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REVIEW JOURNAL (DISCOURSE ANALYSIS)

SRI NUR ASTI ADDAS


217300039

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT


GRADUATED PROGRAM 2019
MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF PAREPARE
NO Terms Journal 1 Journal 2 Journal 3
1 Title A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF BILL CLINTON’S A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ON HILLARY CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF SUSILO
LIBERAL DISCOURSE CLINTON’S SPEECH “AMERICAN FOR MARRIAGE BAMBANG YUDHOYONO'S SPEECH
EQUALITY”
2 Rationale Bill Clinton’s rhetoric speech at the very beginning of his The statement of one of the well-known former public As president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono can also
presidency career played an important role to kick start officials in USA not only brings the fresh air to LGBT be called as the numberone in this country. In
his legacy. Critical Discourse Analysis is best used to community in USA, but also contradictory to what has addition, only he the one that is chosen purely by
investigate how such texts emerge and how those texts been created rules by her husband, President Bill Clinton the people in two periods of presidential election as
can be ideologically shaped because of struggles over in 1996 gives a clear explanation about the marriage laws it is known the maximum tenure of president in
power. The political discourse is assumed as a means to “marriage is a union between a man and woman”. Indonesia since reformation era. That is why the
secure power. One element of CDA that makes it distinct Because this contradictory statement from Hillary, many researcher is interested to SBY than the other
from other forms of discourse analysis lies in its “critical” mass media argued that Hillary Clinton is attempting to
figures. Moreover, the reason why speech is chosen
attribute. The word “critical” suggest an effort to grab LGBT voice in the next election. From the result of a because it is a form of language in used. Through the
unearth hidden causes and connections (Fairclough, survey conducted by the ABC (Australian Broadcasting use of language, it creates the idea about power and
1992). Corporation) and Washington Post in 2010, U.S public its ideology. In order to examine the use of language
supporting to LGBT equality at 43% increase in 2013 toand ask why it has been used that way and what the
53%. From Hillary Clinton contradictory attitude above,
implications are of this kind of use on speech, the
this analysis attempts to interpret the intent and theresearcher conducted an analytical framework for
purpose of Hillary in a speech supporting marriage studying connections among language, power, and
equality in USA by using Van Dijk Critical Discourse ideology which is called critical discourse analysis.
theory. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an
interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse
that views language as a form of social practice and
focuses on the ways social and political domination
are reproduced by text and talk.
3 Problem 1. What are the issues introduced by Bill Clinton in his 1. How are the structures of text “American for 1. What language is used by SBY in his speech
research inaugural address? Marriage Equality” the speech of Hillary Clinton at about the Jakarta Bombings?
2. What are some ideological components revealed by Human Right Campaign (HRC) website? 2. What power is used by SBY in his speech about
Bill Clinton in his inaugural address? 2. How is the ideology represented in Hillary Clinton the Jakarta Bombings?
3. How does Bill Clinton conceal his ideological Speech “American for Marriage Equality”? 3. What ideology is used by SBY in his speech
components? about the Jakarta Bombings?
4. How does Bill Clinton justify his liberal ideals in his
inaugural address?
4 Theoretical - Fairclough argue in his own definition, he perceives There are many linguistics theories that can be used to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is ‘a theory and
