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Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000


REVISION NO.: 7

METHODOLOGY

A comprehensive series of test problems, or examples, designed to test the various


elements and analysis features of the program were created. The results produced by
SAP2000 were compared to independent sources, such as hand calculated results,
theoretical or published results, or results obtained from other structural/finite element
programs. The comparison of the SAP2000 results with results obtained from
independent sources is provided in tabular form as part of each example.

Many different equation solver options are available in SAP2000. The different solver
options typically give identical results for most of the verification problems. For a few
numerically sensitive problems the different solver options may give slightly different
results. The results presented in this document are those obtained using the Advanced
equation solver running in-process on a 32 bit Intel Core(TM)2 CPU with the Vista
Business operating system.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
The comparison of the SAP2000 validation and verification example results with
independent results is typically characterized in one of the following three ways.

 Exact: There is no difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent
results within the larger of the accuracy of the typical SAP2000 output and the
accuracy of the independent result.

 Acceptable: For force, moment and displacement values, the difference between
the SAP2000 results and the independent results does not exceed five percent
(5%). For internal force and stress values, the difference between the SAP2000
results and the independent results does not exceed ten percent (10%). For
experimental values, the difference between the SAP2000 results and the
independent results does not exceed twenty five percent (25%).

 Unacceptable: For force, moment and displacement values, the difference


between the SAP2000 results and the independent results exceeds five percent
(5%). For internal force and stress values, the difference between the SAP2000
results and the independent results exceeds ten percent (10%). For experimental
values, the difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results
exceeds twenty five percent (25%).

METHODOLOGY - 1
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

The percentage difference between results is typically calculated using the following
formula:

SAP2000 Result
Percent Difference = 100 -1
Independent Result

SUMMARY OF EXAMPLES
The example problems are categorized into seven groups based on the structural
elements used in the example. Table 1 defines the seven groups, illustrates the example
problem numbering system used for each group, and identifies the summary table used
for each group.

TABLE 1: GROUPING OF EXAMPLE PROBLEMS


Structural Summary
Group Elements Tested Example Numbering Table
1 Frame 1-001, 1-002, … , 1-xxx Table 2-1

2 Shell 2-001, 2-002, … , 2-xxx Table 2-2

3 Plane 3-001, 3-002, … , 3-xxx Table 2-3

4 Asolid 4-001, 4-002, … , 4-xxx Table 2-4

5 Solid 5-001, 5-002, … , 5-xxx Table 2-5

6 Link 6-001, 6-002, … , 6-xxx Table 2-6

7 Cable 7-001, 7-002, … , 7-xxx Table 2-7

As shown in Table 1, Tables 2-1 through 2-7 summarize the validation and verification
examples for each of the seven categories. Tables 2-1 through 2-7 include the example
number, the problem title, a summary of the program features tested and the method of
independent verification.

METHODOLOGY - 2
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-1: SUMMARY OF GROUP 1 (FRAME) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Independent
No. Problem Title Program Features Tested Verification
 Calculation and application of
 Self load
 Projected, uniformly distributed load
 Application of
Hand calculation
 Uniformly distributed load in global coordinates
using the unit load
General  Uniformly distributed load in frame object local
1-001 method described on
Loading coordinates
page 244 in Cook
 Trapezoidal and triangular distributed load on
and Young 1985.
frames
 Joint moments and forces
 Static analysis of frames under all of these loading
types
 The specification of
Hand calculation
 Joint patterns
using standard
 The application of
thermal expansion
 Temperature increase
Temperature formulas and using
1-002  Transverse temperature gradient
Loading Table 3 items 6a and
 The calculation of
6c on page 107 in
 Displacements in free expansion
Roark and Young
 Reaction forces in restrained case caused by
1975.
temperature loads
 The application of Hand calculation
Distributed and
 Distributed moments (uniform, trapezoidal, using equation 8.1.3
1-003 Concentrated
triangular) to frame objects on page 284 in Cook
Moments
 Concentrated moments to frame objects and Young 1985.

