been developed
to answer the problems of farmers and traders on

preserving the quality and freshness of the produce
during transport and storage. It is the process of keeping
the right temperature of perishable crops at every
chain to preserve its quality and prolong its shelf life. It
provides uninterrupted refrigerated handling operation

of high value crops from farm to market. It has been


implemented in Benguet, Visayas, and Mindanao.


Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 27

Ownership and Utilization
of Machines

Cost appears to be a prime influence in the acquisition

of farm equipment. Ownership was generally high for
low-cost items such as animal-drawn plows and harrows
and manual tools like shovels and sickles. Figures 6, 7,
and 8 show inventories of machines and other equipment
owned and used by farmers in rice, corn, and vegetables
farms. Details of the survey of machines and equipment

Percentage of Respondents
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Four-wheel tractor
Hand tractor
Moldbord plow
Disc plow

Spike tooth harrow


Disc harrow

Toolbar subsoiler


Spiral harrow

Animal drawn plow

Animal drawn harrow


Sod hoe


Irrigation pump

Motorized sprayer

Manual weeder

Grass cutter
Knapsack sprayer

Motorized thresher

Pedal thresher, etc.


Mechanical dryer
Milling machine

Transport machine

Fig. 6. Tools and equipment owned by rice farmers (UPLB-BAR 2001).

28 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines


Fig. 7. Tools and equipment owned by corn farmers (Franco et al. 2003).

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 29

No. of Units
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

Handtools (sod hoe, rake,

shovel, sickle, bareta, etc.)

Animal drawn implements


Irrigation tools (sprinklers,

pump, faucet, artesian

Tractors (2-wheel, 4-wheel)

Crop care (powered

sprayer, knapsack
sprayer, etc.)

Transport (cart, trailer,

tricycle, jeepney)

Sorting table
Fig. 8. Inventory of farm equipment of vegetable farmers (de Asis et al.

owned and used in selected provinces of the country are

shown in Appendix Tables 1–3.
For primary tillage, many farmers own only hand

tools and animal-drawn implements, which are indicative

of low mechanization levels. Relatively, mechanization

of rice is higher than corn as higher percentage of rice


farmers own hand tractors for tillage operation, knapsack

sprayers for chemical application and pump sets for
irrigation. Also, vegetable farmers mostly own hand tools
and animal-drawn tools and a negligibly small number of
mechanically powered equipment. For post production
tools and equipment, the most commonly owned are the
motorized threshers for rice, the hand-operated shellers
for corn, the sorting tables for vegetables and transport
vehicles of various kinds.
These data confirm the observation earlier reported
by Rodulfo et al. (1998) that farmers do not necessarily
own the machines that they use. In their study, Rodulfo
30 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
et al. found that the farm machines with the exception
of cultivation and weeders posed a ratio of ownership
to number of farms of less than 1.00, that is from 0.16 to
0.93 (Table 7).
Access to mechanized farming method has therefore
been made possible to farmers through custom hiring.
This is a form of service wherein machine-owners perform
farm operations on behalf of the farmers at an agreed
prices. In rice, for example, land preparation, threshing,
transport, and milling are relatively mechanized and
these are all generally performed through custom service.
Similarly for corn, among the operations that employ
custom-hired services, land preparation, shelling, and
transport are relatively at higher levels of mechanization

(Figure 9). Fig. 10 shows the various machines used by
vegetable farmers through custom hiring.
Table 7. Census of agricultural equipment by farm, number owned, and number used
(Rodulfo et al. 1998)a.

Machine Owned/Farm Used/Owned Area/Machine


Plow 0.89 1.29 3.48

Harrow 0.87 1.25 3.16
Cultivator and weeder 1.03 1.37 3.36

Fertilizer applicator 0.93 1.34 8.86


Sprayer 0.58 1.84 4.62


Combine 0.52 2.03 5.03

Thresher 0.16 6.63 14.96
Hand tractor 0.30 3.55 8.36
Four wheel 0.17 6.37 23.52
Trailer 0.43 2.43 7.89
Irrigation 0.58 1.81 3.95
National Census of Agriculture 1991 and Agricultural Indicators Systems, Bureau of

Agricultural Statistics 1997.

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 31

Number of Responses
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

Transportation 3 654

Milling 104

Drying 3 563

102 733
N Shelling
Harvesting 244 456
Irrigation T4 49

Seeding/crop care/harvesting 157

Crop care 1 567

Seeding/crop care 156

Seeding 9 568

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines


Custom-Hired Services/Facilities
Entire tillage operation
Plowing and furrowing 40
Payment in Kind
Furrowing 1 278
Payment in Cash
Harrowing and furrowing 63
Harrowing 1 91

Plowing and harrowing 142

Plowing 1 543

Fig. 9. Frequency of custom-hired services/facilities for corn in selected areas of the country (Franco et al. 2001).
100 N
O 60

40 27
5 3
4-wheel Tractor 2-wheel Tractor Animal/Animal Water Pump Engine for Rotavator Cultivator/Grass
Drawn Irrigation Cutter

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Fig. 10. Machines and equipment employed by vegetable farmers for custom hiring (de Asis et al. 2003).

Sources of Agricultural Machinery Supply

Agricultural machinery and equipment come from

local production and importation. About 400 machinery
manufacturers exist all over the country (AMTEC 2001).
These include craftsmen and small-scale, seasonal
manufacturers. These local manufacturers can only
make small machinery and equipment like power tillers,
hand tractors, palay threshers, husker-sheller, corn
sheller, harvester, flash dryer, rice mill, pumps, disc plows,
disc harrows, and poultry and livestock equipment.
These are manufactured in Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac,
Laguna (Los Baños), and Manila. Figure 11 shows the
regional distribution of these manufacturers and dealers.

Data shows that about 56% is in Luzon, 8% in the Visayas
and 36% in Mindanao. The larger and more sophisticated
machinery like feed mill equipment, irrigation systems,
recirculating dryers, sugarcane equipment, incubator,
grain silo, tractors, etc. are imported.

Fig. 11. Regional distribution of agricultural machinery manufacturers and

dealers in the country (AMTEC 2001).

34 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Since the 1970s, the Agricultural Machinery Manu-
facturers and Distributors Association (AMMDA) has
represented the manufacturers and dealers in the country.
Its current membership is composed of 30 big- and
medium-sized companies engaged in mananufacture,
assembly, distribution, and service of farm machinery
such as 4-wheel tractors and implements, power tillers
and attachments, irrigation equipment, engines, sprayers,
and other agricultural machinery (Tamayo 2005).

Sales and Demand of Agricultural Machinery

Sales from AMMDA alone showed that from 2006 to

January 2009, machines sold were 1284 units of tractors,
1608 units of postharvest structures and farm processing
equipment, 24 dryers, and 3,159 2-wheel hand tractors
(Table 8).
A study by AMMDA (2003) showed that with the

current growth rate of the economy and production in


the agriculture sector, about 188,000 units of various

pieces of agricultural machinery and farm engines will
be needed over the next few years. The projection is
based on the sales trend that includes about 50,000 units

of gasoline engines and 15,000 units of diesel engines.


The sales growth rate stands at about 30%. They also


estimated that the annual demand for power tillers will

range from 15,000 to 20,000 units; for rice threshers,
from 8,000 to 10,000 units, and for rice mill, about
4,000 units. The market for planters and reapers is still
in the development stage.
AMMDA further states that demand for grain
dryers is decreasing, with yearly demand of 500
units. Manufacturers are trying to find ways to match
appropriate drying type for existing rice mills. On the
other hand, required irrigation pumps in areas not
served or under served by National Irrigation

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 35

Table 8. Sales of agricultural machinery by AMMDA members (no. of units sold)a
Equipment/Machinery Brand 2006 2007 2008 2009 TOTAL
Standard 4-wheel Jon Deere, Valtra, Kubota 195 242 182 10 629
Tractors (Above 23.87 kW/32 Hp) Daedong, Massey Ferguson          
  New Holland, Same, and Eurostar          
Compact 4-wheel Jon Deere, Valtra, Kubota   1 10 2 13
Tractors (below 23.87 kW/32 Hp) Daedong, Massey Ferguson          
  New Holland, Same, and Eurostar          
Combined standard
Jon Deere, Valtra, Kubota 195 243 192 12 642
& compact tractors Daedong, Massey Ferguson          
New Holland, Same, and Eurostar          
TOTAL           1284
and Farm Processing Equipment
Reaper ACT, Kuliglig, KATO 2 100     102
Rice thresher   1020 8 45 18 1091
Rice polisher            
Corn sheller   6 9     15

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Farm trailer       55   55
Rice mill  
R 71 61 207 6 345
TOTAL           1608
Recirculating Fix, CASARENO, KOLBI          
Flatbed type KULIGLIG, KANEKO, ACT 7 1 5   13
BPRE type PADISCOR 7 1 3   11
TOTAL           24
2 Wheel/Hand Tractor Fieldstar/Orec, Kuliglig, Kato          
Pull-type   1608 552 485 28 2673
Floating   314 49 44 4 411
With rotary tiller     75     75
TOTAL           3159
Sales report as of January2009; AMMDA 2009.
Administration facilities and services stand at about
10,000 units annually.

Imports and Exports

AMMDA noted the substantial importation of
agricultural machinery. In 1992 alone, total imports
posted a whopping $102 million and from 1993 to 2004,
the value was estimated to be around $121,739,445
(Tamayo 2005). The NSO also reported the significant
growth of the total importation of wheeled tractors
since 1992 to 1999 caused mainly by the entry of used
tractors from Japan and the United Kingdom.

Some manufacturers in the country continue to
explore the export market with the hope for a more
active and dynamic local agricultural machinery export
industry. Total export of machinery stood at a mere
$350,000 for the 1993–2004 period (Tamayo 2005).

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 37

Problems, Issues, and Constraints

Agricultural mechanization in the Philippines is

faced with many problems such that its success or failure
can only be the result of a complex interplay of factors.
Various factors affecting the country’s agricultural
mechanization have been analyzed before and the
problems are shown in Figure 12.
The conditions with which mechanization is being
introduced in the country have not been very conducive
both in the local and national levels. Economic, technical,

and policy factors had hindered the adoption of
machines in agriculture.
Small Farm Size

“In 2002, the Philippines registered a total of

4.8 M agricultural farms, covering 9.7 M ha. The total
agricultural land area constituted 32.2% of the country’s

total land area. Although the number of farms was


4.6% higher than the 4.6 M farms reported in 1991,

the country’s total farm area decreased by 3% after a

period of more than one decade. The decrease in total

farm area could be attributed to the conversion of
farmlands to residential and commercial purposes. As a
result, the average farm size declined from 2.2 ha/farm in
1991 to 2 ha/farm in 2002.” (http://www.census.gov.ph/
Small farm size is a big factor in agricultural
mechanization because it is against the principle
of “economies of scale.” In land preparation and
harvesting operations, mechanizing small and non-
contiguous parcels of land would be inefficient.

