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1.1 General

Conventional concrete consist of cement, sand and aggregate. In concrete generally river
sand is used which is costly but by inclusion of fly ash in place of cement and stone dust
in place of sand in some percentage it make economical construction. Fly ash is also a
type of admixture which enhances some properties on concrete. The size of stone dust is
small as compare to sand which fill the maximum voids and make concrete more dens. In
place where source of sand are not available and for construction work sand becomes
uneconomical. The properties of concrete with stone dust and fly ash are obtained in this

1.2 Fly Ash

Power plants fueled by coal produce a significant quantity of the electricity we consume
in the world today. But in addition to electricity, these plants produce a material that is
fast becoming a vital ingredient for improving the performance of a wide range of
concrete products

Fly ash or flue ash, is a coal combustion product that is composed of

the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-
fired boilers together with the flue gases. Ash that falls to the bottom of the boiler is
called bottom ash. In modern coal-fired power plants, fly ash is generally captured
by electrostatic precipitators or other particle filtration equipment before the flue gases
reach the chimneys. Together with bottom ash removed from the bottom of the boiler, it
is known as coal ash. Depending upon the source and composition of the coal being
burned, the components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes substantial
amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and crystalline), aluminium
oxide(Al2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO), the main mineral compounds in coal-
bearing rock strata.
In the past, fly ash was generally released into the atmosphere, but air pollution control
standards now require that it be captured prior to release by fitting pollution control
equipment. In the United States, fly ash is generally stored at coal power plants or placed
in landfills. About 43% is recycled,[4] often used as a pozzolan to produce hydraulic
cement or hydraulic plaster and a replacement or partial replacement for Portland
cement in concrete production. Pozzolans ensure the setting of concrete and plaster and
provide concrete with more protection from wet conditions and chemical attack.

Physical Properties of Fly Ash

The physical properties of fly ash are,

1. Fineness of Fly Ash

As per ASTM, the fineness of the fly ash is to be checked in both dry n wet sieving. The
fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45
micron sieve is calculated. Further fineness is also measured by LeChatelier method
and Blaine Specific
Surface method.
2. Specific Gravity of Fly Ash

The specific gravity of fly ash ranges from a low value of 1.90 for a sub-bituminous ash
to a high value of 2.96 for an iron-rich bituminous ash.

3. Size and Shape of Fly Ash

As the flyash is a very fine material, the particle size ranges in between 10 to 100 micron.
The shape of the fly ash is usually spherical glassy shaped.
4. Colour

The colour of the fly ash depends upon the chemical and mineral constituents. Lime
content in the fly ash gives tan and light colours where as brownish colour is imparted by
the presence of iron content. A dark grey to black colour is typically attributed to an
elevated un-burned content.

Mechanism of Fly Ash

The chemistry of hydration of Portland cement is that about 50% of Portland cement is
composed of the primary mineral tri-calcium silicate, which on hydration forms calcium
silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide.

If we have Portland cement, and the fly ash is the pozzolana, it can be represented by
silica because non-crystalline silica glass is the principal constituent of fly ash. The silica
combines with the calcium hydroxide released on hydration of Portland cement. Calcium
hydroxide in hydrated Portland cement does not do anything for strength, so therefore we
use it up with reactive silica.

Slowly and gradually it forms additional calcium silicate hydrate which is a binder, and
which fills up the space, and gives us impermeability and more and more strength.

Advantages of Fly Ash

 It is highly economical.
 Use of Fly Ash is environmentally friendly as the waste materials from industries
are effectively being used to create quality building materials.
 Fly Ash has very small particles which makes the concrete highly dense and
reduces the permeability of concrete. It can add greater strength to the building.
 The concrete mixture generates a very low heat of hydration which prevents
thermal cracking.
 Fly Ash concrete is resistant to acid and sulphate attacks.
 The shrinkage of fly ash concrete is very less.
 The use of fly ash gives concrete good work ability, durability and finish.

Uses of Fly Ash

The major uses of fly ash are listed below,

 Used in the manufacture of Portland cement.

 Typically used for embankment construction.
 Used as a soil stabilisation material.
 Fly ash is also used as a component in the production of flowable fill.
 Used as the filler mineral in asphalt road laying to fill the voids.
 Fly ash is used as component in geoploymers.
 Used in Roller compacted concrete dams.
 Used in the manufacture of fly ash bricks
 When flyash is treated with silicon hydroxide, it acts as a catalyst.

