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DEPARTMENT OF

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY JAIPUR
th
6 Semester Mechanical Engineering

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE LAB


LABORATORY RECORD

NAME: ___________________ PHOTO

BATCH: __________________

ROLL NO: _______________

REGISTER NUMBER: ______________________


MUJ/SAMM/ ME1630

i
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE) LAB
INDEX
BATCH NO: ________ ROLL NO: ________
SL Name of the experiments Page Manual Observation
Signature of
NO. No. Marks Marks
Faculty
1. TO DETERMINE THE ISOTHERMAL
EFFICIENCY OF TWO STAGE 1-6
RECIPROCATINGAIR COMPRESSOR
2. STUDY OF CUT SECTIONAL FOUR
STROKE ONE CYLINDER PETROL
7-8
ENGINE FOR VALVE TIMING
DIAGRAM
3. PERFORMANCE TEST: FOUR
STROKE FOUR CYLINDER DIESEL
9-12
ENGINE TEST RIG WITH
ELECTRICAL DYNAMOMETER
4. EVALUATING FRICTION MORSE
TEST ON MULTI-CYLINDER TEST
RIG- FOUR STROKE FOUR
13-14
CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE TEST
RIG WITH HYDRAULIC
DYNAMOMETER
5. PERFORMANCE TEST: FOUR
STROKE 3 CYLINDER PETROL
ENGINE TEST RIG WITH (AC 15-18
DYNAMOMETER) WITH HEAT
BALANCE SHEET
6. TWO STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER
PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG WITH 19-23
AC GENERATOR
7. FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG WITH 24-28
HYDRAULIC DYNAMOMETER
8. FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG WITH DC 29-32
GENERATOR
9. FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG WITH 33-37
BRAKE DRUM
10. HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR FOUR
STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL
38-40
ENGINE WITH HYDRAULIC
DYNAMOMETER
11. HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR FOUR
STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL 41-43
ENGINE WITH DC GENERATOR
12. HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR FOUR
STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL
ENGINE WITH BRAKE DRUM 44-46
DYNAMOMETER

13 VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO 4- 47-55

ii
STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE
TOTAL MARKS
Final internal marks awarded (out of 60)

iii
EXPERIMENT NO. 1
AIR COMPRESSION TEST RIG

Aim: To calculate isothermal efficiency of two stage reciprocating air compressor.

Apparatus used: Two stage reciprocating air compressor, stop watch.

Theory: Multistage compression is very efficient and is now a days almost universally adopted
except for compressor where overall pressure rise required is small. The method is not only
advantageous from thermodynamic point of view, but also has mechanical advantages over
single stage compression.

Two Stage compressor with intercooler

The important advantages of multistage compression are as follows:

1. The air can be cooled at pressure intermediate between intake and delivery pressure.

2. The power required to drive a multistage machine is less than would be required by single
stage machine delivering the same quantity of air at the same delivery pressure.

3. Multistage machines have better mechanical balance.

4. The pressure range (and hence also the temperature range) may be kept within desired limits.
This results in improved volumetric efficiency.

1
 Multistage reciprocating compressor

Multistage compression is a series arrangement of cylinder in which compressed air from the
cylinder before, becomes the intake air for the cylinder, which follows. The low pressure ration
in the low pressure cylinder means that the clearance air expansion is reduced and the effective
swept volume of this cylinder is increased. Since in this cylinder, which controls the mass flow
through the machine, this cylinder introduces the air into the machine and then there is greater
mass flow through the multistage arrangement than single-stage machine.

If an intercooler is insulated between the cylinders, in which the compressed air is cooled
between cylinders, then final delivery temperature is reduced. This reduction in temperature
means a reduction in internal energy of the delivered air, and since this energy must have come
from the input energy required to drive the machine, this results in a decrease in input work
requirement for a given mass of delivered air,

Technical details: It comprises following air compressor with motor and accessories and air
intake measurement set-up, electrical panel and accessories.

Air Compressor

Make : KOYO (MAC)


Model : 2475
Displacement : 168 lit./min = 0.168 m3/min.
Maximum working pressure : 12kg/cm2
Unit RPM : 800
Tank capacity : 150 lit.
No. of cylinders :2
No. of stages :2
Bore diameter (LP) : 69 mm
Bore diameter (HP) : 53 mm
Stroke length : 59 mm
Power transmission : Through V-belt
Cylinder cooling : Air cooling
Motor pulley dia. : 4”
Compressor pulley dia. : 349 mm
Compressor accessories : Pressure relief valve
Automatic cut off pressure (switch fixed) : 8 kg/cm2
Pressure gauge :1

Motor

2
Make : KIRLOSKAR
Type : Squirrel cage induction motor
Rating : 3 HP, 3 ∅
RPM : 1440
Voltage : 440 V
Air tank (material) : MS Sheet
Orifice dia. : 18 mm (circular)
Manometer : 0-50 cm, U tube glass, water filled
Air connection : PVC Hose pipe with clamps