38 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Low labor
productivity in
agricultural production

Low mechanization
level in production &
Farmers unaware of
Social constraints Farmers
Farmers are reluctant
are reluctant Farmers are Inadequate government
new mechanization (pressure from manual to mechanize
to mechanize financially incapable support to mechanization
technology labor group) production and
production and to acquiring
of acquire (e.g. low investment in
T postharvest operations
post-harvest operations machinery/equipment mechanization R&D)

Risks associated quality Available

Inadequate with adoption Availability Low
Low quality Low High Insufficient Less priority
mechanization of cheap farm
of eqpt.
fram eqpt. farmers' cost of policy toward given to
of in not suited to
technology mechanization farm labor available
available in income equipment mechanization mechanization
the market existing
promotion technologies market
Lack of funds No comprehensive Presence
Presence of
Inadequate Absence of No quality Low level Inadequate Misconceptions Lack of
for promotion mechanization unscrupulous
coordination of after-sales control of mechanization about mechanization information
of technology and
and fly-
R&D agencies/ services inspection in manufacturing needs analysis (e.g. adverse effects dissemination
mechanization extension by-night
units most places technology on labor; on
technology program manufacturers
mechanization = mechanization

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Inadequate Lack of skilled Sub-standard Lack of training
shop equipment workers materials for (manufacturers)

Fig. 12. Mechanization problem tree ( Bautista 2003).

Decreasing Supply of Hired Labor in the Farm

Agricultural hired labor is decreasing owing to

preference of labor for employment opportunities in
urban centers and abroad and high level of education
and literacy in the labor force. In rice production, labor
cost represents around 60% of the total input costs in
rice production. Farmers therefore have to mechanize
in order to lessen costs and dependence on unreliable
supply of hired labor while increasing crop productivity
(Bautista 2003).

Appropriate Machinery and Technology

vs. Mechanization Needs SA
The mismatch between available mechanization
technologies and farmers’ need and farm conditions
stems from inadequate need assessment. Failure to

identify the actual needs of the farmers results in non-


utilization of machines.
A case in point is the manual transplanter. It has
been the product of the cooperation of many countries
and research institutions within Asia. Yet, after a long

series of modification, tests, and improvements, funded


by many governments, Filipino farmers have not


shown interest in adopting it.

The influx of second hand imported machinery in
the country is another important concern. They are
attractive investments to some farmers due to low
initial costs. But repair and maintenance pose problems
especially when replacement parts are hard to find.
Moreover, the machinery design may not be suited to
local conditions.
On the other hand, some researchers tend to design
machines out of mere interest without regard to what
is needed in the farm. Scientists and engineers tend to
create something that is novel but sophisticated, without
40 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
much regard to small farm applications. What the
small farming systems in the Philippines usually require
are machines for small-scale operations and not the
high-powered large machines such as those from Europe
and the United States. As such, local designs end up
unused because farmers cannot afford them or cannot
understand their use.

Innovative Machines vs. Market-Driven Machines

The overriding issue in developing commercially

successful machines is meeting the market demands
within acceptable price levels. The industry must be

able to come up with marketable machines, which could
meet farmers’ operational needs at an affordable price.
While private local manufacturers are apt at
developing commercial machines, the institutional
approach to technology development is quite different.

Research institutions have a tendency to be preoccupied


with innovations rather than be propelled by a clearly

perceived market demands. Apparently, machinery
development efforts at public research institutions
are geared towards satisfying the farmers’ functional

needs rather than meeting the market demand for new


machines. While it is true that farmers need a variety of


machines or mechanized services, these however may

be beyond their buying capacity. Machines should not
only be innovative. It should be affordable and with
market demand.

Inadequate Technology Transfer Mechanisms

Many farmers are unaware of the availability of

suitable machines, tools, or implements that could
help ease their tedious work. For instance, simple
and manually-operated corn shellers have long been
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 41
available, but corn farmers in some parts of the country
continued to perform the operation using their traditional
and tedious method that caused them wrist pains and
blisters. It was only in late 2000 and beyond that they
came to know about the better tool. For some reasons,
either the information has not been widely disseminated
or some farmers are just uninterested in mechanization
or they simply resist change.
Extension workers are the key persons in technology
transfer. They need interpersonal communication skills
as well as technical qualifications. With a very limited
number of extension staff for a big number of client-
farmers, the result would likely be non-adoption of some
technologies. Besides, extension workers may lack the

capability to integrate the mechanization technology in
the total farming system. They too may need trainings
to have sufficient background on related aspects of
agricultural mechanization (Paras and Amongo 2005).

Inadequate Support Services

The lack of support services to ensure machine’s
acceptability to farmers has been a continuing constraint

in promoting agricultural machineries. These include


limited access to credit, ineffective marketing systems,


and inefficient after-sales service.

Prices of acquiring and maintaining durable farm
machines continue to stay at levels unaffordable to most
farmers. One of the reasons is the high tariff rate levied
by government on imported agricultural machinery and
parts. Imported farm machinery are still levied a 12%
value added tax. Furthermore, locally manufactured
machineries have high import content.
The only means available for farmers to access
machineries are credit facilities, common ownerships
through cooperatives and associations, and custom-hire
arrangements with private entrepreneurs. However,
42 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
employing these means continue to be minimal because
of the limited cooperativism and small number of
entrepreneurs who engage in the business (AMMDA
Moreover, the presence of repair shops and service
centers with readily available spare parts would also
help boost the acquisition and performance of machines.
This is also a major factor in the development of
agricultural machineries in the country.

Policy Constraints

One of the reasons for the proliferation of imported

equipment in the Philippines is the adoption of liberal
import policies and lack of import restrictions on
agricultural machinery. This is in addition to unstructured
tariff and taxation systems, which have negative effects
on the viability of the local agricultural machinery

manufacturing industry.

Also, growth of mechanization is very much affected

by the purchasing power of farmers. Government
policies on price levels of farm commodities should
help increase farmer’s income from their products. The

acquisition of machines to improve farm operations can


follow if farmers can afford the machines.


Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 43

Areas for Intervention

About a third of the total land area of 30 M ha

of the country is under intensive cultivation. With
the application of suitable farming technologies, the
sustained cultivation of additional 8 M ha is possible.
Mechanization is essential to intensify production and
expand the current agricultural area of the country.
Roughly half the cultivated land is devoted to
rice and corn. Mechanizing rice and corn production

remains to be a priority concern of the government
because of their importance as major staple food
crops. For rice, 70% of the total population is greatly
dependent on its production, processing, distribution,
and marketing and about 3 M farmers distributed

along the many islands of the country are actually


involved in rice farming (Bautista 2003). Corn is

utilized as food by 20% of the population. Yellow corn
production is mostly used in feed formulation for

livestock and poultry production. The other important


crops are coconut, sugarcane, fruits, root crops,

vegetables, fiber crops, coffee, cacao, tobacco, and

Developing the agricultural economy through
appropriate and efficient machineries covering all
types of crops and animal production necessitates
addressing specific problems mentioned in earlier
discussions. To address the constraints, areas of
intervention could be along the lines of R&D activities,
utilization of research results, capacity development,
support services and infrastructures, and policy

44 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Research and Development

Early efforts to mechanize Philippine agriculture

mostly involved the importation of machines. During
the Green Revolution of the 1970s, the local agricultural
manufacturing industry grew with the need to adapt
imported machines as well as to develop new ones
most appropriate to local conditions. While the slow
pace of agricultural mechanization reflected various
social, economic, and technical constraints, government
research institutions and private entrepreneurs provided
the necessary machinery hardware to improve farm and
post harvest operations.
Significant products of local R&D efforts in

agricultural machinery engineering are the power
tillers and hydrotillers, irrigation pumps, rice
transplanters, drum seeders, weeders, rice reapers, rice
strippers, corn and peanut shellers, village rice mills,
grain moisture meters, coconut husk decorticators,

grain and copra dryers, and many others. Annex A


shows the list of technologies and information ready

for dissemination as reported by various agencies.
Introduction of agricultural machinery in a
developing country like the Philippines can be

a controversial subject. Although machines are


considered necessary for agricultural development


particularly to increase productivity of land and labor,

the perceived threat to employment of an expanding
labor force can be an issue. Therefore, along with the
R&D work on the hardware of machinery fabrication
and manufacture, investigations on the impact studies
on mechanization have also been conducted to mitigate
possible negative consequences. The criteria for
appropriate agricultural mechanization technology
were drawn to guide government planners, policy
makers, extension workers, and all concerned with
agricultural mechanization. Currently, the socio-

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 45

political, economic, and environmental dimensions of
agricultural mechanization are also important research
The output of R&D efforts from 1990 to 2007 is
shown in Table 9. A great percentage constituted the
agricultural machinery and power and postproduction
processing (13% and 48%, respectively). The focus on
irrigation (13%) was based on its recognized importance
as a production input that can help intensify and
sustain cropping systems. The research on electrification
and energy (8%) addressed the need for alternative
power and energy source as fossil fuel costs continue
to escalate. Noticeably, ranked among the lowest
were: agricultural building and structures,

instrumentation and control, technical standards for
agricultural machinery, and machines for agricultural
Table 9. Major completed R&D projects, 1990–2007.a
Areas of Concern 1990–2000a 2001–2007b Total

Agricultural machinery and power 26 9 35 (13%)


Postharvest/Agricultural processing and 83 47 130 (48%)

food engineering
Agricultural buildings and structures 2 2 4 (1%)

Irrigation and agricultural drainage 2 32 34 (13%)



Agricultural waste utilization and 2 3 5 (2%)

environmental management
Agricultural instrumentation and control 3 2 5 (2%)
Technical standards for agricultural 4 1 5 (2%)
machinery, materials and procedures
Agricultural electrification and energy 14 8 22 (8%)
Benchmark survey and information 2 5 7 (3%)
system for agricultural engineering
Impact assessment and policy studies in 9 15 24 (9%)
support of agricultural engineering
Total 147 124 271
PCARRD, 2002; bPCARRD, 2007.