framework CDA as discourse analysis which aims to analyzing a discourse. One of theories it is Van Dijk‟s method analyzing the way that individuals and
systematically explore the visible relationships of Critical Discourse Analysis theory that able to analyze the institutions use language’ (Richardson, 2007: 1;
causality between discursive events and / or texts, underlying social practice of a discourse. In critical emphasis in original). Critical discourse analysts
and wider social and cultural practice, relations and discourse analysis not only analyzes the linguistic focus on ‘relations between discourse, power,
processes (Fairclough, 1993). elements, but also concern to the context behind the dominance and social inequality’ (van Dijk, 1993:
- Critical Discourse Analysts seek to reveal how texts discourse. Because of that, critical discourse analysis 249) and how discourse (re)produces and maintains
are constructed so that particular (and potentially according to Van Dijk explained that the analysis of a these relations of dominance and inequality’. CDA
indoctrinating) perspectives can be expressed discourse not only based on text analysis, but also therefore addresses broader social issues and
delicately and covertly; because they are covert, examines how the text is produced. attends to external factors, including ideology,
they are elusive of direct challenge, facilitating what power, inequality, etc. and draws on social and
Kress calls the “retreat into mystification and philosophical theory to analyze and interpret
impersonality”. (Batstone, 1995) written and spoken texts
5 Rancangan These research used Qualitative Method By observing at This research is conducted by using qualitative method. the researcher uses descriptive qualitative
penelitian one source, a political speech, the main concern will be This method focused on the significance of observations approach in conducting this research. The
with the meaning of discursive statements that this text made in a study rather than the raw number. Besides, researcher chooses qualitative research because it
makes, and the manner in which it makes them. this research also applies Van Dijk Critical Discourse can describe systematically the fact and
Analysis method to gain scientific findings without any characteristics of the data. Besides that, qualitative
statistical equipment. research methods were developed in the social
sciences to enable researchers to study social and
cultural phenomena like case study and
ethnography.
6 Variable - Independent Variable : Discourse Analysis Bill - Independent Variable : A CRITICAL DISCOURSE - Independent Variable : CRITICAL DISCOURSE
penelitian Clinton’s Liberal Discourse ANALYSIS ON HILLARY CLINTON’S SPEECH ANALYSIS OF SUSILO BAMBANG
- Dependent Variable : Discourse Analysis “AMERICAN FOR MARRIAGE EQUALITY” YUDHOYONO'S SPEECH
- Dependent : A Critical Discourse Analysis - Dependent Variable : Critical Discourse
Analysis
7 Data The collection of Bill Clinton’s Inaugural Address comes - Bibliography technique is used to find discourse The data which is used in this thesis comes from
collection from the official website. The language used by Bill elements in Hillary Clinton‟s speech text. This SBY’s speech as The President of Indonesia. In the
Clinton on his first speech as a president to address his technique is using written source to gain the data, way of collecting the data, researcher uses some
inauguration is American English. This language becomes then the data which contain discourse are collected step which is mentioned and explained as follows;
the presupposed knowledge in analyzing the data. There into data card. 1. Searching for the video.
is no legal or copyright issue as this data is a public - The unit analysis of this research is Hillary Clinton‟s 2. Searching the script.
consumption. speech text “American for Marriage Equality” in 3. Downloading the video and the script.
Human Rights Campaign that downloaded on March On account of what became the material to be
30, 2013. analyzed in this research is SBY's speech
transcription, the researcher feels need to support
data as corroborating evidence that it is actually
SBY's speech