Electrical Panel

Panel (material/coating) : MS power coated


Starter (Make) : Bentex, suitable up to 3 HP
Energy meter : 3 ∅ I.S.I.
Digital temperature indicator : Multichannel type with Cr-Al thermocouple

Procedure:

1. Check connection and ensure direction of rotation of compressor.

2. Close shut off valve.

3. Fill manometer with water (half level).

4. Start the motor and absorb pressure on the gauge on the tank.

5. Note down the reading of manometer.

6. Note down time requiring for 10 indication of energy meter disc.

7. Note down the readings of multi-channel digital temperature indicator.

8. Tabulate all the reading and calculate efficiency.

Observation:

3
1. Orifice diameter (d) = 18 mm

2. Bore dia. of LP cylinder (D1) = 69 mm

3. Bore dia. of HP cylinder (D2) = 59 mm

4. Stroke length (L) = 59 mm

5. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) = 0.62

6. Gas constant (R) = 29.27

7. Water density (ρ) = 1000 kg/m3

8. Density of air (ρa) = 1.207 kg/m3

9. Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81 m/s2

10. Atmospheric pressure (P1) = 1.03×105 N/mm2

11. Energy meter constant (k) = 3200 imp/kWh

Observation Table:

Sl DELIVERY INITIAL TEMP. TEMP. TIME FOR 10 MANOMETER


No. PRESSURE TEMP. AFTER FIRST AFTER INDICATION H1-H2
P3 (kg/cm2) T1 (ºC) STAGE T2 INTERCOOLE OF BLINK T (m)
(ºC) R T2 (ºC) (s)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Calculations:

1. Area of orifice (A0) = -------------------- (m2)

 2
A d  0.000254 m2
4

2. Head of air in m, (as read in manometer) (Ha)

4
H w  Pw
Ha  m
Pa

Where, H w  H2  H1 (in ‘m’)

Pw  1000 kg/m3

Pa  1.207 kg/m3

3. Air mass flow rate at NTP condition, V1 (m3/s)

Q  A  Cd  2gHa (m3/s)

4. Isothermal horsepower

P3
P1  Q  ln( )
P1
HPiso 
4500

5. Input horsepower

10  3600
HPInput   m  T
t e  EMC

Where, Energy meter constant (EMC) K = 1200 imp/kW/hr

te = Time evolutions for indications to complete 10 revolutions

Taking motor efficiency as 75%, we have input shaft power (SP).

SP = Electrical input power × 0.75

Motor efficiency m  70% and Transmission efficiency T  60%

6. Isothermal efficiency

HPiso
isothermal  100 (%)
HPip

5
Conclusion:

6
EXPERIMENT NO. 2
VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF FOUR STROKE ENGINE

Aim: To draw the valve timing diagram for the given four stroke engine.

Apparatus used: Cut sectioned model of 4 stroke engine, Measuring tape, Scale, Thread and
Feeler gauge.

Procedure:

1. First the TDC and BDC of the engine are found correctly by rotating the flywheel and the
positions are marked on angular scale.

2. The crank arm is rotated and the point at which the inlet valve starts opening is found out and
its position is marked on the angular scale.

3. Similarly the position at which it closes is also found out.

4. The distances are measured by using thread with respect to their dead center and converted
into angles.

5. The same procedure is repeated for the exhaust valve also.

Different strokes of a four stroke engine Sample structure of valve timing diagram

Observation Table:

7
Valve Positions Distance from their respective Angle measured in degrees
dead centers in ‘cm’
Inlet valve opens
Inlet valve closes
Exhaust valve opens
Exhaust valve closes

Result:

The valve timing for the given four stroke engine is found out and is drawn as follows:

Conclusion:

8
EXPERIMENT NO. 3
FOUR STROKE FOUR CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG

Aim: To conduct performance test on four stroke diesel engine with electrical dynamometer.

Apparatus used: Four stroke four cylinder diesel engine test rig, tachometer, stop watch.

Theory: Internal combustion engine in which the combustion of fuel takes place inside the
cylinder is known as IC engine. In an IC engine, the products of combustion are directly the
motive fluid. Diesel engine and petrol engine are examples of this type and the working
substance is the product of combustion. Reciprocating IC engines offers following advantages
over external combustion engines:
(a) Overall efficiency is high.
(b) Greater mechanical simplicity.
(c) General lower initial cost.
(d) Easy starting from cold conditions.
(e) These units are compact and thus require less space.
(f) Weight to power ratio is generally lower.