Hand calculation
using the beam
deflection formulas in
Table 3 item 1a and
Rotated Local  Frame local axes rotated from global axes
1-004 Table 3 item 2a on
Axes  Use of AISC sections
pages 96 and 98,
respectively, in Table
3 in Roark and
Young 1975.
 Settlement of support in frame structures
Hand calculation
 Rotation of support in frame structures
using the unit load
Displacement  Settlement of support with linear (translational) spring
1-005 method described on
Loading  Rotation of support with rotational spring
page 244 in Cook
 Skewed supports
and Young 1985.
 Skewed support settlement
 Structural behavior of a non-prismatic frame section
Non-Prismatic  Self weight calculations Hand calculation
Sections and  Linear variation of section area using the unit load
1-006 Automatic  Linear, parabolic and cubic variation of moment of method described on
Frame inertia page 244 in Cook
Subdivision  Linear variation of section torsional constant and Young 1985.
 Automatic frame subdivision

METHODOLOGY - 3
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-1: SUMMARY OF GROUP 1 (FRAME) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Independent
No. Problem Title Program Features Tested Verification
 The end releases in a frame element, including
 Axial release
Hand calculation
1-007 End Releases  Shear release
using basic statics.
 Bending release
 The related frame static analysis
 The partial fixity end releases in a frame element, Hand calculation
including using the unit load
Partial Fixity
1-008  Shear partial fixity method described on
End Releases
 Bending partial fixity page 244 in Cook
 The application of gravity load to a frame object and Young 1985.

Hand calculation
 Prestress tendon with parabolic tendon profile and
using basic principles
Prestress different eccentricities at the two ends
and the unit load
1-009 Applied To  Prestress tendon modeled usings loads
method described on
Frame Objects  Prestress tendon modeled as elements
page 244 in Cook
 Prestress losses
and Young 1985.
 The use of end offsets in frames, including
Hand calculation
 Non-rigid offsets
using the unit load
 Partially rigid offsets
1-010 End Offsets method described on
 Fully rigid offsets
page 244 in Cook
 The effect of end offsets on the frame static analysis
and Young 1985.
results
 Cardinal point Hand calculation
1-011 Insertion Point
 Joint offsets using statics.

Hand calculation
No Tension using the unit load
and No  Tension and compression limits for frame objects method described on
1-012
Compression  End releases page 244 in Cook
Frame Objects and Young 1985
together with statics.

Simply Hand calculated


Supported  Frame line spring assignments using formulas
1-013 Beam on  Static analysis of beam on elastic foundation presented in Problem
Elastic  Automatic frame subdivision 3 on page 23 of
Foundation Timoshenko 1956.

Hand calculation
 Eigenvalue analysis of a frame with unequal moment based on formulas
Eigenvalue
1-014 of inertia values (I22 ≠ I33) for bending modes presented on page
Problem
 Automatic frame subdivision 313 of Clough and
Penzien 1975.

METHODOLOGY - 4
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-1: SUMMARY OF GROUP 1 (FRAME) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Independent
No. Problem Title Program Features Tested Verification
 Steady state analysis of frame systems
Comparison with
Steady State  Time history analysis of frame systems with periodic
illustrative example
1-015 Harmonic loading
20.2 on page 434 of
Loads  Line mass assignment to frame objects
Paz 1985.
 Automatic frame subdivision
Hand calculation
Tension using equation 23 on
 P-Delta force assignment to frame objects
Stiffening Using page 28 and
1-016  Nonlinear static analysis using the P-Delta option
P-Delta equations 43 and 45
 Automatic frame subdivision
Analysis on page 43 of
Timoshenko 1956.

Hand calculation
Vibration of a  Static nonlinear analysis using the P-Delta option to using vibration theory
1-017 String Under provide tension stiffening presented on pages
Tension  Modal analysis of frame for eigenvalues 506 though 510 of
Kreyszig 1983.

Hand calculation
Bending, Shear
 Calculation of bending, shear and axial deformations using the unit load
and Axial
1-018 in a rigid frame method described on
Deformations in
 Frame property modification factors page 244 in Cook
a Rigid Frame
and Young 1985.