46 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

waste management. The first two areas are backbones
towards the development of protected agriculture,
which includes hydroponics and controlled-environment
systems, and precision agriculture, which involves
robotics and automatic controls. Annex B shows the
list of completed agricultural engineering projects from
2001 to 2007 as reported to PCARRD.
It was estimated that the country’s investment
in R&D efforts constituted 0.11% of the total gross
domestic product (GDP) while the United Nations
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) recommends 1% for a developing country
like the Philippines (NEDA 2005). Therefore, while a
thorough selection is necessary in the identification

and prioritization of R&D ventures for purposes of
allocation of resources, the expansion and acceleration
of these scientific efforts is much more necessary in
the programs on sustainable economic development
including agricultural modernization. To achieve this,

increased investments in R&D from both the public and


the private sectors are to be promoted.

Several research and academic institutions are
involved in agricultural machinery development and
promotion. Often, they act separately in organizing

activities that will identify R&D gaps and interventions,


even if specific organizations are already mandated


to implement such. This seems inevitable considering

that mandated agencies have their own priorities
and agenda, with which agricultural engineering is a
component. In such efforts, it is important to ensure
agency representation and active participation of
Also, even with such scenario, the differences lie
in specifics and emphasis or importance in priority
ranking. R&D interventions identified by various
agencies can be summarized into the following general

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 47

l Development of More Energy-Efficient Machines

The increasing fuel cost demands that priority be

on harnessing non-conventional sources of energy
in developing machines. The country imports a
large amount of its fuel requirement. Although the
energy share of the agriculture and fishery sectors
is very small, ramifications of any oil price increase
can definitely affect the use of mechanical
technologies for agricultural production. For R&D
work, it is still much preferable to improve designs
of machines rather than focus on low input farming
technologies that cut down energy consumption at
the expense of crop production. The use of energy

efficient machines is always an ideal approach to
conserve energy input for agricultural operations
(AMDP 1990).
Also, alternative sources of energy must be
given importance such as development of

windmills, solar power utilization system, gasifier


technology, and other biomass energy resource

utilization schemes like coconut oil and jatropha
extract for diesel engines and ethanol for gasoline

l Development of Machines for Village-Level


Processing of Farm Products and By-Products

Machines for village-level post harvest operations

generate employment and livelihood in rural areas.
Likewise, these help diversify and increase value
of farm products. A comprehensive development
of processing machines, systems, and technologies
that are efficient, affordable, and locally adaptable
will promote the development of rural agro-based
processing enterprises.

48 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

l Formulation of Quality Standards for Agricultural

The machines’ quality is determined based on

the materials used, the quality of manufacture,
their performance, soundness of design, and after-
sales service availability. Hence, formulation of
standards is necessary especially if machines are to be
commercialized. Inadequate testing and evaluation of
machines prior to release for commercial production
results in many field problems and customer
dissatisfaction. Such machines fail to generate repeat
demand and eventually end up in display rooms of
research institutions.

Therefore, there is a need to certify agricultural
machinery performance under local conditions
using established standards and test procedures
and assessment of field performance and after-sales
service. Test results need to be disseminated to guide

farmers, extension workers, manufacturers, and

financing institutions in the selection of appropriate

agricultural machinery.

Mechanization of Packinghouse Operations


for Perishables

Improved handling, transport, and packing

facilities for perishables will facilitate transport
of goods without negatively affecting the quality
and quantity of perishables like fruits, vegetables,
and ornamentals. Mechanization concerns include
packinghouses, storage facilities, and appropriate
containers and packaging materials. Mechanizing
these postproduction factors would lead to reduction
in losses (BPRE 2004).

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 49

l Development of Simple, Low-Cost and Gender-
friendly Machines

In the Philippines, indigenous design and

production of simple, low-cost machines are
important in mechanizing small farm holdings. As
much as 80% of the farm power is provided by human
labor. To complement this labor, there is a need to
develop simple manual equipment for various farm
In most developing countries, human labor
comprises as much as 60% of women workers. Hence,
the proposed appropriate machine designs should be
based on the ergonomic limitations of the individuals

(Salokhe 2003). SA
l Materials Science and Manufacturing Processes

The capability of the local mechanization industry


to produce quality products has to be enhanced.

This requires R&D on materials and manufacturing

processes and setting of standards for agricultural

machinery (AMDP 2005). As an example, optimization
of shapes and parts by computer-aided design and

computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) can


greatly help in reducing size and weight of machines.


l Robotics, Mechatronics and Precision Agriculture

The fields of electronics and microcomputer

technology provide a broad range of applications in
agricultural machinery engineering. The application
of mechatronic devices and/or GPS-guided machine
assemblies for remote-controlled operations can be
practical and economical in some respects. Also,
the need for precision and accuracy in many farm
operations from land preparation and planting stages
to product sorting and classification now warrants
50 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
R&D work on machine components interfaced with
electronics and computer technology such as machine
vision, artificial intelligence, and automatic controls.

l Structures and Controlled-Environment Agriculture

Protected agriculture is a high-potential technology

for raising crops like ornamentals and high-value
crops. Currently, R&D efforts in this field are very
limited. While there exist few (R&D) success stories,
which helped boost commercial operation, these are
mostly imported technologies or units that include
all the structural components and auxiliary systems.
Technologies like hydroponics, soil-less agriculture,

and other similar crop production techniques will find
their niches both as large-scale commercial enterprises
that require a separate land area or as small-scale
operations in urban and sub-urban communities.

l Bioprocessing and Postharvest Systems


The application of many processing techniques

and post harvest technology systems still faces
problems on cost efficiency. Efforts to improve or

create new designs for more cost-efficient operations


are continuing tasks of researchers. Fresh approaches


to these problems are sometimes developed using

new technology from other fields.
For example, robotics have been applied in
the industry at least 30 or 40 years ago. With the
current advancement in machine vision, we are now
developing techniques and systems for harvesting (the
machine can select ripe fruits), for quality assessment
of products (like corn and or rice grains), and for
sorting of products by virtue of their color and shape.
Acoustics, which used to be limited to mechanical
engineering, is now being applied to classification of
products, such as maturity levels of “buko.” Radiation
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 51
and ultrasound technologies have been used in
medicine before. Now, it is used to determine sugar
content and or sweetness of oranges and melons.
Also, some insignificant plant or animal materials
can sometimes yield new products of important
application. Again, R&D efforts are needed to
understand proper handling procedures along with
the necessary machines. This could refer to basic
research involving the possible discovery of relatively
unknown product of agriculture, but which may find
application in many fields. While Jatropha craze is
focused on the oil product, there could be a possibility
that a pesticide can be extracted from the same oil
obtained from the seed or from other parts of the

plant itself.

l Waste Management and Environmental Conservation

Agricultural activities produce by-products


that can accumulate to levels that threaten the


environment. There are available machines and

processes, which convert these wastes into valuable
products or at least neutralize their harmful effects.
As the need for food, feed and fiber increases, R&D

work can focus on specific problems and conditions of


localities and the technology packages. The variety of


agricultural products in the country may require the

same variety of approaches to waste management and
environmental conservation.

l Basic Research

Scarce resources for R&D are easily allocated to

activities in the applied field, but basic research is
also necessary. Local researchers have to generate
fundamental knowledge, which may not yet have
any direct application to any design or procedure
but can help extend the frontiers of knowledge. Local
52 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
products, conditions, and needs specific or unique to
the country and localities must be addressed. The
experience of developed countries is a testament to
the eventual application of knowledge accumulated
through basic research in fields of varied nature.

Machinery Requirements of Specific Commodities


To achieve complete mechanization, rice needs

machines for planting or transplanting, crop care,
harvesting, and drying. The manual pull-type

transplanter developed as early as the 1980s never found
much success among farmers while the engine-powered
design performance is far from being acceptable. The
current improvement in the drum seeder’s construction
and material components has considerably reduced

its total weight and drastically lessened the burden of


operation. It is now in the process of extension.

The favorable performance of the Philippine Rice
Research Institute’s (PhilRice) new combine harvester
shows some promise while its rice stripper has yet to

decrease grain loss to within tolerable limits.


Many designs of mechanical driers are already


available, which produce higher milling recovery.

However, affordability of the technology is still an issue
when the farmer has to choose between sun drying and
costly machine.

Corn, Vegetables, and Other Upland Crops

Mechanization of corn is the focus of the current

agricultural development program of the government
(PNA, 2005). A Bureau of Postharvest Research and
Extension’s (BPRE) study recommended the use of
currently available machines to increase yield and
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 53
improve productivity. It further recommended the
development of more appropriate and efficient machine
models, an example of which is the smaller version of
the combine harvester.
De Asis et al. (2003) earlier reported that vegetable
farming was at a very low level of mechanization and
only irrigation, washing/sorting/packing operations,
and transport were mechanized at certain levels in
limited areas of the country. There were many available
machines for upland farming, which can perform
the farm operations for vegetables especially land
preparation. However, the affordability of the machines
is still the issue causing low adoption of the technology.
One high impact area for R&D includes machines

for village-level processing of farm products and by-
products. Such technologies can generate employment
and livelihood and increase land productivity as well as
diversify and increase the value of farm products.


The ‘tapahan’ method of drying is still very prevalent

in spite of the availability of more efficient dryers.
Adoption by farmers has been very slow. The motor-

powered coconut grater has been an accepted gadget


in ordinary markets although it still needs further


improvement and optimization. The design of the coconut

milk extractor is also evolving. Similar to the grater,
it also needs value analysis for optimal performance.
However, some commercial machines for coconut
product processing are reportedly working inefficiently
like decorticators and oil mills. The possible increase in
demand for coconut coir products (e.g., ‘coconet’ for
soil erosion control) may require improvements in the
design or rehabilitation of old machines. As there
is currently no small-scale technology for coconut
processing (PCARRD 2005), other machines may have
to be developed. The ‘virgin oil’ phenomenon opens up
54 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
new challenges to machine designers and developers.
Also, another very important research area is the use of
coconut oil as diesel engine fuel (NEDA 2005) and the
mechanization needs for processing 'buko' meat into
confectionery items and juice into beverage.


New areas for banana production need equipment

for land clearing to remove trees or logs, knockdown
and uproot herbaceous plants and chop these into small
pieces. Equipment for plowing, pulverizing soil, and
final plowing are also requirements of medium and
large farm plantations (PCARRD 2004).

Other Fruit Crops

Low level of mechanization exists particularly in the
production and processing of fruits. There are imported

and locally manufactured processing equipment usually


found in large-scale plants. Similar to the vegetable

sector, R&D on new products and processes for small
scale and/or village-level processing can increase the
level of current technical knowledge in canning, bottling,

preservation, repacking, and many other operations.