Detailed of Test Rig


Engine (1) Make: Diesel engine (TATA)
(2) Speed: 1000-1500 RPM with accelerator
Electrical dynamometer AC alternator coupled to the engine connected
with load bank.
Air intake measurement Air intake tank fitted with orifice and water
manometer.
Fuel intake measurement Calibrated burette arrangement fitted on the
control panel to measure the fuel consumption
with two ball valves to control and measure the
quantity of fuel consumed.
Exhaust gas calorimeter Water cooled exhaust gas calorimeter, shell
and coil type to study the heat lost to exhaust
gases. Water flows inside the copper tubes and
exhaust gases flows into the shell.
Multi-channel temperature indicator For measuring inlet and outlet temperature of
exhaust gases and water from engine cooling
jacket and calorimeter with Cr-Al
thermocouples.
(a) Water inlet to the engine and calorimeter.
(b) Water outlet temperature to engine.
(c) Water outlet temperature to calorimeter.
(d) Exhaust gas outlet temperature to
calorimeter.

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(e) Ambient temperature.
Procedure:
1. Adjust the flow rate of water for calorimeter and engine jacket.
2. Start the engine.
3. First measure the speed of the engine with the help of Tachometer.
4. Then measure the time required for consumption of fuel.
5. Measure the flow of cooling water from calorimeter from engine jacket with the help of a
measuring flask.
6. Then take the reading of manometer and temperature indicator.
7. Take all the readings by increasing load.

Observations:
1. Specific gravity of fuel = 0.8
2. Calorific value of fuel (CV) = 44000 KJ/kg
3. Orifice diameter = 25 mm
4. Coefficient of discharge of orifice meter (Cd) = 0.62
5. Density of air (ρa) = 1.207 kg/m3
6. Specific heat of water (CPw) = 4.2 KJ/kg-°C
7. Specific heat of exhaust gas (CPg) = 1.05 KJ/kg-°C
8. Water ambient temperature = ______________°C
9. Air ambient temperature = _______________ °C

Observation Table:

Table 1:
Sl No. Manometer Fuel Water flow rate Water flow rate
difference H1-H2 consumption for in engine jacket in calorimeter
(m) 10 ml (kg/s) (kg/s)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Table 2:
Sl No. T1 (°C) T2 (°C) T3 (°C) T4 (°C) T5 (°C) N (RPM)
1.
2.
3.
4.

10
Calculations:

1. Brake Power:

BP = Load on the engine (KW) = ____________ KW

2. Total Fuel Consumption:

3. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption:

[TFC in kg/hr and BP in kW]

4. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption:

BP
Bth  100 [BP in kW, TFC in kg/s and CV = 44000 kJ/kg]
TFC  CV

5. Air Fuel Ratio:

Mass of air ρ
Q  Cd  A  2gh a
w  H w
ha  (m)
a
Hw  H1  H2
Where, Cd  0.62 , g  9.81 m/s2, ρw = 1000 kg/m3 (Density of water), Hw = Manometer reading
(m), ρa = Density of air = 1.178 kg/m3, Orifice dia. = 25 mm, A = Area of orifice meter =
0.00049 m2.

6. Heat Balance:

11
(a) Total Heat input (Hip) = TFC (kg/s) × CV = _____________ (kW) [CV = 44000 KJ/kg]

(b) Heat carried away by cooling water (In engine cooling jacket) =
Hwater  mw  Cpw  (Tw2  Tw1 )
Where, Tw 2  Tw1 = Difference in temperature (ºC)
mw = mass flow rate of cooling water (kg/s)
Cpw = Specific heat of water = 4.187 KJ/kg ºC

(c) Heat converted to BP (HBP)


2NT
BP  (W)
60

(d) Heat carried away by exhaust gases (kJ/s)

(Heat gained by water in exhaust gas calorimeter from exhaust gases) + (Heat in exhaust gases at
exit from exhaust gas calorimeter above room temperature)
 mw  Cpw  (Tw3  Tw1 )  mg  Cpg  (T5  T1 )
Where, mg = Mass of exhaust gases formed per minute
= Fuel supplied/s × (A/F ratio + 1) kg/s
Cpg = Specific heat of exhaust gases

(e) Heat unaccounted = [Total heat input] – [Heat converted to BP + Heat carried by exhaust
gases + Heat carried away by cooling water]

Conclusion:

12
EXPERIMENT NO. 4
MORSE TEST

Aim: To conduct Morse test on petrol engine to find frictional power loss of engine.

Apparatus used: Four stroke four cylinder petrol engine test rig, tachometer, stop watch.

Theory: This method can be used only for multi cylinder IC engines. The Morse test consists of
obtaining indicated power of the engine without any elaborate equipment. The test consists of
making, in turn each cylinder of the engine inoperative and noting the reduction in brake power
developed. In a petrol engine (gasoline cylinder) each cylinder is reduced to be made inoperative.
In a diesel engine, a particular cylinder is made inoperative by cutting off the supply of fuel. It is
assumed that pumping and friction are the same when cylinder is inoperative as well as during
firing.
In this test, the engine is first run at the required speed and brake power is measured. Next one
cylinder is cut off by short circuiting the spark if it is a petrol engine or by cutting of the fuel
supply if it is a diesel engine. Since one of the cylinders is cut of from producing power, the
speed of the engine will change. The engine speed is brought to its original value by reducing the
load on the engine. This will ensure that frictional power is same.