Hand calculation
using formulas
presented in Article
Buckling of a  Buckling analysis of a rigid frame
1-019 2.4 on pages 62
Rigid Frame  Automatic frame subdivision
though 66 of
Timoshenko and
Gere 1961.

Response
Spectrum  Modal analysis of frame for eigenvalues and time Comparison with
Analysis of a periods example 13.11 on
1-020
Two-  Response spectrum analysis page 521 of Chopra
Dimensional  Joint masses 1995.
Rigid Frame

Comparison with
results published in
Bathe and Wilson
Bathe and
1972 and
Wilson  Modal analysis for eigenvalues
1-021 comparison with
Eigenvalue  Line mass assignment to frame objects
results from another
Problem
computer program
published in
Peterson 1981.

METHODOLOGY - 5
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-1: SUMMARY OF GROUP 1 (FRAME) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Independent
No. Problem Title Program Features Tested Verification
 Diaphragm constraint Comparison with
 Joint force assignments results from another
Two-
 Joint mass assignments computer program
Dimensional
 Modal analysis for eigenvalues published by
1-022 Moment Frame
 Response spectrum analysis Engineering/Analysis
with Static and
 Modal time history analysis for base excitation and Computers/
Dynamic Loads
 Direct integration time history analysis for base Structures
excitation International.

Comparison with
results from another
ASME  Three-dimensional frame analysis computer program
1-023 Eigenvalue  Modal analysis using eigenvectors published in
Problem  Joint mass assignments Peterson 1981 and in
DeSalvo and
Swanson 1977.

Response
 Three-dimensional frame analysis Comparison with
Spectrum
 Modal analysis using eigenvectors results from another
Analysis of a
1-024  Rigid diaphragm constraint computer program
Three-
 Joint mass assignments published in
Dimensional
 Response spectrum analysis Peterson 1981.
Moment Frame

Response
 Three-dimensional frame analysis Comparison with
Spectrum
 Modal analysis using eigenvectors results from another
Analysis of a
1-025  Rigid diaphragm constraint computer program
Three-
 Joint mass assignments published in
Dimensional
 Response spectrum analysis Peterson 1981.
Braced Frame

Hand calculation
using the unit load
method described on
Moment and  Static nonlinear analysis of a frame structure using page 244 in Cook
1-026
Shear Hinges moment and shear hinges and Young 1985
together with basic
deflection formulas
and superposition.

Hand calculation
using the unit load
Construction  Nonlinear static analysis using the construction method described on
1-027 Sequence sequence loading option page 244 in Cook
Loading  Frame end releases and Young 1985
together with basic
deflection formulas.

METHODOLOGY - 6
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-1: SUMMARY OF GROUP 1 (FRAME) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Independent
No. Problem Title Program Features Tested Verification
 Static nonlinear analysis of frame structure with large
Large Axial axial displacements using the SAP2000 P-Delta plus Hand calculation
1-028
Displacements large displacements option using basic statics.
 Frame end releases
Hand calculation and
 Static nonlinear analysis of frame structure with large Equation 4 in Article
Large Bending
1-029 bending displacements using the SAP2000 P-Delta 7.1 of Chapter 7 on
Displacements
plus large displacements option page 91 of Roark
and Young 1975.

Comparison with
results published in
 Moving load case
1-030 Moving Loads Appendix A of
 Multi-step static load case for vehicles
AASHTO 1990 and
hand calculation.

METHODOLOGY - 7
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-2: SUMMARY OF GROUP 2 (SHELL) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
Hand calculation
based theory in
 Membrane analysis using shell elements Timoshenko and
Patch Test With  Plate bending analysis using shell elements Goodier 1951 and
2-001 Prescribed  Thin-plate option Timoshenko and
Displacements  Thick-plate option Woinowsky-Krieger
 Joint displacement loading 1959. Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
using the unit load
 Membrane analysis using shell elements method described on
 Plate bending analysis using shell elements page 244 in Cook
Straight Beam
 Effect of shell element aspect ratio and Young 1985 and
2-002 with Static
 Effect of geometrical distortion of shell element from using formulas from
Loads
rectangular Roark and Young
 Joint force loading 1975. Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
using the unit load
method described on
Curved Beam  Membrane analysis using shell elements
page 244 in Cook
2-003 with Static  Plate bending analysis using shell elements
and Young 1985.
Loads  Joint force loading
Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
using the unit load
method described on
Twisted Beam  Membrane analysis using shell elements
page 244 in Cook
2-004 with Static  Plate bending analysis using shell elements
and Young 1985.
Loads  Joint force loading
Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
based theory in
Rectangular  Plate bending analysis using shell elements Timoshenko and
2-005 Plate with Static  Uniform load applied to shell elements Woinowsky-Krieger
Loads  Joint force loading 1959. Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