Livestock and Poultry

High level of technology is already used in large-

scale farms. Backyard farmers need technologies that fit
their scale of operation. Housing designs and equipment
are needed for swine production. Swine growers'
interest in biogas digesters is increasing along with the
growing concern to manage and recycle wastes into
useful products. Affordable slaughterhouse equipment
such as cutting/chopping tools for the best cut of goat
meats that are sold to supermarkets and stainless pails
and eartaggers are among the simple yet inevitable tools
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 55
in the goat industry. Modified or improved machines
for briquetting and pelleting feeds are also needed
for small-hold cattle raisers. The need for small-scale
portable milking machines would help facilitate milking
activities of small to medium dairy animal raisers.
Annex C shows the detailed R&D areas on agricultural
engineering as formulated and reviewed in PCARRD’s
workshops and meetings. The outputs of conferences and
workshops related to mechanization needs identification
for selected crop commodities are also indicated in the

R&D Results Utilization

R&D products and services have to reach the

intended beneficiaries to realize the impact of agricultural
mechanization. This means providing the information
and technology needs of the clients. Activities along this

line should focus on strengthening technology packaging


and promotion services.

Information dissemination activities through tri-
media, machine displays and exhibits, farmers’ field
day, and technology demonstrations should be actively

pursued in the countryside where machines are needed.


Popularized versions of training and technical materials


and their translation to local dialects would promote

better understanding of these materials (Paras and
Amongo 2005).
The current GIS technology can be applied along
with the tedious but necessary actual and reliable data
gathering process. The kind of information can be very
helpful not only to researchers and extension workers
but to machinery dealers.
Information systems and databases in agencies
working on agricultural mechanization can be housed in
a centralized information system accessible to farmers,
extension personnel, scientists, engineers, students, and
56 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines
policy makers. Among the information necessary for
inclusion in the databank are statistics and information
on machinery inventories, trends in machinery sales,
development and availability of new machinery/
technologies in the local and international community,
and prices and suppliers of locally made and imported
agricultural machines.
A web-based information system can also be a
vehicle towards on-line registration of available and
operational machines. This would facilitate inventory
of local and imported machines that are available
in the market and those that are operational on field.

Capability Building and Institution Development
Local government units (LGUs) are in the forefront
of extension activities. Extension workers under the
LGUs need technological updating, good management,

and interpersonal skills to achieve the goals of


extension. However, the number of extension workers

is very limited compared to a greater number of
farmer-clients. As much as they want to extend
mechanization, they may not have adequate knowledge

and skill about mechanization and how it can become


an important input to the farming system (Paras and


Amongo 2005).
To address this concern, training provisions and
other skill-building activities will help improve the
technical, business, and social capabilities of farm
workers. Target groups would be farmers, extension
workers, and manufacturers. Farmers should be
trained regarding machine use and operations.
Extension workers need to enhance technology transfer
approaches for agricultural machines. Local manufacture
of machines should be encouraged by equipping
manufacturers on craftmanship, manufacturing
technology, operation, repair, and maintenance.
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 57
Policy Advocacy

The 1970s were considered the golden age of farm

mechanization in the Philippines as it was in this
period that there was a coherent program to increase
grain production which included massive financing of
the acquisition of farm machineries and postharvest
equipment (Sanvictores, 1998). During the decade,
PCARRD, a government body that monitors agricultural
and forestry research has included agricultural
engineering as a commodity of investigation. In the
national legislature, a bill has been proposed to create
a body to coordinate agricultural mechanization
activities (Lantin 1978).

During the 80s and 90s, the mechanization of the
country slowed down due to political, social and
financial constraints (Sanvictores, 1998). No substantive
increase in the level of mechanization occurred in the
80s but several agencies and programs were established

or launched to promote it. These include the (1)


Agricultural Mechanization Development Program based

at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, which is
the country’s commitment to the RNAM or Regional
Network of Agricultural Machinery (now APCAEM or

Asia and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering


and Machinery), (2) the AMIC or Agricultural Inter-


Agency Committee, a multi-agency body which serves

as the technical adviser of the Department of Agriculture
regarding mechanization policies and strategies,
(3) the NAPHIRE or National Postharvest Institute
for Research and Extension (now BPRE or Bureau of
Postharvest Research and Extension), (4) the AMTEC
or Agricultural Machinery Testing and Evaluation
Center which was envisioned to provide testing,
evaluation and quality control services of agricultural
machines (AMDP, 1990), and (5) the PhilRice or
Philippine Rice Research Institute which virtually

58 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

took charge of the work of IRRI in the design and
development of machines for rice.
Another mechanization plan was initiated in the
national legislature as early as 1990 but it reached
only the proposal stage. As mechanization proceeded
without a coherent national plan, it never reached the
small farm holders that constitute the vast majority of
In recent years, Republic Act (R.A.) 8435, otherwise
known as the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization
Act (AFMA) provided the boost for agricultural
mechanization development and promotion in the
country. Several other related policies followed through.
R.A. 7607 (Magna Carta for Small Farmers) ensures

the provision of farm machinery to small farmers. In
R.A. 7150 (Local Government Code), mechanization
services and facilities are among the agricultural
support services that will be provided by the LGUs. In
R.A. 7900 (High Value Commercial Crops Law), farm

machinery is part of the post harvest facilities which


will be provided by the Department of Agriculture

(DA) as incentive to program beneficiaries. The
Philippine Agricultural Engineering Act or R.A. 8559
espouses the delivery of basic and technical services

to accelerate agricultural modernization through


adequate and well-trained professional agricultural


Other agency administrative orders particularly
within DA are memorandum circulars creating the
National Agriculture and Fisheries Mechanization
Program and the formulation and implementation of
the National Agricultural and Fishery Engineering
R&D Extension Program (Rico 2008).
In 2009, House Bill No. 3989 (An Act Promoting
and Developing Agricultural and Fisheries
Mechanization in the Philippines) has been endorsed
by selected members of the House of Representatives.
The Bill seeks to promote the development and
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 59
adoption of modern, appropriate, cost-effective, and
environmentally safe agricultural and fishery machinery
and equipment.
These policy advocacies from the government if
well implemented could help attain a modernized
agriculture through mechanization. Moreover, the
following policy recommendations are also important
for consideration by policy makers both at the national
and local level:

l Availability of credit to purchase agricultural

machinery from credit institutions that provide
low interest rates and easy requirements for
loan processing and loan amortization;

l Provision of alternative business enterprises by
establishing farm machinery repair and service
outlets, and farm machinery rental centers;
l Establishment of cooperative buying centers in
villages equipped with storage and marketing


l Consolidation of small farms for effective and

economical implementation of mechanization
l Support to small- and large-scale local

manufacturers to encourage local manufacturing


of machines;

l Intellectual property rights on R&D outputs

and support in patenting inventions; and
l Expansion of value-adding activities to generate
jobs in both rural and urban centers.

60 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Strategies and Recommendations

Based on the AFMA framework, the roadmap for

agricultural mechanization should aim to: 1) promote
use and widen farmers’ access to farm machines;
2) enhance the delivery of support services to
improve farm mechanization; and 3) encourage the
development of a progressive agricultural machinery
manufacturing industry. Based on the development
objectives set forth by AMMDA and the NAFC, the

following targets and strategies were identified to
achieve the objectives (AMMDA 2003):

1. Raise farm mechanization level. Efforts should


focus on promoting the use of compact and low-

powered (under 20 hp) machinery and equipment
and on rice and corn postproduction mechanization

to substantially reduce post harvest losses.


2. Raise local content in farm machineries by

promoting greater private sector investments in

the assembly of small, single cylinder engines. This

effort will expand their production capacities and
lower the import content of local farm machinery.
3. Raise public investment in agriculture mechanization
R&D to at least one fourth of one percent of the
agriculture and industry sectors’ gross value added.
This sum shall not only be invested in R&D, but
also in agricultural and industrial extension that
will promote the research results. Since agricultural
mechanization impact on development areas outside
agriculture, the sum shall be shared among DA,

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 61

the Department of Trade and Industry, and the
Department of Science and Technology.


1. Enact and implement progressive pricing polices

to support fair product prices at the farm gate and
ensure stable income for farmers. Only under such
condition will farmers gain financial ability to
invest in farm machineries.
2. Some policies that are currently in force impede the
formation of an environment that favors sustained
development of agricultural mechanization and
farmers' access to agriculture machinery. Policy

reforms to address this concern include: SA
a. Liberalizing imports and reducing tariffs on
imported agricultural machines and spare parts
that are not produced locally;

b. Lifting the value added tax on intermediate


agricultural machineries and their components;

c. Increasing government investment in
research, development, and promotion of farm
mechanization; and,

d. Sustaining rural electrification.


3. Implement measures that will increase credit

available to farmers for acquiring farm machinery.
4. Unify R&D efforts and strengthen technology
transfer to farmers through:

a. Conduct of a comprehensive review and

assessment of machines suitable to farmers and
their farm conditions;
b. Promotion of right farm tools, improve packaging
of mature, ready-to-use technologies, and
disseminate information to users; and

62 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

c. Improvement of linkage among private and
public institutions engaged in farm mechanization

5. Provide incentives to develop the agricultural

machinery industry and ensure availability of
appropriate machinery through:

a. Tariff reduction on farm machine imports

and machine components that are not locally
b. Implementation of industrial extension
measures, including standardization and product
certification services;

c. Promotion of investment and joint ventures in
farm machinery manufacturing;
d. Establishment of an industry linkage to
encourage mutual support and complementation
of manufacturing and after-sales services;

e. Production and development of agricultural


machinery exports.

The fundamental consideration in the agricultural

mechanization sector is to address the needs of various

stakeholders. At the farmers’ level, it is important that


farmers have the widest choice of appropriate farm tools,


machinery, and equipment at affordable prices. Access to

spare parts and services would allow farmers to decide
on the best choice that suits their needs. More than this is
their need for accessible sources of advice and existence
of legislation that will protect them from commercial
exploitation (Clark 1997).
Retailers and wholesalers require a suitable
competitive, commercial environment to develop their
businesses. This involves access to commercial credit
for business development and cash flow purposes, a
stable market in which to sell their products, access to
business development assistance, and removal of any
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 63
unfair competition. Manufacturers require access to a
stable supply of raw materials at stable prices, access to
credit for business development and cash flow, stable
foreign exchange, good communications, a stable market,
contacts with potential overseas partners/licensers, access
to market information, assistance in product R&D and
production engineering, and others.
Importers require a suitable competitive, commercial
environment to develop their businesses. This includes
access to foreign exchange at undistorted rates, foreign
contacts, removal of any unfair competition from the
state, marketing assistance, and access to credit for
business and cash flow development.
The role of the government sector is to provide

assistance in terms of policy support; R&D; testing of
farm machinery; education, training, and extension;
mechanization departments/organizational structure;
and consumer protection.
A strong linkage among these parties is a fundamental

requirement to a sustainable agricultural mechanization



64 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines


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70 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex A

Agricultural Engineering Technologies/Information for Dissemination

Generated from R&D (2001–2007)

Technologies/Information Agency (ies)
2007 Plant oil fueled cookstove LSU
Rice hull-fired dryer for natural sausage casing SLSU
Design and development of small-scale virgin CapSU
coconut oil mill

Mechanical drying of palays for quality milled rice NSCA

Brick and drum kilns for charcoal making PCA-XI and UP

2006 Adaptation of panicle thresher-corn sheller PhilRice
in Ilocos Region
Pilot testing of the processing technologies BU
for arrowroot
Mechanized paddy gatherer: an alternative WPU

to manual paddy gathering


Construction and evaluation of a solar cabinet dryer CSCST

Design, development, and evaluation of saba CapSU
banana chipper

Design and development of a horizontal vortex CSSAC

fruit and vegetable washer

Evaluation of different designs of village level WESMIARC


biogas digester
Rice husk furnace for recirculating type CPU
of mechanical paddy dryer
Construction and evaluation of manually- CapSU
operated banana chipper
Determining the compost quality and efficiency MOSCAT
of using prototype horizontal composting aerator

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 71

Annex A. (Continued) ..........