8 Analisis(teori Once the discourse fragments is discovered, it is listed in Bibliography technique is used to find discourse In analyzing the data, the researcher uses some
apa,bagaima order of paragraph. It was made so to maintance the elements in Hillary Clinton‟s speech text. This technique steps according to Huckin’s theory which are
na teori ini coherence between the beginning and the last discourse is using written source to gain the data, then the data described in short, dense, and in sequence from
bekerja,atau fragment. Fairclogh and Van Dijk’s CDA model is utilized which contain discourse are collected into data card. The beginning to the end so it will be understood easily
modifikasi to analyse the fragment. Van Dijk’s three dimmensions process of data analysis will be carried out in several by the readers. The steps are:
of CDA is used as the main theory, while Fairclogh is used steps: a. choose an speech text from HRC (Human Rights 1. Reading the SBY’s speech in The Jakarta Globe
as micro theory. Van Dijk’s CDA steps of analysis; Campaign) Website; b. read the speech text; c. mark the about the bombings that occurred in the capital city,
specifically, context, semantic macrostructure, local sentences which containing discourse element; d. Jakarta. 2. Classifying the data indicating three CDA
meaning, model context, model event, social cognition, classify it by Van Dijk Critical Discourse Analysis theory; methods of Huckin: 1) Analyzing the text with the
and social situation is utilized to organize the data e. write the data finding into data card. After that, those features associated with the text as a whole in the
analysis. Liberal ideals; specifically, energy, global specific numbers of data is analyzed. To continue that following features; a) Genre; the data is analyzed
warming, healthcare, social security, taxes, global analysis the writer run steps as follows: a. exposure the using genre analysis approach. For example:
governance, terrorism, and welfare is assumed as discourse elements (macrostructure, superstructure and mentioning and describing the social function,
presupposed knowledge for the speaker and the listener microstructure) referring Van Dijk Critical discourse schematic structure, and linguistics features. b)
of the Inaugural address. analysis theory. b. applying Van Dijk CDA theory into Framing For example: in descriptive speech, framing
data. c. make report and conclusion of the research. can be identified through three elements;
introduction, main body, and conclusion. Mention
and explain each of them then. To clarify, it is added
by visual aid. For example: a photograph of
President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono talks to
Governor of Jakarta Fauzi Bowo at a hospital after
visiting injured bombing victims. c) Foregrounding/
backgrounding For example: Foreground shows the
explicit thing the speaker says, while background
shows the implicit one. d) Presupposition For
example: The utterance “Jakarta looked very
different in those days” has the following
presuppositions; Jakarta is different at this time and
The differences between Jakarta today with Jakarta
past time are in the number of buildings, number of
motor vehicles, and population density in Jakarta. e)
Discursive difference For example: The utterance
“So today, I return to Indonesia as a friend, but also
as a President who seeks a deep and enduring
partnership between our two countries.” The
speaker is president of the United States of America
and the audiences are the people of Indonesia, so
there is a discursive difference between the speaker
and the audiences. 2) Analyzing the text with the
features associated with the text in sentencelevel
and word-level as following features; a)
Topicalization For example: the sentence topic of
more than half of the article is about the
government and the rest is about the people. Then
the article is about the government. 3) Analyzing the
findings through the contextualized interpretation
After the data has been analyzed according to the
method that is used in theory, then researcher
interprets it using his own idea based on the
problem in this research. 3. Making a conclusion of
the analysis