Procedure:
1. The Morse test is applicable only to multi-cylinder engines.
2. In this test, the engine first runs at the required speed and output is measured.
3. Then one cylinder is cut by short circuiting the spark plug or by disconnecting the
injector as the case may be. Under this condition all the cylinders ‘motor’ cut out this
cylinder.
4. The output is measured by keeping speed constant at its original value.
5. The difference in the output is a measurement of indicated horse power of the cut-out
cylinder. Thus for each cylinder IP is obtained and is added together to find the total IP of
the engine.

Observation:
If the values of IP of the cylinders are denoted by I1, I2, I3 and I4 (consider a four cylinder engine)
and power losses in each cylinder are denoted by L1, L2, L3 and L4.

13
Observation Table:

SL No. Brake Brake Brake Brake Brake Speed


power with power with power with power with power with (RPM)
all 1st cylinder 2nd 3rd 4th cylinder
cylinders off (B1) cylinder off cylinder off off (B4)
(BP) (B2) (B3)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Calculations:
The value of BP at the test speed with all cylinders firing is given by:
BP  (I1  L1 )  (I2  L2 )  (I3  L3 )  (I4  L4 )  ....... (Eq. 1)

If no. one cylinder is cut out, then the contribution I1 is lost and if the loss due to those cylinders
remains the same as when it is firing, then BP, B1 can be obtained at the same speed. Is
BP1  (0  L1 )  (I2  L2 )  (I3  L3 )  (I4  L4 )  ......... (Eq. 2)
Subtracting Eq. 2 from Eq. 1, we get:
B  B1  I1
Similarly, B  B2  I2 When cylinder no. 2 is cut out
B  B3  I3 When cylinder no. 3 is cut out
B  B4  I4 When cylinder no. 4 is cut out

Then for the engine, IP  I1  I2  I3  I4 and FP  IP  FP


Conclusion:

14
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
FOUR STROKE THREE CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE WITH AC
DYNAMOMETER

Aim: To conduct performance test on four stroke three cylinder petrol engine.

Apparatus used: Four stroke three cylinder petrol engine test rig, tachometer, stop watch.

Specification of Test rig:

Engine (1) Make: Petrol engine (MARUTI ALTO)


(2) Speed: 1000-1500 RPM with accelerator
Electrical dynamometer AC alternator coupled to the engine connected
with load bank.
Air intake measurement Air intake tank fitted with orifice and water
manometer.
Fuel intake measurement Calibrated burette arrangement fitted on the
control panel to measure the fuel consumption
with two ball valves to control and measure the
quantity of fuel consumed.
Exhaust gas calorimeter Water cooled exhaust gas calorimeter, shell
and coil type to study the heat lost to exhaust
gases. Water flows inside the copper tubes and
exhaust gases flows into the shell.
Multi channel temperature indicator For measuring inlet and outlet temperature of
exhaust gases and water from engine cooling
jacket and calorimeter with Cr-Al
thermocouples.
(a) Water inlet to the engine and calorimeter.
(b) Water outlet temperature to engine.
(c) Water outlet temperature to calorimeter.
(d) Exhaust gas outlet temperature to
calorimeter.
(e) Ambient temperature.

Procedure:
1. Adjust the flow rate of water for calorimeter and engine jacket.
2. Start the engine.
3. First measure the speed of the engine with the help of Tachometer.
4. Then measure the time required for consumption of fuel.
5. Measure the flow of cooling water from calorimeter from engine jacket with the help of a
measuring flask.
6. Then take the reading of manometer and temperature indicator.

15
7. Take all the readings by increasing load.

Observations:
1. Specific gravity of fuel = 0.8
2. Calorific value of fuel (CV) = 44000 KJ/kg
3. Orifice diameter = 25 mm
4. Coefficient of discharge of orifice meter (Cd) = 0.62
5. Density of air (ρa) = 1.207 kg/m3
6. Specific heat of water (CPw) = 4.2 KJ/kg-°C
7. Specific heat of exhaust gas (CPg) = 1.05 KJ/kg-°C
8. Water ambient temperature = ______________°C
9. Air ambient temperature = _______________ °C

Observation Table:

Table 1:
SL No. Manometer difference Fuel Water flow rate Water flow rate
H1-H2 (m) consumption for in engine jacket in calorimeter
10 ml (kg/s) (kg/s)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Table 2:
SL No. T1 (°C) T2 (°C) T3 (°C) T4 (°C) T5 (°C) N (RPM)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Calculations:

1. Brake Power:

BP = Load on the engine (KW) = ____________ KW

2. Total Fuel Consumption:

16
3. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption:

[TFC in kg/hr and BP in KW]

4. Brake Thermal Efficiency:

BP
Bth  100 [BP in kW, TFC in kg/s and CV = 44000 kJ/kg]
TFC  CV

5. Air Fuel Ratio:

Mass of air ρ
Q  Cd  A  2gh a
w  H w
ha  (m)
a
Hw  H1  H2
Where, Cd  0.62 , g  9.81 m/s2, ρw = 1000 kg/m3 (Density of water), Hw = Manometer reading
(m), ρa = Density of air = 1.178 kg/m3, Orifice dia. = 25 mm, A = Area of orifice meter =
0.00049 m2.