METHODOLOGY - 8
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-2: SUMMARY OF GROUP 2 (SHELL) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
Some results
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.
Other results scaled
 Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements
Scordelis-Lo from plotted results in
 Self weight applied to shell elements
2-006 Roof with Static Zienkiewicz 1977
 Gravity load applied to shell elements
Loads that were calculated
 Uniform load applied to shell elements
using theory
presented in
Scordelis and Lo
1964.

Hemispherical
 Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements Results published in
Shell Structure
2-007  Joint local axes MacNeal and Harder
with Static
 Joint force loads 1985.
Loads

 Eigenvalue analysis using shell elements Hand calculation


Cantilever Plate
 Area object mass assignment using Table 7.7 on
2-008 Eigenvalue
 Area object automatic mesh page 7-30 of Harris
Problem
 Area object stiffness modifiers and Crede 1976.

Hand calculation
using equation 185
 Plate bending analysis using shell elements
Plate on Elastic on page 275 of
2-009  Area object spring assignment
Foundation Timoshenko and
 Joint force loads
Woinowsky-Krieger
1959.

Hand calculation
Cylinder with  Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements using item 1b in
2-010 Internal  Surface pressure load applied to shell elements Table 29 on page
Pressure  Joint local axes 448 of Roark and
Young 1975.

Results scaled from


plotted results in
ASME Cooling  Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements
Zienkiewicz 1977
Tower Problem  Joint patterns
2-011 that were calculated
with Static Wind  Shell element surface pressure load using joint
using theory
Pressure pattern
presented in Albasiny
and Martin 1967.

Plate Bending  Plate bending analysis of shell elements when shear Results published in
when Shear deformations are significant example shown on
2-012
Deformations  Area object stiffness modifiers page 376 of Roark
Are Significant  Frame distributed loads and Young 1975.

METHODOLOGY - 9
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-2: SUMMARY OF GROUP 2 (SHELL) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
Temperature
Hand calculation
Load that Is
using equation 1.3.4
2-013 Constant  Temperature loading for shell elements
on page 9 of Cook
Through Shell
and Young 1985.
Thickness

Hand calculation
Temperature using formulas
 Temperature gradient loading for shell elements
Gradient presented in item 8e
2-014  Area object local axes
Through Shell of Table 24 on page
 Joint local axes
Thickness 361 of Roark and
Young 1975.

Hand calculated
 Plate bending analysis of shells
Orthotropic using theory
2-015  Orthotropic material properties
Plate presented in Chapter
 Area object stiffness modifiers
6 of Ugural 1981.
 Buckling analysis of shells
Hand calculated
 Automatic area meshing (N x N) with added restraints
using theory
Out-of-Plane  Joint springs
2-016 presented in
Buckling  Frame property modifiers
Timoshenko and
 Frame distributed load
Gere 1961.
 Frame automatic subdivide at intermediate joints
Hand calculated
 Buckling analysis of shells using equation 2-4
In-Plane
2-017  Joint force loads on page 48 of
Buckling
 Active degrees of freedom Timoshenko and
Gere 1961.
 Static nonlinear analysis of shell structure with large
Large Axial axial displacements using the SAP2000 P-Delta plus Hand calculation
2-018
Displacements large displacements option using basic statics.
 Joint constraints
Hand calculation and
 Static nonlinear analysis of shell structure with large
Equation 4 in Article
Large Bending bending displacements using the SAP2000 P-Delta
2-019 7.1 of Chapter 7 on
Displacements plus large displacements option
page 91 of Roark
 Automatic area meshing
and Young 1975.
 Prestress tendon with parabolic tendon profile and
Hand calculation
different eccentricities at the two ends
using basic principles
Prestress  Prestress tendon modeled using loads and applied to
and the unit load
2-020 Applied to Area area objects
method described on
Objects  Prestress tendon modeled as elements and applied to
page 244 in Cook
area objects
and Young 1985.
 Prestress losses