Technologies/Information Agency (ies)
2005 Coconut husk decorticating machines (PCA-ZRC)
Mechanized technology for arrowroot processing BUCAF and KOLBI
Improvement of axial-flow biomass shredders CA-CPU
Sago starch grater machine LSU and TUAT
Floating tiller for improved rice productivity PhilRice
Bio-N enhances growth and yield of rainfed rice DMMMSU
Site-specific nutrient management as an approach PhilRice
to attain target yield of rice
2004 Dried cassava grates processing system PhilRootcrops-LSU
Zero-waste ginger processing technology BUCAF

Small-scale coffee roaster CavSU
Mechanized village-level handmade paper-making NARC-LSU
Village-scale abaca fiber twisting and twining NARC-LSU
Golden kuhol crusher-grinder CSSAC

Mechanical banana male bud bagger DA-CARIARC


Improved steam distillation unit for essential oil FPRDI

Portable electric fruit dryer NVSU
Mechanical transplanter for rice PhilRice

Using water to pump water: the hydro-powered PhilRice


water pump

2003 Adaptability testing of existing dryers BPRE

for non-grain commodities
Development of the vortex cooler/dryer PhilRice
Mechanization of supplementary pollination PhilRice
in hybrid rice seed production
Mechanized hybrid rice supplementary pollinator DA-Region 2
Design and development of solar cabinet NEUST
dryer for small-scale coffee processing
Improved biomass cookstove ASU

72 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex A. (Continued) ..........

Technologies/Information Agency (ies)
Development of a seed cleaner for rice hybrids PhilRice
Ride comfort development with handtractor- PhilRice
drawn implements
Development and improvement of postproduction BUCAF
tools and equipment for ginger: Pilot testing of
integrated processing equipment for ginger at
selected cooperative in Albay
Technical improvement of the root crop grates ViSCA
processing system
Modified oil skimmer SLPC
Development of a tractor-drawn sweetpotato LSU

2002 Mechanical pili nut cracker BUCAF
A small-scale dryer for flowers and foliage UPLB
Low-cost axial-flow type biomass shredder CPU
Modified traditional frame loom and its loom DMMMSU
accessories for silk weaving

Cassava milling machine CPU


Mechanized precision seeder for hybrid rice PhilRice

Mechanized supplementary pollination in hybrid PhilRice
rice seed production

Mechanical properties of eggshells UPLB


Engineering the crop establishment for paddy PhilRice

wet seeding

2001 Hand tractor-mounted seeder-fertilizer applicator DA-CVLMROS

for upland crops
Palay dryer FPRDI
“Super Curyat” tiller for Cordillera rice terraces PhilRice
Calamansi juice extractor USEP
Receiving tank for batch recirculating dryer NFA
Standardization of postharvest machinery testing AMTEC-UPLB
and evaluation IRRI
Rice hull furnace in flue-curing tobacco NTA

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 73

Annex A. (Continued) ..........

Technologies/Information Agency (ies)
Mechanical reaper cage wheel SUNAS-TESDA
Thermal properties of eggplant as a factor for UPLB
developing an appropriate crop processing system
Analysis of impact damage in papaya fruit UPLB
for appropriate machinery development
Portable moisture meter for abaca fiber LSU
Convertible ginger crusher, juice extractor, and mill BUCAF
Proposed technology interventions for bulk handling BPRE
of corn at farmers-cooperative level


74 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex B

Completed Agricultural Engineering R&D Projects (2001–2007)

I. Farm Production Power and Machinery

Project Title Researcher
Lead Agency
L. Caranguian;
L. Lorenzo; E.D.
Development of mechanized
Guzman; G. Oli; DA-CVLMROS
supplementary pollinator
E. Egipto; G.G. Dante;
M.L. Calimag
Performance evaluation of
the China-made walking type

mechanical rice transplanter
R.B. Gavino;
using two methods of seedling CLSU
E.V. Sicat
preparations (mechanical seedling
preparation and double mulching

G. Oli; I.S. Cabalsi;

Mechanizing corn cluster areas F.S. Aguinaldo; J.R.

in Region 02 Binarao; J.E. Tuliao,.
Corres; N. Battad

Design and fabrication of a pressurized

D.M. Aquino DMMMSU

mango sprayer
Pressurized sprayer and portable

E. De Padua DMMMSU
ladder for mango production
Development of a tractor-drawn A.B. Loreto;
sweetpotato harvester M.B. Loreto

G. Oli; L.M.
Development of hand tractor mounted Caranguian;
DA-Region II
seeder-fertilizer applicator V.I. Eslava; R. Cubero;
E. Egypto
Fabrication of beekeeping tools
and equipment

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 75

Annex B. (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher
Lead Agency

Herbs and Spices

Design and development
A.F. Dumaoa MMSU
of garlic planter

II. Postharvest/Agricultural Processing and Food Engineering

Fiber glass designed rice thresher;
F. Man; C. Duhig HNU
its effects on rice threshing
Outdoor storage of paddy seeds R.L. Tiongson;
in sealed plastic enclosures E.C. Blaza; J.V. Dator
Design, construction, and performance

M.L. Pesino CSSAC
testing of golden kuhol crusher-grinder
R.E. Manalabe; R.C.
Martinez; R. Dimla;
Drying of hybrid rice seeds R.E. Daquila; J.A. BPRE
Lavarias; E.D. Flores;
M.A.T. Cantre

Performance evaluation of the China-

made complete rice milling machine R.B. Gavino; E.V.

as influenced by different varieties Sicat; R.G. Peneyra
and purity levels of paddy
Grains and Cereals

Design, development, and pilot M.C. Bulaong;


testing of corn harvester R.E. Manalabe


Application of heat pump technology R. Cachuela;

for grain drying R. Macaranas
R.C. Martinez;
Adaptation of existing dryers
R. Dimla; L. Miranda; DA- BPRE
for non-grain commodities
E. Flores; N.
M.C. Bulaong;
Promotion of mechanical dryers
R.C. Martinez; R.E. DA-BPRE
through BPRE drying center
Daquila; N.T. Asuncion
R.O. Verena; G.B.
Quantitative and qualitative
Calica; H.G. Malanon;
assessment of corn post harvest DA-BPRE
A.R. Salvador;
P.C. Castillo

76 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex B. (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher
Lead Agency
Design and development of cashew R. Macaranas;
dehydrating equipment L.N. Miranda
Development of controlled atmosphere
storage chamber for delayed ripening N. Candelaria CLSU
and prolonged storage life or mango
M.A. C. Soria;
L. Panes;
Design and fabrication of a mechanical M.L.C. Bangalisan;
banana pole bagger E. Abalos; D.L.
Dumaluan; J.
Garcines; A.C. Nonan

Adaptation of biomass heating system
R.P. Gregorio DA-BPRE
for non-grain commodities
Establishment of controlled
atmosphere protocol for commercial R.E.A. Lagunda DA-BPRE
export of Philippine mango
Design and development of

depulping machine for pili; design and

development of pili nut cracker/sheller; A.B. Guinto;

adoption of a twin screw press for pili A.P. Malinis
and kernel oil extraction; pilot testing
of pili harvesting device
Development and testing of a

E. B. Guzman NVSU
micro-electric fruit dryer

Development of banana chipping M.M. Malapad; C.J.

machine Andam

Improvement of the transport and

R.Q. Gutierrez; R.G.
handling system of the Malabing DA-BPRE
Valley citrus industry
Processing of mango fruits;
development and evaluation of cabinet
type fruit dryer for mango leather, dried E.B. Guzman NVSU
mango, dehydrated pineapple candy,
and other similar products
Plantation Crops
Comparative performance evaluation
V.L. Reoma; N.O.
of the different abaca stripping SLSCST
Morales; V. A. Pelesco
machines in Region VIII

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 77

Annex B. (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher
Lead Agency
Improvement of existing portable M.B. Manolo, Jr.;
abaca stripping machine F.G. Sinon
Design and fabrication of single
L. Manolo, Jr. LSU
strand yarning machine
Design and development of a
convertible ginger crusher, A.P. Malinis BUCAF
extractor, and mill
Comparative evaluation of different
commerciable abaca stripping V.L. Reoma LSU
machines in Region 8
Small-scale coffee processing M.A. Cabling NEUST
Design, construction and evaluation

of a batch type coffee roaster for R.M. Mojica CavSU
small-scale roasting
Design, fabrication and evaluation of
portable electro-motor powered abaca
stripping machine for high quality fibers F.G. Sinon;
(development of a portable engine- M.F. Delandar

powered abaca spindle stripping


Design and fabrication of multi-

F.G. Sinon LSU
stranded yarning machine
Mechanization of village-level

processing of woven products:

development of twisting and yarning

F.G. Sinon;
machine; development of twining LSU
A.M. Martinez
machine; utilization of abaca stripping

wastes for handmade paper production

and packaging materials
Comparative performance evaluation
V.L. Reoma; N.O.
of the different abaca stripping SLSCST
Morales; V. A. Pelesco
machines in Region VIII
Adaptation of diffused light storage
system for potato in the mid- A.D.V. Coloma DA BPRE
elevated conditions

78 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex B. (Continued) ..........
Project Title Researcher
Lead Agency
Technical improvements of the
rootcrop grates processing system:
design and development of a
continuous-type water extraction R.R. Orias; Daniel
machine for grates; Design and L.S. Tan
development of a rotary drum-type for
grates; integration of the machines for
the grates and for flour processing
Field testing of processing machines
N.T. Diaz; A.D. Conge DMMMSU
for cassava, sweetpotato, and ube
Seri tools/machineries development: R.V. Pascua; A.
improvement of warping machine Laborte; T.B. Bunnao

Design, construction, testing, and
evaluation of beehive for sting less G.R. Ipac DMMMSU
Design and development of prototype
machine; innovation of honey extractor D.M. Aquino DMMSU
machine; support to apiculture industry

Innovation of honey extractor: support

V. Palabay DMMMSU

to apiculture industry
Development of the integrated multi-

crop (ginger, pandan, lemon grass, A.P. Malinis,; E. L.

arrowroot, and other fibrous crops) Baluster

processing technology

A.S. Accad; E.S.