1.3 Stone Dust

Stone dust is a waste material obtained from crusher plants. It has potential to be used as
partial replacement of natural river sand in concrete. Use of stone dust in concrete not
only improve the quality of concrete but also conserve the natural river sand for future
generations. In the present investigation, an experimental program was carried out to
study the workability and compressive strength of concrete made using stone dust as
partial replacement of fine aggregate in the range of 10%-100%. M20 grade of concrete
was designed using Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) for referral concrete. Workability
and Compressive strength were determined at different replacement level of fine
aggregate viz a viz referral concrete and optimum replacement level was determined
based on compressive strength. Results showed that by replacing 60% of fine aggregate
with stone dust concrete of maximum compressive strength can be made as compared to
all other replacement levels.

Stone dust is like a darker, coarser version of sand. It is a byproduct of running stones
through a crushing machine to make crushed stone. Its exact composition will obviously
depend on what kind of stone was run through the machine. For instance, sometimes
granite is run through such a machine; in other cases, it could be limestone, for example.
The machine has a screen that traps the larger material (that is, the crushed stone). The
smaller material or "screenings" falls through the screen. Depending on the size of the
holes in the screen used, it can be so fine in texture that it is basically a powder. This is
what you are buying as "stone dust."




Rebound hammer test is done to find out the compressive strength of concrete by using
rebound hammer as per IS: 13311 (Part 2) – 1992. The underlying principle of the
rebound hammer test is
The rebound of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of the surface against which its
mass strikes. When the plunger of the rebound hammer is pressed against the surface of
the concrete, the pring-controlled mass rebounds and the extent of such a rebound
depends upon the surface hardness of the concrete. The surface hardness and therefore
the rebound is taken to be related to the compressive strength of the concrete. The
rebound value is read from a graduated scale and is designated as the rebound number or
rebound index. The compressive strength can be read directly from the graph provided on
the body of the hammer.


The compressive strength of concrete is determined in batching plant laboratories for

every batch in order to maintain the desired quality of concrete during casting. The
strength of concrete is required to calculate the strength of the members. Concrete
specimens are a cast and tested under the action of compressive loads to determine the
strength of concrete.

In very simple words, compressive strength is calculated by dividing the failure load with
the area of application of load, usually after 28 days of curing. The strength of concrete is
controlled by the proportioning of cement, coarse and fine aggregates, water, and
various admixtures. The ratio of the water to cement is the chief factor for determining
concrete strength. The lower the water-cement ratio, the higher is the compressive


The tensile strength is one of the basic and important properties of the concrete. The
concrete is not usually expected to resist the direct tension because of its low tensile
strength and brittle nature. However, the determination of tensile strength of concrete is
necessary to determine the load at which the concrete members may crack. The cracking
is a form of tension failure. Apart from the flexure test the other methods to determine the
tensile strength of concrete can be broadly classified as (a) direct methods, and (b)
indirect methods. The direct method suffers from a number of difficulties related to
holding the specimen properly in the testing machine without introducing stress
concentration, and to the application of uniaxial tensile load which is free from
eccentricity to the specimen




Giaccio GM

et.al (1988) concluded that high-volume fly ash concrete had excellent mechanical
properties and satisfactory resistance to repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. The use
ofASTM Type in cement appeared to be essential when high strengths at early ages were
required. For concretes made with ASTM Type I cement, the use of benefieiated fly ash
and condensed silica fume, did little to enhance the properties of concrete compared with
“as received” fly ash. For concrete made with ASTM Type DI cement, the benefits
ofusing benefieiated Class F fly ash and condensed silica fume were not clear. (38)

Aires Camoes, etal (1988)

determined the Compressive strength and diffusion coefficient of concretes replacing
0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% of Portland cement by ‘as received’ fly ash, and 20% and 40%
replacement by ‘enhanced’ fly ash. Comparing the results obtained, it was found that
High Performance Concrete (HPC) with up to 65 MPa can be made by replacing up to
40% of cement by ‘as received’ and ‘enhanced’ fly ash and using the crushed granite
aggregates. It was possible to produce low cost HPC, with 90 day strength in the range of
70 MPa, using low quality fly ash and crushed sand. It was possible to replace up to 40%
of cement by low quality fly ash with carbon content up to 1 and slightly higher than 7%.