9 Hasil - The main issues introduced by Bill Clinton were After analyzing Hillary Clinton speech by analyzing the As it has been known, in his speech, SBY is using
concluded by summarizing 12 discourse strands text structure; macrostructure, superstructure, language to convey information. Otherwise, the
derived from 17 paragraph of official transcript of microstructure, social cognition and social context, the delivery of information is conducted in less
the Inaugural address. Every issue of the paragraph writer concludes that there are some important points in coherent, this makes the information becomes less
is summarized into one phrases to reveal the Hillary speech text. The points will be explained as obvious, so the messages which are captured by the
macrostructure. The analysis summed up the follows: 1. Hillary tried to create the impression, that she addresses are not optimal. As the addition, the
inauguration address “To renew America in terms of is the part of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay. Bisexual and Trans- language used by SBY can be seen through the
sacrificing nation effort, face global challenge, and gender) which get discriminations. It can be analyzed process types and the linguistic features of genre. In
revitalize administration by means of the power of from syntactic element. Hillary mostly used pronoun the process types, material process is the most
people and the idea of liberal democracy” The “our” to limit the distance between herself and the dominant used. As it has been known, it is an
discourse strands at the beginning was built up audience. 2. Hillary also tries to attract the audiences activity to do something, for example the words
toward the listener, linking each strands from known support by mentioning the acts that she is ever done to ‘seek, capture, and prosecute’ in sentence [19]…
information to new information. protect LGBT. It can be observed by analyzing semantic More importantly, the law enforcers must truly
- There are 9 identified ideological components in Bill element analysis. She mentioned in detail the acts that seek, capture and prosecute the perpetrators,
Clinton’s Inaugural address. Those components were she ever did for protecting LGBT. 3. She is very careful in organizers, and masterminds behind this violence…
derived from 6 local meaning that interpreted with presenting his speech. She uses mild words. In stylistic Based on the example, those are not only words but
social situation and 3 local meaning that interpreted analysis mild word usage aims to get good response and also a real action which will be realized. Whereas
with social cognition. The analysis demonstrates also to make public receives the message well. 4. the linguistic features is seen through the use of
how ideological components is revealed; specifically, Liberalism ideology is drawn from the utterances in past tense. It means that the speech is conducted
inclusiveness, unity, renewal, strategic diplomacy, Hillary’s speech text. In the analysis of ideology, many after the bombing event occurred. It can be
global governance, welfare state, environmentalism, sentences in the speech text are supporting freedom, in concluded that through his speech SBY also can
collaboration, and healthcare. Those concealed this case, the freedom of human rights. calm the people, because by conducting an official
component of Bill Clinton was revealed using van speech, people realize that the government has
Dijk’s CDA concepts; namely, semantic already known about the incident that occurred. It
macrostructure, local meaning, social cognition, calms the people down because people know that
social situation, context model and event model. the situation and the condition have been under
- To ensure the newly proposed topics are easily control by the government.
adapted to the listener’s mind, Bill Clinton uses
macro-opinion. Macro-opinion in the form of
intertextuality is utilized to penetrate the mental
model’s defensive mechanism from accepting new
value. He used Declaration of the Independence of
America, Thomas Jefferson’s Quote, and Galatians
Scripture to justify his liberal ideals.
10 Refleksi/reko - Intended for fellow scholars whose future thesis is This research is aimed at finding text structures, social 1. It is worth for us to pay more attention and it is
mendasi using Discourse Analysis.It is important to use cognition and social context of Hillary speech text needed for us to know because CDA analysis is
/implikasi universal terms that has been accepted by discourse “American for Marriage Equality.” It is Linguistic research closely related with the problems that occur in the
scholars around the world. Use discourse strand which needs to be improved and explored. The environment around us. 2. As it is known that this
instead of topic and discourse fragment instead of improvement will enrich and deepen the theory of thesis talks about the criticism which shows
excerpt. Regarding the social context, there are two ideology and discourse structure. weaknesses. But it is not the only criticism, but it is
ways to point out where the context is taken. Use For further study in this subject, the other method and also discussed about how it should be better. So the
synchronic analysis to scrutinize one point of time type of discourse is can still be applied in this Hillary reader of this thesis is suggested to be a good
when the discursive event is happening. On the Clinton’s speech. For example: the next researchers may reader, in this case is becoming neutral because
other hand, use diachronic analysis to scrutinize two use the Fairclough discourse analysis method, focusing researcher does not have a purpose to criticize or
point of time when the discursive events is on representation, relation, and identity. They can also satirize certain parties
happening and the past before the discursive events apply visual discourse model to analyze the hidden
is happening to compare two sides of coins. For message visually in Hillary speech video. Hopefully, this
example, this research used diachronic analysis by research can benefit us all.
comparing Clinton’s deixis and Bush’s deixis in
addressing their audience.
- the researcher needs to be brave in expanding their
horizon outside their major study; specifically, a
linguist should use not only linguistic theory, but also
another new discipline. For example, in this
research, liberal discourse to assert his description,
interpretation, and explanation is utilized.