Development of multi-purpose Valerio; T.E. Eyana;
kiln dryer D. Ebon; G. Flores;
R. Juesa
Enhancing the quality of dried fish
through the use of Multicommodity H.F. Martinez; et al. DA-BPRE
Solar Tunnel Dryer (MCSTD)
Development of portable engine-
E.E. Sudaria LSU
powered coconut husk fiber extractor
Design, construction and performance
E.Z. Cordero;
testing of a revolving solar dryer ISU-Echague
M.U. Villados
(peanut processing equipment)

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 79

Annex B. (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher
Lead Agency
Manufacture of farm tools and R.D. Velasco;
equipment for peanut in Region 02 G. A. Batoon
Development of an abrasive plate
E.Z. Cordero ISU-Echague
type peanut decoater blower
C.C. Divina; R.C.
Dizon; G.R. Berganio;
Development of egg incubator M.R. Canlas; R.B.
equipped with electronic thermostat Graza; R.E. Mesa; SKPSC
and automatic egg rotator A.B. Torero, Jr.;
R.G. Fortuna;
N.R. Villanueva

Portable balut maker (Elective II) R.C. de Vera ASCOT

III. Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage System

Evaluation of the suitability of the E.F. Ausa; ISU-Echague
design criteria for the headwork and O.F. Balderama;
main systems of existing SWIPs, CIS, B.T. Ausa; N.S.

and NIS in Region 2 Alvarez; R.S. Tanap


Evaluation of the suitability of the T. Aguinaldo CLSU

design criteria for the headwork and
main systems of existing SWIPs, CIS,
and NIS in Region 3

Evaluation of the suitability of the M.L. Pesino CSSAC

design criteria for the headwork and

main systems of existing SWIPs, CIS,

and NIS in Bicol Region

Evaluation of the suitability of the M. Escalante; LSU

design criteria for the headwork and M. Sacedon
main systems of existing SWIPs, CIS,
and NIS in Region 7
Evaluation of the suitability of the L.R. Laureles; CMU
design criteria for the headwork and B.D. Concha
main systems of existing SWIPs, CIS,
and NIS in Region 10
Evaluation of the suitability of the R.S. Garzon; USM/USMARC
design criteria for the headwork and H. Gutierrez;
main systems of existing SWIPs, CIS, N.M. Tolentino
and NIS in Region 10

80 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex B. (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher
Lead Agency
Evaluation of the suitability design H. Gutierrez; USM
criteria for the headworks and main N.M. Tolentino;
systems of irrigation systems in J.A.L. Deleña;
Central and Western Mindanao J.O. Fernandez
Evaluation of the suitability design B.D. Concha; CMU
criteria for the headwork and main R.C. Bayawa
systems of existing SWIPs, CIS,
and NIS in Region 10
Evaluation of the long term R.P. Caro; R.M. ISU-Echague
performance of commercially Vicarme, E.F. Ausa;
available pumps and prime O.F. Balderama; B.T.
movers under field condition Ausa; E.B. Santos;
D.P. Viloria

Evaluation of the long term H.L. Angeles; CLSU
performance of commercially available R.B. Gavino
pumps and prime movers under field
Evaluation of the long term J.R. Pardales; CSSAC
performance of commercially available H.A. Mabesa;
pumps and prime movers under field J. L. Pardales, Jr.;

condition J.L. De Villa


Evaluation of the long term A.L. Presbitero; LSU

performance of commercially-available E.C. Lopes
pumps and prime movers under field
condition in Region 7

Evaluation of the long term J.C. Villarina; CMU


performance of commercially available N.A. Virgo

pumps and prime movers under field

condition in Region 10
Field assessment and performance G. Oli DA-II
of pumps and engines passing the
AMTEC test criteria
Field assessment of the performance C. Estrada; F.M. Tan; DA-EVIARC
of pumps and engines L.N. Cruz; G. Bulgado
Field assessment of the performance M.M. Aguilos DA-Region VII
of pumps and engines
Field assessment and performance P.M. Andalahao DA-WESMIARC
of pumps and engines passing the
AMTEC test criteria
Field assessment of the performance J.F. Torres; DA-XII
of pumps and engines passing the P.P. Margate
AMTEC test criteria

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 81

Annex B. (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher
Lead Agency
Field assessment of problems R.P. Caro; B.T. Ausa; ISU-Echague
associated with selection, after sales E.B. Santos; J.A. Pacis
services, operation, and maintenance
of STW pumps
Field assessment of problems H.L. Angeles; CLSU
associated with after sales services, R.B. Gavino
operation, and maintenance of STW
Field assessment of problems A.L. Presbitero; LSU
associated with the selection, E.C. Lopes
after-sale services, operation and
maintenance of STW and low lift

Field adaptation of recommended J.F. Torres; DA-FOS
pump and prime mover combination P.P. Margate
and determining effective method of
transferring them to target clientele
Improving the efficiencies of pumps R.S. Garzon; USM/USMARC
and prime movers H.A. Villaruz

Delineation of areas served by R.B. Ayaso; UPLB

minor irrigation systems: STW, M.L. Capili


Development and prototyping of E.B. Guzman NVSU
workable model hydraulic ram
suited for the upland farms in

Southern Nueva Vizcaya


Development and testing of a ram E.B. Guzman NVSU

pump as alternative irrigation system

for small upland farm

Fabrication, installation and evaluation LSU
of modified JB windpump
Micro-irrigation studies for diversified E.P. Ramos NVSU
Evaluation of the suitability of design C.M. Limbaga; USP
criteria for the head works and main R. F. Cuna
systems of existing SWIPs, CISs,
NISs in Region XI
Development and promotion of R.C. Castro; DA-PhilRice CES
hydro-powered water pump M. U. Baradi DA-PhilRice-Batac

82 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex B. (Continued) ..........
Project Title Researcher Implementing/
Lead Agency
Development of a vortex cooler/dryer R.C. Castro; DA-PhilRice CES
M.U. Baradi DA-PhilRice-Batac
Development of a Savonious windmill R.C. Castro; DA-PhilRice CES
M. U. Baradi DA-PhilRice-Batac

IV. Agricultural Electrification and Energy

Adaptability testing of biomass- R.P. Gregorio; B.G. DA BPRE
based heating system Jallorina; R. Dimla;
E.D. Flores
Barangay electrification project R.D. Velasco DOE
for Region 2
Comparative study of the D.T. Sayo; ISU

performance/efficiency of electric C.R. Babas
motor, diesel and gasoline engine
prime mover for grass chopper
Design, construction and performance D. Falgui KASC
evaluation of load stabilizers in
existing micro-hydro power

distribution system
Modified rice hull stove G.O. Manrique; M.M. MSC

Malapad; H. Montejo;
C.J. Andam
Study on the techno-economic R.D. Velasco; ISU

viability of photovoltaic pumping O. F. Balderama;

system for domestic supply and S.B. Lazaro;

agricultural production in the A.J. Castro

Cagayan Valley region

Workability of a mini hydroelectric A.V. Domagas; F.T. NVSU

power plant at Sitio Catanan, Banilla, Valdez; D.J. Vicente;
Dupax del Sur, Nueva Vizcaya M.B. Pasion
Design, construction, performance, Anita, A.; S.P. Aquino; NVSU
and economic evaluation of biogas R.J. Fernandez
digester in Nueva Vizcaya

V. Impact Assessment, Socioeconomics, and Policy Studies in Support

of Agricultural Engineering
An analysis of the environmental R.B. Ayaso; DA-EVIARC
impact of STW pumping JJC. Palma
Impact evaluation of the hydraulic E.B. Guzman; DA-CASCADE
ram pump among the adopters in F.M. Ramos
the upland communities

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 83

Annex B. (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher Implementing/

Lead Agency
Farm mechanization: its impact C. Pimentel ISCAF
to corn farming in Ifugao
Impact of the presence of support R.B. Ayaso; DA-VIII
services on the viability and M.T. Sacay
sustainability of existing and
proposed irrigation systems
Postharvest machinery market C.L. Maranan; R.O. DA BPRE
structure analysis Vereña; C.A. Lanuza
Review and assessment of the H.L. Angeles CLSU
mandate of public and private
institutions concerned with irrigation

Study of the role, viability, H.L. Angeles CLSU
performance, empowerment of the
farmers’ irrigators’ association in
the development, operation, and
maintenance of irrigation system
Identification of operation and H.L. Angeles, CLSU
maintenance activities that could J.A. Matutino, Jr.

be devolved to water users group

or irrigators association or private

sector for reduced operation and

maintenance cost
Monitoring of the impacts of irrigation R.S. Garzon USM/USMARC
policies, programs, and other policy


Economic analysis of alternative L.S. Cabanilla DA-BPRE

policy options for improving grain UPLB-CPAf

Technology assessment and process A.M. Apaga; DA-BPRE; RED
documentation of a fully mechanized E. Nicolas Foundation, Inc.
postproduction system in Quirino
Socio-economic assessment and M.E.B. Ramos; DA-BPRE
technical feasibility of using cold F.B. Lanuza;
chain systems in the Cordillera H.G. Malanon
Economic analysis of existing R.S.M. dela Cruz DA-BPRE
machine service arrangements
in corn mechanization
Quantitative and qualitative loss MEV. Ramos; R. BPRE
assessment on high value food crops Rapusas; R. Gutierrez

84 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex B. (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher Implementing/

Lead Agency
Profitability testing of BPRE R.S. dela Cruz; N.T. BPRE
pneumatic corn planer when Asucion; R.J. Pontawe
engaged in custom servicing

VI. Agricultural Waste Utilization and Environmental Management

Bioengineering as stream bank MPSPC
rehabilitation and stabilization
at Mount Data
Design, construction and efficiency M. Antonio; DMMSU
of composters/compost bin: L.E. Ngilangil
A DMMSU model
Development of biodegradable M.F. Accad; SKPSC

decomposer R. Delfinado;
J. L. Brillantes;
J.D. Datungputi;
P.D. Gardose

VII. Technical Standards for Agricultural Machinery, Materials,

and Procedures

Enhancing the implementation of D. Aranguren; UPLB-CEAT-AMTEC


AFMA through improved agricultural A. Resurreccion;

engineering standards F.M. Dagaas

VIII. Benchmark Surveys, Information System, and Communication Support

for Agricultural Engineering

National farm mechanization needs D.T. Franco UPLB-CEAT-AMTEC


survey and analysis

Communication campaign strategies ISU-Echague
for peanut processing technologies
Establishment of postharvest facility G.M. Tolentino; DA-BPRE
database for master planning A.M. Tuates, Jr.;
A.M. Apaga;
E.V. Circa; B.T. Belonio
PRA on the proposed sites M. Bilagot; KASC
of microhydro in Kalinga E. Guzman;
S. Lucob

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 85

Annex B . (Continued) ..........