Aires Camoes, etal (1988)

determined the Compressive strength and diffusion coefficient of concretes replacing 0%,
20%, 40%, and 60% of Portland cement by ‘as received’ fly ash, and 20% and 40%
replacement by ‘enhanced’ fly ash. Comparing the results obtained, it was found that
High Performance Concrete (HPC) with up to 65 MPa can be made by replacing up to
40% of cement by ‘as received’ and ‘enhanced’ fly ash and using the crushed granite
aggregates. It was possible to produce low cost HPC, with 90 day strength in the range of
70 MPa, using low quality fly ash and crushed sand. It was possible to replace up to 40%
of cement by low quality fly ash with carbon content up to 1 and slightly higher than 7%

Gopalakrishna et.al (2001)

reported from comparative research that concrete with 25% fly ash performs better than
concrete with 50% fly ash. The same observation was made with respect to split tensile
strength and flexural strength. Usage of industrial waste such ! as fly ash as a partial
replacement material forj cement not only provides a more durable concrete but also
finds the way for the safe disposal of otherwise waste material thereby I protecting the
environment from pollution..

Siddique Rafat et.a! (2003)

Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of
elasticity of fine aggregate (sand) replaced fly ash concrete specimens were higher than
the plain concrete (control mix) specimens at all the ages. The strength differential
between the fly ash concrete specimens and plain concrete specimens became more
distinct after 28 days. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength,
and modulus of elasticity of fine aggregate (sand) replaced fly ash t concrete by 50%
continued to increase with age for all fly ash percentages

N. Bhamimathidas etal (2003)

studied that the utilisation of fly ash in cement and i concrete is gaining immense
importance today, mainly on account of the ecological benefits and the improvements in
the long-term durability of concrete. Very few t technologies can assimilate economy,
value addition and eco-service; all in a single go. Fly ash utilisation is the unique
opportunity to serve these multiple indicators collectively. (17) i i i Goh etal (2003)
Compressive strength results indicate that up to 10% by weight of OPC could be replaced
by Municipal Fly Ash (MFA), with higher mortar strength being achieved than in the
control cubes. A seven-day strength activity index of 123.6% achieved by the MFA,
which is almost 50% higher than the requirement of 75%, suggests its contribution
toward the strength development ofthe blended cements. (39)

j A. Oner etal (2004)

This study showed that strength increases with increasing amount of fly ash up to an
optimum value, beyond which strength starts to decrease with further addition of fly ash.
The optimum value of * fly ash was about 40% of cement. Fly ash/cement ratio was an
important factor determining the efficiency offly ash. (100)

A.K. Jain etal (2004,2011)

Large quantity offly ash and blast furnace slag are generated in India and many other
developing countries every year. In absence of proper awareness and technology
development, a large portion of these by-products remain unutilized causing severe
disposal and environmental [problems. The fly ash affects various properties of concrete
in its green and hardened state, which are ofsignificant importance to the durability of the
concrete structures. The quality of fly ash varies not only from 1 plant to plant, but it may
vary within the same plant due to change in the source of coal or j inconsistent boiler
conditions. Therefore a continuous quality assurance programme is to be developed to
avoid the use oflow-grade inconsistent material. The use of good fly ash of a consistent
quality with low carbon content, greater fineness and high pozzolanic activity can
produce economically a concrete of good quality and higher durability. He also discussed
the present status and the future^ prospects of fly ash utilization by Indian I Cement
Industry. The Indian Cement Industry, which ranks 2nd in the world has whole heartedly
taken the dual challenges to utilize the fly ash to resolve the problem of disposal of the
waste product and to enhance the performance of cement iridous materials. (56,55)

Pavel Padevet et.al (2005)

discussed a use folly ash in the preparation ofthe concrete, or the cement paste. He
concluded that the fly ash as a waste material is often conveniently applicable material.
Fly ash as a waste material in the construction industry has i consolidated. A significant
effect of energy saying was in use, and therefore the need of only half the amount of
cement. The positive trend was reflected in the long term, when the properties cement
paste with addition offly1 ash was improving. It was the perspective of the use of fly ash
in the structures of fire! protection when at elevated temperature reaches the same and
better properties than pure cement paste. (101)

John Mungai Kinuthia et.al (2005)

Explored the potential of utilizing natural, industrial and agricultural waste materials in
energy provision and subsequent application in civil engineering for the development of
infrastructure. (62)

Vimal Kumar et.al (2005)

said that fly ash, (which is a resource, should be utilised to maximum possible extent in
all walks of our life. (154)


Shukla et al (2000) confirmed that the replacement of sand by stone dust reduces the
workability of the concrete, whereas the compressive strength and split tensile strength of
concrete mixes increase up to 40% replacement of sand by stone dust.