METHODOLOGY - 10
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-3: SUMMARY OF GROUP 3 (PLANE) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
Hand calculation
based theory in
Patch Test With  Membrane analysis using plane stress elements Timoshenko and
3-001 Prescribed  Incompatible bending mode option for plane elements Goodier 1951.
Displacements  Joint displacement loading Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
using the unit load
method described on
 Membrane analysis using plane elements
page 244 in Cook
Straight Beam  Effect of plane element aspect ratio
and Young 1985 and
3-002 with Static  Effect of geometrical distortion of plane element from
using formulas from
Loads rectangular
Roark and Young
 Joint force loading
1975. Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
using the unit load
method described on
Curved Beam
 Membrane analysis using plane stress elements page 244 in Cook
3-003 with Static
 Joint force loading and Young 1985.
Loads
Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
based on theory in
Timoshenko 1956
 Analysis using plane stress elements and based on
Thick-Walled
3-004  Analysis using plane strain elements formulas in Roark
Cylinder
 Plane surface pressure load and Young 1975.
Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
 Pore pressure loading for planes
3-005 Pore Pressure using basic
 Joint pattern
principles.

METHODOLOGY - 11
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-4: SUMMARY OF GROUP 4 (ASOLID) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
Soil Supporting Hand calculation
 Analysis using asolid elements
Uniformly based on data
4-001  Asolid surface pressure load
Loaded Circular presented in Poulos
 Incompatible bending modes for asolid objects
Footing and Davis 1974.

Hand calculation
based on theory in
Thick-Walled  Analysis using asolid elements Timoshenko 1956.
4-002
Cylinder  Asolid surface pressure load Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
based on equations
Rotating  Analysis using asolid elements presented in Item 8
4-003
Annular Disk  Asolid rotate load on page 567 of
Roark and Young
1975.

Hand calculation
 Pore pressure loading for asolids
4-004 Pore Pressure using basic
 Joint pattern
principles.

METHODOLOGY - 12
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-5: SUMMARY OF GROUP 5 (SOLID) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
Patch Test With Results also
 Patch test using solid elements
5-001 Prescribed published in MacNeal
 Joint displacement loading
Displacements and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
 Solid object bending with and without the using the unit load
incompatible modes option method described on
Straight Beam
 Effect of solid object aspect ratio page 244 in Cook
5-002 with Static
 Effect of geometrical distortion of solid object from a and Young 1985.
Loads
cube Results also
 Joint force loading published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
using the unit load
method described on
Curved Beam  Solid object bending with the incompatible bending
page 244 in Cook
5-003 with Static modes option
and Young 1985.
Loads  Joint force loading
Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
using the unit load
method described on
Twisted Beam  Solid object bending and twist with the incompatible
page 244 in Cook
5-004 with Static bending modes option
and Young 1985.
Loads  Joint force loading
Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

Hand calculation
based theory in
Rectangular  Plate bending analysis using solid elements Timoshenko and
5-005 Plate with Static  Surface pressure load applied to solid objects Woinowsky-Krieger
Loads  Joint force loading 1959. Results also
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.

METHODOLOGY - 13
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-5: SUMMARY OF GROUP 5 (SOLID) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
Some results
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.
Other results scaled
Scordelis-Lo  Three-dimensional analysis using solid objects from plotted results in
5-006 Roof with Static  Self weight applied to solid objects Zienkiewicz 1977
Loads  Gravity load applied to shell objects that were calculated
using theory
presented in
Scordelis and Lo
1964.