Project Title Researcher Implementing/

Lead Agency
Development of software information M. Bilagot; KASC
system of KASC-ANEC technology E. Guzman;
guide in installing microhydro and S. Lucob
fabricators guide in crossflow turbine

IX. Agricultural Instrumentation and Control

Development and pilot testing of F.G. Sinon; LSU
a portable strength and moisture E. Vedasto
Overhead tank’s motor automatic A.V. Dimgas; NVSU
controller D.R. Pajarito;
JC B. Nilo

X. Agricultural Buildings and Infrastructures

Design and development of a low-cost D.L. Dumaluan NORMISIST
NORMISIST greenhouse
Operationalization and documentation AR M. Apaga; BPRE

of the viability of agricultural tramline I.A. Areda

systems in Buguias, Benguet

86 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex C
Agricultural Engineering R&D Areas (2006–2010)1

Commodity and Target R&D Agenda N AE R&D Areas AE Products, Systems, and Services
Design/modification of fertigation system Improved irrigation practices
O Modification of spraying system Efficient chemical sprayers
Fresh fruits Improving Development of fertilizer applicator Fertilizer applicator
production system
Development of fruit harvester Fruit harvester

Processed Products Reducing post-

harvest losses Development of vapor heat treatment for controlling Vapor heat treatment for mangoes for export
fruit flies and other disease
Development of mechanical sizing system
R Mechanical graders and sorters
Development of dryers for processed mango products Dryers
Improvement of packaging and product presentation Design of packing materials, sealing and
packaging equipment
Development of processing equipment for processed Processing equipment for mango puree,
products juice, dried, and powdered mangoes
Mango pulp processing machines
Establishment of post harvest facilities Packinghouses and Controlled Atmosphere
and Modified Atmosphere storage facilities

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

PCARRD: 2006-2007 AE Commodity Team Meetings; Workshop on the Validation of Ag. Eng Agenda for PA 2020-25 Oct. 2005; UPLB-NAFC: Conference on HVCC Mechanization
Needs, 17July 2008, Agribusiness Opportunities in the Philippines, http://www.commercecan.icgc.ca

Annex C. (Continued) ..........

Commodity and Target R&D Agenda AE R&D Areas AE Products, Systems, and Services

Banana Improving production Development/improvement of farm tools e.g., male bud remover for fresh saba
Fresh fruits system and machineries

Processed Products Reducing postharvest

N Development and promotion of alternatives Self-constructed cold rooms
(saba chips) losses to conventional refrigeration Ventilated cooling system
Ofor temperature management Evaporative cooling system
Thermal storage system
Improving processing Development of banana chippers/slicers
T Banana chippers/slicers
technologies Development of dryers Dryer
Improvement of packaging materials Sealing and packaging equipment
Papaya Reducing postharvest Development/improvement of postharvest handling Cold chain system (high-end and low-cost
Varieties losses systems and facilities technologies)
Fresh Fruits Development of mechanical graders and sorters Dryer
Processed Products Graders and Sorters

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

(dried papaya)
Improving processing Development/improvement of products and Sealing and packaging equipment
and marketing packaging systems Improved packinghouse operations
• Training on standards, quality control,
packinghouse operations, packaging
Pineapple Improving production Local fabrication of harvesting machines and Harvesting machines
Fresh fruits and processing processing equipment Peeling and cutting machines
Processed fruits system Sealing/Canning machines
Crushers, juicers, blenders
Annex C. (Continued) ..........
Commodity and Target R&D Agenda AE R&D Areas AE Products, Systems, and Services

Vegetables, legumes, Improving production Development and improvement of the following: Vegetables
and rootcrops (VELERO)
N o Seedling picker Nursery:
Vegetables o Low cost design tray materials Seedling picker
O o Low cost irrigation system Low cost tray materials
Organically-grown o Portable and biomass—fueled sterilizer Low cost irrigation system
fresh vegetables T o Precision seeder/robotics Portable and biomass-fueled sterilizer
Fresh vegetables Precision seeder/robotics
Development of low cost tractor and implements Land Preparation:
Development/modification/adaptation of Low cost tractor and implements
seedling transplanter Crop Establishment:
Design and development of devices for seedling Modified seedling transplanter
removal Devices for seedling removal
Design and development of organic and Crop Care
chemical fertilizer applicator Organic and chemical fertilizer applicator
Precision agriculture Fertigation systems
Development of local drip irrigation system, rain Protected cultivation using greenhouse
collector, and harvesting systems structures
Development/modification of harvesters Harvesting
Off season and protected culture production Modified harvesters

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Peanut Improved designs of peanut shellers/
Varieties Reducing postharvest Improvement of farm tools and machineries threshers
Fresh nuts losses
Processed products Improvement of storage systems Improved designs of low-cost peanut storage

Annex C. (Continued) ..........

Commodity and Target R&D Agenda AE R&D Areas AE Products, Systems, and Services
Rootcrops (yam, sweet
potato, and cassava) Promotion and utilization of rootcrops processing Harvester, slicer/chipper, dryer,
Varieties for Improving production machines milling machine, washer-peeler, juice-starch
industrial purposes system and N extractor, flour grinder, finisher
Planting materials processing
Processed Products echnologies O
Varieties Improving production Development/improvement of nutrient and water Mechanized rapid composting technique
Planting materials system management systems:
Tools, equipment, and Production of compost and subsequent recycling of
machineries for fiber nutrients through rapid composting

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Diagnostic kits
Abaca fiber
Quality standards
Improving processing Improvement of mechanized abaca fiber extraction Improved abaca stripping machines
technologies Improvement of mechanical fiber drying machine Fiber dryers
Mechanized twisting and yarning machine Twisting and yarning machine
Establishment of village-level processing of woven Mechanized village-level processing of
products woven products
Utilization of abaca stripping wastes for handmade Prototype abaca waste recycling
paper production and packaging materials (abaca systems
waste management)
Annex C. (Continued) ..........
Commodity and Target R&D Agenda AE R&D Areas AE Products, Systems, and Services
Coffee Improving production Development/improvement of organic production Mechanized compost – making by coffee
Organic Arabica system N systems farmers
Planting materials Reducing postharvest Development/improvement of postharvest facilities
O Postharvest facilities and equipment designs:
Ground coffee losses and equipment for production of high quality beans coffee huller, batch-type coffee roaster

Improving processing
Establishment of a community processing plant Processing plant design

Planting materials Reducing postharvest Copra quality improvement program at the village Improved copra dryer
(macapuno) losses level (Installation of 20,000 efficient copra dryers;
20 ppb acceptable aflatoxin level; Lower PAH
Planting materials
Improving processing
content through non-smoke producing copra dryers;
Fresh nuts technologies Development and standardization of the quality
Processed products management systems)
Assessment of existing machinery for Virgin Coconut Machinery for VCO production
Oil (VCO) production
Development of suitable drying and processing Drying and processing machinery for coco
machinery for coco coir, dust, and geotextile coir, dust, and geotextile
Development and piloting of a coconut fiber extraction Coconut fiber extraction machine

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Establishment of standards for different coconut Standards
processing machinery
Development and piloting of coconut husk Improved coco husk decorticator. coco husk
decorticating machine, shredding and composting shredder, and composting machinery

Annex C. (Continued) ..........
Commodity and Target R&D Agenda AE R&D Areas AE Products, Systems, and Services
Ornamental Plants Establishment of cold storage facilities near airports Design of centralized cold storage facilities
Varieties Reducing postharvest Improvement in postharvest handling of ornamental
Tools, equipment, losses plants Packaging material design
machineries N • Development of manual on postharvest practices
Cutflowers/cutfoliage • Development of packaging materials and Information on postharvest technologies
O postharvest practices
• Improvement and promotion of postharvest
Rice and white corn Improving production Adopt water use efficiency system and conservation Rehabilitated Irrigation system
Organically grown system • Rehabilitation of existing irrigation systems
rice • Design, construction and performance evaluation Improved biomass-fueled dryer
Rice Reducing postharvest of biomass-based heating system for palay drying
White corn losses operation

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

• Development of an automatic machine vision Automatic machine vision system
system for the rapid quality inspection and variety
classification of rice and corn grains
Sugarcane Improving processing Design, development and pilot testing of appropriate Appropriate and affordable equipment/
system and affordable equipment/ machinery for the machinery for the utilization of by-products
utilization of by-products for ethanol and for power for ethanol and for power generation
generation Protocol for optimum ethanol-biodiesel
Design, development, and pilot testing of suitable production
equipment/machinery for converting cane residues Suitable equipment/machinery for converting
(mudpress, cane tops) into fertilizers cane residues: cane tops crusher, improved
Piloting of processing systems for muscovado briquetting machine
production Mechanized muscovado production
Annex C. (Continued) ..........
Commodity and Target R&D Agenda AE R&D Areas AE Products, Systems, and Services
Swine-Poultry-Yellow Enhancing Development of housing designs and equipment for Housing design
Corn competitiveness efficient swine production Biogas/bio-digester
and sustainability Approaches in minimizing pollutants in waste from
Swine & Poultry
of commercial animal small-hold swine farms
• Live slaughter hogs
production IEC on swine and poultry waste composting and
and pork cuts
O biogas production for smallhold farms

Yellow Corn
Low-cost postharvest facilities: Solar and Mechanical Dryers; Efficient
• Feeds from corn • Practical and economical drying systems burners
• Development of suitable drying system in the
Building assets from • Public investment on harvest/drying facilities
sustained small • Burner development to improve burning
livestock and poultry-
Pasture-Ruminants based enterprises Feasibility Study on the fabrication of slaughter house Slaughterhouse design and equipment
Slaughter goats equipment i.e. cutting/chopping tools for making the
best cut of goat meat for selling at supermarkets
Slaughterhouse equipment fabrication (i.e stainless
pails and ear taggers)
Cattle (smallholder) • Development of the total mixed rations (TMR) Pelletizer
for feedlot and dairy animals using available Briquetting machine
feed resources and in suitable forms (pellets and
briquette size feeds)

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

• Modification of local briquetting machine
to produce briquette feeds made of feed
concentrates and grasses
Dairy Animal (milk) • Feasibility study on the local fabrication of small- Portable milking machine including stainless
scale portable type milking machine to facilitate pails
milking activities

Annex C. (Continued) ..........
Commodity and Target R&D Agenda AE R&D Areas AE Products, Systems, and Services
Environmental Services Designing and building appropriate wastewater Wastewater treatment design and facilities
Waste Management treatment facilities Designs for biodigesters and pelletizers
Biofertilizers, organic Machinery development and utilization for the
fertilizers, soil conditioners N production of biofertilizers, organic fertilizers, and
soil conditioners.