Ilangovan (2000), Ilangovan and Nagamani (2002), Ilangovan et al(2008) reported that
natural sand with quarry dust as full replacement in concrete is possible with proper
treatment of quarry dust before utilizationand also found that the compressive, flexural,
split tensile strengths anddurability properties of concrete made of quarry rock dust are
nearly 10%more than the conventional concrete

Ahn et al (2001), Ahn and Fowler (2002) asserted that the mortar compressive strength
was decreased as the MBV increased. Mortar drying shrinkage showed a similar trend for
correlation among test results as compressive strength and also it is increased as
absorption capacity increased.It was confirmed that good quality concrete can be made
with manufactured fines contents up to 17% without using admixtures. Compared with
concrete made of natural sand, high fines concrete generally had higher unit weight,
higher flexural strength improved abrasion resistance, and lower permeability.

Sahu et al (2003) found that the concrete made with the replacement of natural river sand
by crushed stone dust waste can attain the same compressive strength, comparable tensile
strength and modulus of rupture as the control concrete. Concrete made with this
replacement can attain lower degree of shrinkage as that of control concrete
Mark James Krinke (2004) studied the effect of admixtures in concrete containing
manufactured sand. He found that the addition of super plasticizer into a concrete mix
improves the workability and strength of the concrete mix. When large amounts of
plasticizer are added, the strength improved by around 30 percent on the mix without
plasticizer. However, the rate of strength gain of the concrete mix is lowered
considerably when the plasticizer is added. In order to maintain the manufactured sand
mix as cheaper than the natural sand concrete mix, the amount of super plasticizer added
should not exceed 1.5 percent.

Lamb (2005) confirmed that the Sandstone Quarry Sand (SQS) can be used as a cement
substitute, subject to the end user requirements and material’s availability. The leachate
results showed a significant increase in lime, when SQS was added to the mortar, which
might cause efflorescence on concrete products. Even though the pozzolanicity results
were positive, it was found that this material contains a very high insoluble residue,
which limits its use in cement only as filler.

Prachoom Khamput (2006) studied the properties of concrete using quarry dust as fine
aggregate and mixing with admixture type E”. The admixture type E is added for
increasing the workability of concrete. The admixture will adjust the electric charges of
electron on the particle surface into the same type in such a way that the particles will
push each other. This results in decreasing the viscosity of the cement paste and
increasing the slump of concrete. The resultsof compressive strength of concrete at 28
days are nearly the same as that of conventional concrete and the addition of admixture
type E increases the compressive strength. Because of polymer in the admixture, the w/c
ratio is reduced. Besides the effect of polymer, the effect of calcium in the admixture,
leads rapidly to develop the compressive strength at an early stage.

Justin Norvell (2007) studied the influence of clays and clay-sized particles on concrete
performance. They found that non clay ultra fine particles are not harmful to the
workability, compressive strength and drying shrinkage of the concrete and thus they
need not be restricted in use with ordinary concrete. Kaolinite and illite clay minerals
only minimally affect the performance. Smectite should be identified in aggregates and
prohibited. When the exclusion of clay minerals in aggregates is not possible, it may be
feasible to mitigate their effects, by means of a chemical admixture designed to avoid the
reaction of clay.

Nataraja and Nalanda (2007) investigated the use of fly ash, rice husk ash and quarry
dust as potential by-products in Controlled Low Strength 28 Materials (CLSM). The
results suggested that the engineering properties off lowability and density of CLSM can
be achieved satisfactorily using a very small amount of cement and a large amount of
quarry fines. When the by-product content increased, the w/c ratio also increased linearly
to get a specific flow. Mechanical properties such as the uniaxial compressive strength
test results were acceptable and the stress- strain behaviour results suggested that quarry
fines could be used for producing controlled low strength materials (CLSM).