Hemispherical
Results published in
Dome Structure  Three-dimensional analysis using solid elements
5-007 MacNeal and Harder
with Static  Joint force loads
1985.
Loads

Hand calculation
based on theory in
 Analysis using solid elements
Thick-Walled Timoshenko 1956.
5-008  Solid surface pressure load
Cylinder Results also
 Joint local axes
published in MacNeal
and Harder 1985.
 Prestress tendon with parabolic tendon profile and
Hand calculation
different eccentricities at the two ends
using basic principles
Prestress  Prestress tendon modeled using loads and applied to
and the unit load
5-009 Applied to Solid solid objects
method described on
Objects  Prestress tendon modeled as elements and applied to
page 244 in Cook
solid objects
and Young 1985.
 Prestress losses
Hand calculation
 Buckling analysis of solids using equation 2-4
5-010 Buckling  Joint force loads on page 48 of
 Active degrees of freedom Timoshenko and
Gere 1961.

Hand calculation
Temperature using equation 1.3.4
5-011  Temperature loading for solid elements
Load on page 9 of Cook
and Young 1985.

Hand calculation
 Plate bending analysis using solid elements using equation 185
Plate on Elastic  Solid object surface spring assignment on page 275 of
5-012
Foundation  Solid object automatic mesh Timoshenko and
 Joint force loads Woinowsky-Krieger
1959.

METHODOLOGY - 14
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-5: SUMMARY OF GROUP 5 (SOLID) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
 Pore pressure loading for solids Hand calculation
5-013 Pore Pressure  Solid local axis assignments using basic
 Joint pattern principles.

METHODOLOGY - 15
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-6: SUMMARY OF GROUP 6 (LINK) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification

 Linear links Hand calculation


 Modal load case for eigenvectors using theory
Linear Link with  Modal time history load case presented in section
6-001
Ramp Loading  Direct integration time history load case 4.5 on pages 126
 Ramp loading through 129 of
Chopra 1995.

Comparison with
Multi-linear  Multi-linear links defined link force-
6-002  Displacement-controlled nonlinear static analysis
Elastic Link deformation
characteristics.
 Gap element links
 Force-controlled nonlinear static analysis
 Nonlinear modal time history analysis Hand calculation
 Nonlinear direct time history analysis using the unit load
6-003 Gap Element  Frame point loads method described on
 Joint force loads page 244 in Cook
 Joint mass assignments and Young 1985.
 Ramp loading for time histories

Hand calculation
 Hook element links
using standard
6-004 Hook Element  Force-controlled nonlinear static analysis
thermal expansion
 Frame temperature loads
formulas.
 Damper element links
Damper Hand calculation
 Linear link elements
Element Under using equation 3.2.6
6-005  Nonlinear modal time history analysis
Harmonic on page 70 in
 Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis
Loading Chopra 1995.
 Joint force loads
 Damper links with linear velocity exponents
Comparison with
 Frame end length offsets
experimental results
 Joint mass assignments
SUNY Buffalo from shake table
 Modal analysis for ritz vectors
Damper with tests published in
6-006  Linear modal time history analysis
Linear Velocity Section 5, pages 61
 Nonlinear modal time history analysis
Exponent through 73, of
 Linear direct integration time history analysis
Scheller and
 Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis
Constantinou 1999.
 Generalized displacements
Comparison with
 Damper links with nonlinear velocity exponents
experimental results
SUNY Buffalo  Frame end length offsets
from shake table
Damper with  Joint mass assignments
tests published in
6-007 Nonlinear  Modal analysis for ritz vectors
Section 5, pages 61
Velocity  Nonlinear modal time history analysis
through 73, of
Exponent  Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis
Scheller and
 Generalized displacements
Constantinou 1999.

METHODOLOGY - 16
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

TABLE 2-6: SUMMARY OF GROUP 6 (LINK) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
 Plastic Wen links Comparison with
Plastic Wen  Displacement-controlled nonlinear static analysis defined link force-
6-008
Link  Link local axis assignments deformation
 Link gravity load characteristics.

Comparison with
 Plastic kinematic links
Plastic defined link force-
6-009  Displacement-controlled nonlinear static analysis
Kinematic Link deformation
 Link gravity load
characteristics.