17
6. Heat Balance:

(a) Total Heat input (Hip) = TFC (kg/s) × CV = _____________ (kW) [CV = 44000 KJ/kg
for diesel]

(b) Heat carried away by cooling water (In engine cooling jacket) =
Hwater  mw  Cpw  (Tw2  Tw1 )
Where, Tw 2  Tw1 = Difference in temperature (ºC)
mw = mass flow rate of cooling water (kg/s)
Cpw = Specific heat of water = 4.187 KJ/kg ºC

(c) Heat converted to BP (HBP)


2NT
BP  (W)
60

(d) Heat carried away by exhaust gases (kJ/s)

(Heat gained by water in exhaust gas calorimeter from exhaust gases) + (Heat in exhaust gases at
exit from exhaust gas calorimeter above room temperature)
 mw  Cpw  (Tw3  Tw1 )  mg  Cpg  (T5  T1 )
Where, mg = Mass of exhaust gases formed per minute
= Fuel supplied/s × (A/F ratio + 1) kg/s
Cpg = Specific heat of exhaust gases

(e) Heat unaccounted = [Total heat input] – [Heat converted to BP + Heat carried by exhaust
gases + Heat carried away by cooling water]

Conclusion:

18
EXPERIMENT NO. 6
TWO STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE WITH AC
GENERATOR

Aim: To conduct a performance test on two stroke single cylinder petrol engine.

Apparatus:
1. Tachometer.
2. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.
3. Differential manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into the cylinder.
4. Burette with manifold to measure the rate of fuel consumed during test.
5. Digital voltmeter to measure the voltage.
6. Digital ammeter to measure the current.

Theory: This engine is a two stroke single cylinder, air cooled, spark ignition type petrol engine.
It is coupled to a loading system which is in this case is a AC Generator, having a resistance load
bank which will take load with the help of switches. The fuel is supplied to the engine from main
fuel tank through a graduated measuring fuel gauge (burette). To measure the fuel consumption
of the engine, fill the burette by opening the cock. By starting a stop clock, measure the time
taken to consume X cc of fuel by the engine. The suction side of the engine is connected to the
air tank. The atmospheric air is drawn into the engine cylinder through the air tank. The
manometer is provided to measure the pressure drop and also an orifice is provided in the intake
pipe of the air tank. This pressure drop is used to calculate the volume of air drawn into the
cylinder. (Orifice dia. is 20 mm).The engine is lubricated by mechanical lubrication. Lubrication
oil is recommended: SAE 40 (or equivalent). A digital temperature indicator with selector switch
is provided on the panel to read the temperature in °C, directly sensed by respective
thermocouples located at different places of test rig.
Thermocouple Details
T1: Ambient temperature
T2: Exhaust gas temperature from engine.
The engine shaft is directly coupled to the AC generator, which can be loaded by resistance load
bank. The load can be varied by switching ON the load blank switches for various loads.

Engine Specifications:

Engine : LML
BHP : 6 HP
RPM : 3000 RPM
FUEL : Petrol
NO. OF CYLINDERS : Single

19
BORE : 56.7 mm
Stroke length : 56.7 mm
Starting : Kick start
Working cycle : Two stroke
Method of cooling : Air cooled
Method of ignition : Spark ignition
Orifice dia. : 20 mm

AC Generator Specifications:

Type : AC GENERATOR
Power : 2.2 kW
Speed : 3000 RPM
Rated voltage : 220 – 230 V AC

Resistance Load Bank Specifications:

Rating : 2.2 kW, 1∅


Variation : In 5 steps by switch
Cooling : Air cooled

Observation:

Brake power BP :
Specific fuel consumption (SFC) :
Actual volume (Va) :
Brake thermal efficiency (ηBth) :
Swept volume (Vs) :
Volumetric efficiency (ηv) :

Procedure:
1. Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230 V, 50 Hz AC single phase AC
supply. Now all the digital meters namely Tachometer, temperature indicator displays the
respective readings.
2. Fill up the petrol (2T oil mix) to the fuel tank mounted behind the panel.
3. Start the engine with the help of kicker provided at the rear end of the engine.
4. Allow the engine to stabilize the speed i.e. 2800 RPM by adjusting the accelerator knob.
5. Apply the loads.
6. Note down all the required parameters mentioned below.

20
a. Speed of the engine.
b. Load from ammeter.
c. Burette reading in cc.
d. Manometer reading in mm.
e. Time taken for consumption of X cc petrol in sec.
f. Exhaust gas temperature in ℃.

7. Load the engine step by step with the use of DC switches provided on the load bank panel.
8. Note down all the required readings.