Safiuddin et al (2007) inferred that quarry waste fine aggregate enhanced the slump and
slump flow of the fresh concrete. The unit weight and air content of the concrete were not
affected. In hardened concrete, the compressive strength was decreased. The dynamic
modulus of elasticity was marginally increased. But the Ultrasonic Pulse velocity was not
affected. They also concluded that the initial surface absorption was marginally

Zhou Mingkai et al (2008) stated the influence of natural sand, MS and Stone-Dust
(SD) on workability and strength properties of High Strength Concrete (HSC). They
found that the workability and the compressive strength of the concrete are improved
when the stone dust content is less than 7% and found that the elastic modulus is almost
equal to the natural sand HSC when the dust content is less than 7%. Beyond that, it is
reduced. The results showed that the shrinkage rate of MS-HSC in 7 days age is higher
than that of 29 the natural sand HSC, but the difference of the shrinkage rate in the later
age is not marked. Meanwhile, the shrinkage rate reduces as the fly ash is added the
specific creep and creep coefficient of MS-HSC with 7% stone dust are close to those of
the natural sand HSC.

Baguant (1999) found that the slump of the fresh concrete decreased significantly from
90mm to 25mm with the increase in rock dust content and water demand increased
correspondingly when slump was maintained constant. Bleeding of free water decreased
from 9% to 3% as rock dust increased from 0 to 20%. In hardened concrete, the presence
of rock dust did not significantly impair the compressive strength of specimens stored in
air and in water up to a period of 1 year. There was no negative effect on the modulus of
elasticity too. The drying shrinkage was increased by about 40%, when dust content
increased from 0 to 20%. Initial surface absorption and water permeability, both indicated
the significant improvements, while increasing the rock dust content.



Materials are to be used are available from different sources based on the location of
work. This chapter deals with the type of materials used, their source and the method


The word ‘cement’ usually means Portland cement used in civil engineering works which
sets well under water, hardens quickly and attains strength. The main functions of cement

 To fill voids between aggregate particles providing lubrication of the fresh

concrete and water tightness and durable structure in the hardened concrete
 To give strength to the hardened concrete

In the present work. It is Portland Pozolana cement of 53 grade. Various tests are
conducted on this cement to evaluate its properties. Table 3.1 presents these properties.
Table 3.1Test results of cement properties

Results Requirements as
Sl. No. Test conducted Remarks
obtained per IS
Brand: PPC 53
1 Specific gravity 3.10 --
2 31% --
Initial 65 Not less than 30
Setting times min
(minutes) Not more than 600
Final 300
4 326 Not less than 300
(m2/kg) Satisfies codal
Expansion: Not more than
5 Soundness(mm)
1.50 10mm
3 7 28 3 7 28
Compressive day day day Day day day
strength (MPa)
29 38 55 27 37 53


Aggregate comprise 70-80% of the volume of concrete and exert a significant influence on
concrete properties. Hence quality of aggregate is of primary importance to produce good
strength and durability to the concrete.The functions of aggregates are,

 To provide a relatively cheap filler for the cementing material

 To provide a mass of particles which are suitable for resisting the action of applied
loads, abrasion, the percolation of moisture and the action of weather
 To reduce the volume changes resulting from the setting and hardening process and
from moisture changes in the cement paste


Coarse aggregates with specific gravity 2.73 satisfying IS 383-1970 grading requirements for single
sized aggregates are used. The coarse aggregate used here was of size 20 mm down and holding
12.5 mm. The tests are conducted to find the properties of coarse aggregate and the results are
tabulated as below in table 3.4. Table 3.5 gives the results of sieve analysis.
Table 3.4Properties of coarse aggregates
Sl. No. Property Results

1 Specific gravity 2.73

2 Bulk density
(i) Loose 1360 Kg/m3
(ii) Compact 1527 Kg/m3

3 Water absorption 0.2%

4 Fineness modulus 6.95


IS sieve size(mm) % of taking In kg

20 40 4.82
16-12.5 40 4.82
10 10 1.20
4.75 10 1.20


The aggregate which pass through 2.36IS sieve

Property Stone dust

Specific gravity 2.54-2.60
Relative density(kg/m³) 1720-1810


 Water usage is depend upon the consistency of cement

 Water cement ratio is 1.5
Cement –Flyash

 100% replacement of cement

 Cement-fly ash(75%-25%)
 Cement-fly ash(60%-40%)



C/F Percentage Cube(kg/ m³) Cylinder(kg/ m³)

100 40 39
75-25 28 29
60-40 30 31


C/F Percentage Compressive Strength(N/mm²)

100 43.55
75-25 14.22
60-40 21.33


C/F Percentage Split Tensile strength(N/mm²)

100 3.54
75-25 2.66
60-40 2.44