Comment on :
A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF BILL CLINTON’S LIBERAL DISCOURSE, A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ON HILLARY CLINTON’S SPEECH “AMERICAN FOR MARRIAGE EQUALITY”,
CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO'S SPEECH,

Pada jurnal pertama A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF BILL CLINTON’S LIBERAL DISCOURSE lebih menekankan pada analisis wacana yang bertujuan mengetahui ideologi Bill Clinton
dalam pidato pertamanya sebagai seorang Presiden. Bill Clinton yang sangat dikenal oleh kalangan masyarakat dengan begitu kharismatik dan paham politiknya yang sangat mengagumkan. Pada
analisis discourse ini peneliti menggunakan kualitatif method dengan descriptive analysis serta menggunakan Van Dijk’s CDA dalam menganalisi data. Ada beberapa langkah dalam Van Dijk’s CDA,
tetapi pada journal ini lebih menitik beratkan pada kualitas ucapan seorang Bill Clinton, padahal banyak hal yang bisa dikaji untuk mengetahui bagaimana paham politik seorang Bill Clintons,
Seperti apa saja yang mempengaruhi sehingga ada ucapan yang keluar dari seorang Bill Clinton latar belakang keluarga serta pendidikannya. Kata-kata yang digunakan bukan hanya penanda atau
identitas tetapi dihubungkan dengan ideologi tertentu, makna apa yang ingin dikomunikasikan pada khalayak, serta pihak-pihak yang diuntungkan dan mana pihak yang dirugikan dengan
pemakaian kata tersebut.

Pada Jurnal Kedua , A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ON HILLARY CLINTON’S SPEECH “AMERICAN FOR MARRIAGE EQUALITY, bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana pendapat Hillary
Clinton dalam “American for Marriage Equality”, sebagaimana kita ketahui seorang Hillary Clinton sangat memiliki pengaruh yang besar di US, seorang wanita yang memiliki power dan kharisma
dalam pemertintahan. Pada journal ini sumber datanya lebih merujuk pada bibliography dan setiap pidato hillary. Dalam hal ini Van Dijk’s CDA digunakan dalam menganalisis data, dengan
menganalisis setiap ucapan dan mengelompokkannya kedalam pengkategorian Van Dijk’s CDA. Pada journal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa Hillary mendukung adanya LGBT di US. Meskipun banyak
yang menolak tetapi dia menyampaikannya dengan sangat hati-hati. Dalam journal ini hanya lebih fokus pada ucapan, seharusnya peneliti juga memperhatikan tindakan apa yang dilakukan oleh
Hillary Clinton dalam mendukung LGBT. Analisis wacana dimaksudkan sebagai suatu analisis untuk membongkar maksud-maksud dan makn-makna tertentu. Wacana adalah suatu upaya
pengungkapan maksud tersembunyi dari sang subjek yang mengemukakan suatu pernyataan.
Pada jurnal Ketiga CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO'S SPEECH, bertujuan untuk mengetahui pendapat SBY tentang pemboman yang terjadi di jakarta.
Pidato pak SBY setelah terjadi pemboman dijakarta. Pada journal ini lebih menitik beratkan pada setiap kata seorang presiden setelah terjadi pemboman. Analisis discourse pada journal ini
menggunakan Huckin’s theory dalam menganalisi wacana SBY. Yang ditekankan disini ialah bagaimana pola pengaturan, penggabungan, penyusunan tersebut menimbulkan efek tertentu, apakah
membuat satu pihak diuntungkan atau punya citra positif dibandingkan pihak lain atau peristiwa tertentu dipahami dalam katagori tertentu yang lebih menguntungkan dibandingkan dengan
kategori pemahaman lain.

Conclusions:
Berdasarkan analisis ke tiga jurnal diatas, masing-masing memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan, ketiganya menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan analisis deskriptif. Pada journa 1 dan
menggunakan Van Dijk CDA theory dan journal 3 menggunakan Huckin’s theory, berdasarkan maksud dan tujuan penelitian si peneiliti. Pada ketiga journal tersebut Bahasa dianalisis bukan
dengan menggambarkan semata dari aspek kebahasaan, tetapi juga menghubungkan dengan konteks. Konteks disini berarti bahasa itu dipakai untuk tujuan dan praktik tertentu, termasuk di
dalamnya praktik kekuasaan. Diharapkan kedepannya analisis wacana lebih bervariatif dengan menkombinasikan antara Van Dijk CDA theory dan Huckin’s theory dalam menganalisi suatu wacana.