Calculation for Engine Performance Test:

1. Brake Power
VI
BP  (kW)
1000  gen
Where, V = AC voltage in volts.
I = AC current in amps.
gen = generator efficiency = 80 %

2. Mass of Fuel Consumed


X  0.72  3600
mf  (kg/hr)
1000  t
Where, X = burette reading
0.72 = Density of the petrol in ‘gm’
t = Time taken in sec

3. Specific Fuel Consumption


m
SFC  f (kg/kW-hr)
BP

4. Actual Volume of Air Sucked in Cylinder


Va  Cd  A  3600  2gH (m3/hr)
h  w
H m of water
1000  a
Where,
 2
A = area of the orifice =d
4
h = Manometer reading in mm

21
δw = Density of water =1000 kg/m3
δa = Density of air = 1.193 kg/m3
Cd = coefficient of discharge = 0.62

5. Swept Volume

Vs  d 2  L  N  60
4
Where, d = dia. of the bore = 56.7 mm
L = Length of stroke = 56.7 mm
N = Speed of engine in RPM

6. Volumetric Efficiency
V
v  A 100 (%)
VS

7. Brake Thermal Efficiency

BP  3600 100
Bth 
mf  CV
Where, CV = Calorific value of petrol = 43500 kJ/kg

8. Mechanical Efficiency
BP
mech  100
IP

Observation table 1:

SL W N h1 h2 t (sec) T1 T2 T3 T4 RT1
NO. (kg) (RPM) (mm) (mm) (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃) (cc/s)
1.
2.
3.
4.

22
Table 2:

Sl No. BP mf SFC ηBth ηv


1.
2.
3.
4.

Conclusion:

23
EXPERIMENT NO. 7
FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG WITH
HYDRAULIC DYNAMOMETER

Aim: To conduct a performance test on single cylinder four stroke diesel engine.

Description: The hydraulic dynamometer is coupled to the engine shaft and is mounted on a MS
channel frame. Panel board is used to fix burette with 3 way cock, Tachometer and ‘U’ tube
manometer.

Apparatus used:

1. Tachometer.
2. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.
3. Differential manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into the cylinder.
4. Burette with manifold to measure the rate of fuel consumed during test.

Theory: The engine test rig is directly coupled to the hydraulic dynamometer. By allowing the
water on the impeller of the dynamometer, we can load the engine. The load can be varied in
steps of 1 , 1 , 3 full load b operating gate valve provided. The fuel is supplied to the engine
4 2 4
from main fuel tank through a graduated measuring fuel gauge (burette). To measure the fuel
consumption of the engine, fill the burette by opening the cock. By starting a stop clock, measure
the time taken to consume X cc of fuel by the engine. The suction side of the engine is connected
to the air tank. The atmospheric air is drawn into the engine cylinder through the air tank. The
manometer is provided to measure the pressure drop and also an orifice is provided in the intake
pipe of the air tank. This pressure drop is used to calculate the volume of air drawn into the
cylinder. (Orifice dia. is 20 mm). The engine is lubricated by mechanical lubrication.
Lubrication oil is recommended: SAE 40 (or equivalent)

Engine Specification:

MAKE : Kirloskar
BHP : 5 HP
RPM : 1500 RPM
FUEL : Diesel
NO. OF CYLINDERS : Single
COMPRESSION RATIO : 16.5: 1
BORE : 80 mm
Stroke length : 110 mm
Orifice diameter : 20 mm

24
Type of ignition : Compression ignition
Method of starting : Crank shaft
Method of cooling : Water cooled
Method of loading : Hydraulic dynamometer

Procedure:
1. Connect the panel instrumentation input power line at 230 V, 50 Hz, single phase power
source.
2. Connect the inlet and outlet water connection to the engine and to the hydraulic
dynamometer.
3. Fill fuel into the tank mounted on the panel frame
4. Check the lubricating oil in the engine sump with the help of dip stick provided.
5. Open the fuel cock provided under the burette and ensures zero air trapped in the fuel line
connecting fuel tank and engine.
6. De-compress the engine by decompression lever provided on the top of the engine head.
7. Crank the engine slowly with the help of handle provided and ascertains proper flow of
fuel into the pump and in turn through the nozzle into the engine cylinder. Crank the
engine and pull the compression lever down. Now the engine will start and allow it to run
and stabilize at approximately 1500 RPM (Constant speed engine).
8. Now lead the engine by allowing the water to the dynamometer by operating the gate
valve.
9. Note down the required parameters, indicated on the panel instruments on each load step
a) Speed of the engine from tachometer.
b) Fuel consumption from burette.
c) Quantity of air flow from manometer.
d) Different temperatures from temperature indicator.
10. Turn off the fuel knob provided on the panel after the test.
11. Please read the owner manual of the engine.