Comparison with
results from the
 Rubber isolator links
computer program
 Linear links
SUNY Buffalo 3D-BASIS-ME (see
 Zero-length, two-joint link elements
Eight-Story Tsopelas,
 Diaphragm constraints
6-010 Building with Constantinou and
 Modal analysis for ritz vectors
Rubber Reinhorn 1994)
 Nonlinear modal time history analysis
Isolators published in Section
 Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis
2, pages 5 through
 Generalized displacements
23, of Scheller and
Constantinou 1999.
 Friction pendulum link elements
Comparison with
 Damper link elements
SUNY Buffalo experimental results
 Zero-length, two-joint link elements
Seven-Story from shake table
 Diaphragm constraints
Building with tests published in
6-011  Frame end length offsets
Friction Section 4, pages 43
 Modal analysis for ritz vectors
Pendulum through 59, of
 Nonlinear modal time history analysis
Isolators Scheller and
 Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis
Constantinou 1999.
 Joint masses
Hand calculation
using formulas and
Frequency
 Frequency dependent links theory presented in
6-012 Dependent
 Steady state analysis section 3.2 on pages
Links
68 through 69 of
Chopra 1995.

METHODOLOGY - 17
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TABLE 2-7: SUMMARY OF GROUP 7 (CABLE) EXAMPLES


Method of
Exam. Problem Independent
No. Description Program Features Tested Verification
 Uniform load applied to cable elements Comparison with
Uniform and
 Temperature load applied to cable elements results published in
7-001 Temperature
 Joint displacement loading Figure 5 of Peyrot
Loading
 Nonlinear static analysis and Goulois, 1979.

 Uniform load applied to cable elements Comparison with


Uniform and
 Concentrated load applied to cable elements results published in
7-002 Concentrated
 Response combination results Section 4.6.2, Table
Loading
 Nonlinear static analysis 4.2, of Tibert, 1999.

Comparison with
 Uniform load applied to cable nets
Prestressed results published in
7-003  Concentrated load applied to cable nets
Cable Net Section 4.6.3, Table
 Nonlinear static analysis
4.4, of Tibert, 1999.

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MATRIX OF PROGRAM FEATURES COVERED IN EXAMPLES


This section presents tables illustrating which element assignments, including loads, and
which load case types are addressed in each of the examples. Table 3 shows the contents
of the matrix tables.

TABLE 3: CONTENTS OF MATRIX TABLES


Features Table
Joint assignments including loads Table 4-1

Frame object assignments including loads Table 4-2

Area object assignments including loads Table 4-3

Solid object assignments including loads Table 4-4

Link object assignments including loads Table 4-5

Cable object assignment including loads Table 4-6

Load case types Table 4-7

As illustrated in Table 3, the program features matrices are presented in tables 4-1
though 4-6. These tables are shown on the following pages.

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TABLE 4-1: JOINT ASSIGNMENT MATRIX


Joint Assignments Example Problems
Restraints Most

Constraints 1-022, 1-024, 1-025, 2-018, 6-010, 6-011

Springs 1-005, 2-016

Masses 1-020, 1-022, 1-023, 1-024, 1-025, 6-003, 6-006, 6-007, 6-011

Local axes 1-005, 2-007, 2-010, 2-014, 5-008

Panel zones

Joint patterns 1-002, 2-011, 3-005, 4-004, 5-013

1-001, 1-003, 1-004, 1-006, 1-010, 1-011, 1-012, 1-016, 1-019,


1-022, 1-026, 1-027, 1-028, 1-029, 2-002, 2-003, 2-004, 2-005,
Joint forces
2-007, 2-009, 2-017, 3-002, 3-003, 5-003, 5-004, 5-005, 5-012,
6-003, 6-005

Joint displacements 1-005, 2-001, 3-001

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TABLE 4-2: FRAME OBJECT ASSIGNMENT MATRIX