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Annex D

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT)

Analysis of Agricultural Mechanization for Crops, Livestock,
Forestry, and Environment1

A. Crops Sector


1. Policies/Institutional
l AFMA Enactment

l Existence of AFMeC Program
l Presence of existing agricultural machinery
l Presence of National Research Centers (PhilRice,
BPRE, PCA, SCUs, Philsurin, FiDA, PhilSCAT)

l Availability of technical capability of agencies and


l Presence of private organizations involved

in agricultural mechanization development
(LAMMA, AMMDA, Filipino Investors’ Society,


l Presence of farmers organization and cooperatives


(ARCs, Coconut Farmers’ Association)

2. Technology
l Availability of small-scale machines and
postharvest technologies

3. Infrastructure
l Available irrigation facilities specially for rice

Output of the Consultation Workshop on “Updating the Status and
Directions of Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines, held in
PCARRD on May 25, 2005.

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 95


1. Policies/Institutional
l Poor implementation of AFMA
l Insufficient funding for R&D
l Devolution of functions of DA to LGUs
l Enforcement of the existing machinery standards
l No available standards for other machines
l Lack of coordination between/among research
l Lack of promotion/low adoption of technologies
due to resistance to change
l Absence of agencies that will regulate presence of
substandard machines

l Low level of manufacturing capability (8% of
manufacturers) – production system
l Lack of easy credit
l No updated data (available local machines)
l No agency updating of data

l Unsustainable implementation of programs and


projects (change in administration means change

in programs/projects)

2. Technology

l Lack of small scale technology for coconut



l No locally developed corn row planter

l Slow adoption of technologies

3. Infrastructure
l Farms are not structured for mechanization


1. Policies/Institutional
l Increasing demand for agricultural products
l Full utilization of products and by-products

96 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

l Employment of livelihood and generation
l Opening of other production areas
l Development of new agricultural projects
l Availability of soft loan for farmer-cooperatives
l Conservation or earnings of foreign currencies
from local manufacture of machines

2. Technology
l Increase productivity
l Reduce losses
l High quality of product
l Product diversification

Threats SA
1. Policies/Institutional
l Oil price increase, VAT
l Labor displacement

2. Technology
l Preference for imported machines/surpluses
l Entry of low price foreign machineries

To enhance the strengths, take advantage of


development opportunities, overcome the weaknesses


and counteract the threats, the following were


1. Provision of financial support (development of

good proposal for ACEF funding)
2. Sustain and institutionalize agricultural
mechanization program
3. Policy advocacy related to availability of easy
credit, effective implementation of AFMA,
standards coordination among agencies
4. Enhance technical capability of concerned
agencies/manufacturers to develop high-quality
Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 97
machinery to compete with imported machinery
for product diversification

l Utilize farmers organization as a venue to

increase adoption of machine (they can buy
the machine)
l Enhance development of processing machines
to increase agricultural industrialization to
solve labor displacement

5. Policy advocacy of agencies/people involved

in agricultural mechanization promotion/social

Others: SA
l Creation of soft loan /credit programs for farmers and
l Dissemination of available loans to farmer-


l Structure the additional areas conducive to

agricultural mechanization
l Establish manufacturing industries capable of
developing quality machines

l Strengthen complementation in the development of



B. Livestock, Forestry, and Environment


l Existing waste management technology

l Presence of experts/coops/NGOs
l Establishment of mechanization information network

98 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines


l Technology gap
l Colonial mentality
l Logistics
l Inadequate infrastructure
l Contradicting policies


l Controlled pollution
l Production of organic fertilizer
l Energy resource
l Domestic and international market

l Competition
l Sustainability of policy programs and technologies

l Competency


Integration of waste management mechanization in


the LGU program

l Promotion and advocacy for the design and adoption


of existing waste management technologies

l Establishment of small-scale processing facility in
production area
l Availability and affordability of small tractors and
l Tap SMEs and cooperatives
l Sustained information network for mechanization
l Funding support or resource generation
l Strengthen institutional arrangement for

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 99

l Development of the following technologies for
- Small-scale manure spreader
- Small-scale baler
- Locally manufactured milking machine
- Fat separator machine
- Locally manufactured slaughtering machine


100 Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

Appendix Table 1. Survey of machines and equipment owned and used for rice farming in selected provinces.
Nueva Occidental Oriental Camarines South
Pangasinan Isabela Pampanga Laguna Quezon Albay Sorsogon Iloilo Bohol Leyte Bukidnon Total of Total
Vizcaya Mindoro Mindoro Sur Cotabato
Land Preparation
four-wheel tractor 1 1 1 2 5 1 11 0.9
hand tractor 48 79 58 68
N 26 22 44 48 22 16 27 40 10 22 27 32 589 48.9
moldbord plow 11 16
O 9 16 19 19 90 7.5
disc plow 30 76 37 67 T 35 25 4 1 16 22 2 7 322 26.7
spike tooth harrow 36 38 44 58 0 44 38 19 14 26 29 2 22 370 30.7
disc harrow 33 10 40 1 7 91 7.6
toolbar subsoiler 2 1 3 6 0.5
rotavator 24 1 1 26 2.2
spiral harrow R 15 10 25 2.1
hydrotiller 1 1 0 6 0 0 0 10 9 14 0 4 45 3.7
animal-drawn plow 44 39 31 64 17 38 58 54 18 15 46 27 65 53 53 58 680 56.4
animal-drawn harrow 32 36 29 45 17 35 57 54 16 15 36 25 63 42 59 55 616 51.1
shovel 66 98 99 101 69 65 66 66 40 51 91 83 74 92 98 101 1260 104.6
sod hoe 32 45 22 96 47 15 20 41 91 30 61 6 40 27 573 47.6
rake 46 50 14 78 16 10 0 0 17 38 80 49 48 20 39 45 550 45.6
Planting/Transplanting 0.1
seeder 1 1 0.1

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

transplanter 1 1 26.1
Irrigation 1.7
Irrigation pump 31 8 5 74 36 13 21 23 12 3 48 18 1 13 8 314 3.7

Appendix Table 1. (Continued).

Nueva Occidental Oriental Camarines South
Pangasinan Isabela Pampanga Laguna Quezon Albay Sorsogon Iloilo Bohol Leyte Bukidnon Total of Total
Vizcaya Mindoro Mindoro Sur Cotabato
Crop Care 0.2
motorized sprayer 1 20 21 88.1
manual weeder N 20 6 2 5 3 1 7 44 0.6
grass cutter 3 3 18.1
knapsack sprayer 57 95 89 87 O64 52 53 85 31 37 70 82 32 53 86 89 1062 3.7
Harvesting/Threshing 2.2
reaper 6 1 7 78.5
motorized thresher 16 20 12 13 8
T 5 12 22 16 11 23 32 2 2 24 218 0.8
pedal thresher, etc. 3 41 44 2.2
blower 9 2 4 12 27 18.3
sickle 61 85 91 90 39 44 54 62 29 70 62 39 58 72 90 946 78.506

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

mechanical dryer 1
R 2 6 1 10 0.830
milling machine 3 3 2 4 5 1 1 1 5 2 27 2.241
transport machine 36 36 20 10 0 0 21 10 12 10 1 23 10 10 22 221 18.340
No. of Respondents* 75 102 101 107 91 70 68 75 51 53 104 85 99 103 99 101 1384
* With multiple responses.
Appendix Table 2. Inventory of machines and equipment used by farmer-
respondents in corn production.

Machines and Equipment No. of Percent of

Respondents* Respondents
Animal drawn furrower 26.2 2
Animal drawn harrow 720.5 55
Animal drawn plow 982.5 75
Sickle 1021.8 78
Rake 537.1 41
Sod hoe 668.1 51
Shovel 917 70
Bolo 314.4 24
Knapsack sprayer 589.5 45

Irrigation pump 196.5 15
Manual seeder 26.2 2
Spiral harrow 13.1 1
Spiketooth harrow 52.4 4

Disc harrow 26.2 2


Disc plow 52.4 4

Moldboard plow 13.1 1
Hand tractor 196.5 15

Four wheel tractor 13.1 1


Milling machine 4.061 0.31

Grain Dryer 4.061 0.31

Hand-operated corn sheller 110.04 8.4

Motorized corn sheller 36.942 2.82
Motorized thresher 47.029 3.59
Blower 1.965 0.15
Reaper 1.048 0.08
Transport vehicle 89.997 6.87
Trailer 66.024 5.04
*With multiple responses.

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines 103

Appendix Table 3. Inventory of farm equipment of vegetable farmers (de Asis, et al. 2003).

Nueva Occidental Camarines Misamis
Pangasinan Vizcaya Pampanga Laguna Batangas Quezon Mindoro Sur Albay Oriental Bohol Leyte Bukidnon Total
Handtools(sod hoe, rake, shovel,
sickle, bareta, etc.) 389 787 658 308 436 223 379 398 361 486 272 438 848 5983
Animal drawn implements(plow/
harrow) 93 140
N 168 103 69 104 170 144 150 186 101 94 186 1708
Irrigation tools(sprinklers, pump,
faucet, artesian well) 90 108 105 92 105 23 103 78 36 137 17 3 183 1080
Tractors (2-wheel, 4-wheel) 40 17 15 8 3 2 36 6 8 1 3 4 0 143
Crop care (powered sprayer,
knapsack sprayer, etc.) 91 105 121 80 57 110 82 92 112 144 31 39 154 1218
Transport (cart, trailer, tricycle,

Agricultural Mechanization in the Philippines

jeepney) 25 77 48 18 20
R 12 64 5 5 57 1 5 59 396

Sorting table 3 74 8 8 1 7 15 116

Others 63 63
No. of Respondents* 100 103 99 99 87 98 96 94 98 98 70 100 99 1241
* With multiple responses.