Thermocouple Details:
T1: Inlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T2: Outlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T3: Exhaust gas temperature (℃)
T4: Room temperature (℃)

Calculation for Engine Performance Test:

1. Brake Power
2NT
BP  (kW)
60

25
where, T = S × r (kN-mm)
S = Spring balance (kN)
r = Radius of the arc = 290 mm
N = Speed in RPM

2. Mass of Fuel Consumed

X  0.83  3600
mf  (kg/hr)
1000  t
Where, X = burette reading
0.83 = Density of the petrol in ‘gm’
t = Time taken in sec

3. Specific Fuel Consumption

mf
SFC  (kg/kW-hr)
BP
4. Actual Volume of Air Sucked in the Cylinder

Va  Cd  A  3600  2gH (m3/hr)


h  w
H m of water
1000  a
Where,
 2
A = area of the orifice = d
4
h = Manometer reading in mm
δw = Density of water =1000 kg/m3
δa = Density of air = 1.193 kg/m3
Cd = coefficient of discharge = 0.62

5. Swept Volume

 2
Vs  d  L  N  60
4 2
Where, d = dia. of the bore = 56.7 mm
L = Length of stroke = 56.7 mm
N = Speed of engine in RPM

6. Volumetric Efficiency

26
VA
v  100 (%)
VS

7. Brake Thermal Efficiency:


BP  3600 100
Bth 
mf  CV
where, CV = Calorific value of diesel = 42500 kJ/kg

8. Mechanical Efficiency:
BP
mech  100
IP

9. Indicated Thermal Efficiency:


IP  3600 100
Bth 
mf  CV
where, CV = Calorific value of diesel = 42500 kJ/kg

Observation Table 1:

SL NO. Speed in Load in V (volts) I (Amps) Temp Time Manometer


RPM Watts (℃) taken for reading
a0 cc of
T1 T2 h1 h2
fuel in
sec
1.
2.
3.
4.

Table 2:

SL No. BP mf SFC ηBth ηv


1.
2.
3.
4.

27
Conclusion:

28
EXPERIMENT NO. 8
FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG WITH
DC GENERATOR

Aim: To conduct a performance test on single cylinder four stroke diesel engine.

Apparatus used:
1. Tachometer.
2. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.
3. Differential manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into the cylinder.
4. Burette with manifold to measure the rate of fuel consumed during test.
5. Digital voltmeter: 0-300 V DC.
6. Digital ammeter: 0 – 20 A DC.

Theory: The engine test rig is directly coupled to the DC generator single phase, 3.5 kW, 50 Hz,
which in turn is loading by resistance load bank. The load can be varied in steps by operating DP
switches provided n the load bank panel. The fuel is supplied to the engine from main fuel tank
through a graduated measuring fuel gauge (burette). To measure the fuel consumption of the
engine, fill the burette by opening the cock. By starting a stop clock, measure the time taken to
consume X cc of fuel by the engine.
The suction side of the engine is connected to the air tank. The atmospheric air is drawn into the
engine cylinder through the air tank. The manometer is provided to measure the pressure drop
and also an orifice is provided in the intake pipe of the air tank. This pressure drop is used to
calculate the volume of air drawn into the cylinder. (Orifice dia. is 15 mm). The engine is
lubricated by mechanical lubrication. Lubrication oil is recommended: SAE 40 (or equivalent).

Engine Specifications:

MAKE : GANGA diesel


BHP : 5 HP
RPM : 1500 RPM
FUEL : Diesel
NO. OF CYLINDERS : Single
COMPRESSION RATIO : 16.5: 1
BORE : 80 mm
Stroke length : 110 mm
Orifice diameter : 15mm
Type of ignition : Compression ignition
Method of starting : Crank shaft
Method of cooling : Water cooled
Method of loading : DC generator – 3.5 kVA

29
Thermocouple Details:
T1: Inlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T2: Outlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T3: Outlet water temperature from calorimeter (℃)
T4: Exhaust gas temperature from the engine (℃)
T5: Exhaust gas temperature from the calorimeter (℃)

Procedure:
1. Connect the panel instrumentation input power line at 230 V, 50 Hz, single phase power
source.
2. Connect the inlet and outlet water connection to the engine and to the hydraulic
dynamometer.
3. Fill fuel into the tank mounted on the panel frame
4. Check the lubricating oil in the engine sump with the help of dip stick provided.
5. Open the fuel cock provided under the burette and ensures zero air trapped in the fuel line
connecting fuel tank and engine.
6. De-compress the engine by decompression lever provided on the top of the engine head.
7. Crank the engine slowly with the help of handle provided and ascertains proper flow of
fuel into the pump and in turn through the nozzle into the engine cylinder. Crank the
engine and pull the compression lever down. Now the engine will start and allow it to run
and stabilize at approximately 1500 RPM (Constant speed engine).
8. Now lead the engine by allowing the water to the dynamometer by operating the gate
valve.
9. Note down the required parameters, indicated on the panel instruments on each load step
(a) Speed of the engine from tachometer.
(b) Fuel consumption from burette.
(c) Quantity of air flow from manometer.
(d) Different temperatures from temperature indicator.
10. Turn off the fuel knob provided on the panel after the test.
11. Please read the owner manual of the engine.