Frame Assignments Example Problems
Non-prismatic section 1-006

1-001, 1-002, 1-004, 1-005, 1-006, 1-013, 1-014, 1-018, 1-020,


Frame property modifiers
1-021, 1-024, 2-016

End releases 1-007, 1-012, 1-028

Partial fixity 1-008

Local axes 1-004

End length offsets 1-010, 6-006, 6-007, 6-011

Insertion point 1-011

Prestress definition 1-009

P-Delta force 1-016

Tension/compression limits 1-012

Hinges 1-026

Line springs 1-013

Line mass 1-015, 1-021

Automatic frame subdivide 1-006, 1-013, 1-014, 1-015, 1-017, 1-019, 2-016

Gravity load 1-008

Point load 1-001, 1-004, 1-007, 1-011, 1-013, 6-003

Distributed load 1-001, 1-003, 1-008, 1-015, 1-016, 1-018, 2-012, 2-016

Temperature load 1-002, 6-004

Prestress load 1-009

Frame self weight 1-006, 1-009

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TABLE 4-3: AREA OBJECT TYPE AND ASSIGNMENT MATRIX


Area Type and Assignments Example Problems
Shell type area object 2-001 through 2-020

Plane type area object 3-001 through 3-005

Asolid type area object 4-001 through 4-004

Stiffness modifiers 2-008, 2-012, 2-015

Local axes 2-014

Area springs 2-009

Area Mass 2-008

Automatic area mesh 2-008, 2-016, 2-019

Gravity load (all) 2-006

Uniform load (shell) 2-005, 2-006

Uniform load to frames (shell)

Surface pressure (all) 2-010, 2-011,3-004, 4-001, 4-002

Pore pressure (plane, asolid) 3-005, 4-004

Temperature load (all) 2-013, 2-014

Rotate load (asolid) 4-003

Wind pressure coefficients


(shell)

General prestress applied to 2-020


area objects

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TABLE 4-4: SOLID OBJECT ASSIGNMENT MATRIX


Solid Assignments Example Problems
Local axes 5-013

Surface springs 5-012

Automatic solid mesh 5-012

Gravity load 5-006

Surface pressure load 5-005, 5-008

Pore pressure load 5-013

Temperature load 5-011

General prestress applied to 5-009


solid objects

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TABLE 4-5: LINK OBJECT TYPE AND ASSIGNMENT MATRIX


Link Type and Assignments Example Problems
Linear link 6-001, 6-005, 6-010

Multilinear elastic link 6-002

Gap (compression only) link 6-003

Hook (tension only) link 6-004

Damper link 6-005, 6-006, 6-007, 6-011

Plastic (Wen) link 6-008

Plastic (kinematic) link 6-009

Rubber isolator link 6-010

Friction isolator link 6-011

Frequency dependent link 6-012

Local axes 6-008

Gravity load 6-008, 6-009

TABLE 4-6: CABLE OBJECT TYPE AND ASSIGNMENT MATRIX


Link Type and Assignments Example Problems
Cable element 7-001, 7-002

Cable net 7-003

Rubber isolator link 6-010

Friction isolator link 6-011

Frequency dependent link 6-012

Uniform load 7-001, 7-002

Temperature load 7-001

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TABLE 4-7: LOAD CASE TYPE MATRIX


Load case type Example Problems
Linear static Most

Multi-step static 1-030

1-012, 1-016, 1-017, 1-026, 6-002, 6-003, 6-004, 6-008, 6-009,


Nonlinear static
7-001, 7-002, 7-003

Nonlinear static with 1-027


construction sequence loading

Nonlinear static with large 1-028, 1-029, 2-018, 2-019


displacements

1-014, 1-017, 1-020, 1-021, 1-022, 1-023, 1-024, 1-025, 2-008


Modal for eigenvectors
6-001

Modal for ritz vectors 6-006, 6-007, 6-010, 6-011

Response spectrum 1-020, 1-022, 1-024, 1-025

Linear transient modal time 1-022, 6-001, 6-006


history

Linear periodic modal time 1-015


history

Nonlinear transient modal time 6-003, 6-005, 6-006, 6-007, 6-010, 6-011
history

Linear direct integration time 1-022, 6-001, 6-006


history

Nonlinear direct integration time 6-003, 6-005, 6-006, 6-007, 6-010, 6-011
history

Moving load 1-030

Buckling 1-019, 2-016, 2-017, 5-010

Steady state 1-015, 6-012

Power spectral density

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