Calculation for Engine Performance Test:

1. Brake Power
VI
BP  (kW)
1000  gen
Where, V = AC voltage in volts.
I = AC current in amps, gen = generator efficiency = 80 %

2. Mass of Fuel Consumed

30
X  0.72  3600
mf  (kg/hr)
1000  t
where, X = burette reading
0.72 = Density of the petrol in ‘gm’
t = Time taken in sec

3. Specific Fuel Consumption


m
SFC  f (kg/kW-hr)
BP

4. Actual Volume of Air Sucked in the Cylinder


Va  Cd  A  3600  2gH (m3/hr)
h  w
H m of water
1000  a
Where,
 2
A = area of the orifice = d
4
h = Manometer reading in mm
δw = Density of water =1000 kg/m3
δa = Density of air = 1.193 kg/m3
Cd = coefficient of discharge = 0.62

5. Swept Volume

Vs  d 2  L  N  60
4
where, d = dia. of the bore = 56.7 mm
L = Length of stroke = 56.7 mm
N = Speed of engine in RPM

6. Volumetric Efficiency

VA
v  100 (%)
VS

7. Brake Thermal Efficiency:

BP  3600 100
Bth 
mf  CV
Where, CV = Calorific value of petrol = 43500 kJ/kg

31
Observation Table 1:

SL W N h1 h2 t T1 T2 T3 T4 RT1 RT1
NO. (kg) (RPM) (mm) (mm) (sec) (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃) (cc/s) (cc/s)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Observation Table 2:

Sl No. BP mf SFC ηBth ηv


1.
2.
3.
4.

Calculation space:

Conclusion:

32
EXPERIMENT NO. 9
FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG WITH
BRAKE DRUM

Aim: To conduct a performance test and retardation test on the four stroke single cylinder diesel
engine.

Apparatus used:
1. Tachometer.
2. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.
3. U-tube manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into the cylinder.
4. Burette with stop cock to measure the rate of fuel consumed during test

Theory: The brake drum is directly coupled to the engine flywheel and belt brake is wounded
around the drum, a top end of the rope is connected to the spring balance S. the load to the
engine can be varied by rotating the hand wheel provided. The rear spring balance will be S 1 and
front spring balance is S2. The fuel is supplied to the engine from main fuel tank through a
graduated measuring fuel gauge (burette). To measure the fuel consumption of the engine, fill the
burette by opening the cock. By starting a stop clock, measure the time taken to consume X cc of
fuel by the engine. The suction side of the engine is connected to the air tank. The atmospheric
air is drawn into the engine cylinder through the air tank. The manometer is provided to measure
the pressure drop and also an orifice is provided in the intake pipe of the air tank. This pressure
drop is used to calculate the volume of air drawn into the cylinder. (Orifice dia. is 15 mm).

Lubrication
The engine is lubricated by mechanical lubrication.
Lubrication oil is recommended: SAE 40 (or equivalent)

Temperature Measurement:
A digital temperature indicator with selector switch is provided on the panel to read the
temperature in ℃, directly sensed by respective thermocouples located at different places on the
test rig.

Thermocouple Details
T1: Room temperature (℃)
T2: Exhaust gas temperature (℃)

33
Engine Specification

MAKE : Villers
BHP : 3 HP
RPM : 3000 RPM
FUEL : Diesel
NO. OF CYLINDERS : Single
BORE : 70 mm
Stroke length : 55 mm
Orifice diameter : 12mm
STARTING : Rope and pulley
OIL SUMP CAPACITY : 750 ml
Type of ignition : Compression ignition
Method of cooling : Air cooled
WORKING CYCLE : Four stroke

Procedure:

1. Fill up the diesel into the fuel tank mounted on the panel frame.
2. Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230 V, single phase power source.
Now the digital meters will show the respective readings.
3. Connect the water line to the brake drum.
4. Check the lubricating oil in the sump.
5. Open the fuel valve and ensure zero air trapped in the fuel line. Start the engine and allow
it to stabilize rated speed (2800 RPM). Now load the engine in steps of 1 , 1 , 3 ,
4 2 4
full load and 10% over load and allow the engine to stabilize at each load.
Record all the required parameters indicated on digital indicators which are mounted on
the panel board like:
a. Speed of engine from Tachometer.
b. Load from spring balance.
c. Fuel consumption from burette.
d. Quantity of airflow from manometer.
e. Temperature from temperature indicator.

6. Load the engine step by step.


7. Note down the corresponding parameters.
8. Turn off the fuel knob provided on the panel after the test.

34
Observation Table :

Air flow Water


Spring Fuel Caloriemeter Engine head Manometer flow
balance pipette Water water Exhaust gas Air readings in rate
Engine Readings readings Temperature temperature temperature inlet mm of in
Speed water lpm
in
RPM
F1 F2 Time
In Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet
In In In T6°C
Sec
Kgs Kgs Ml T2°C T3°C T1°C T2°C T4°C T5°C

1.
2.
3.
4.

Calculations:

1. Fuel Consumption Rate:

2. Engine Output (BP):

2N(F1  F2 ) r
BP 
4500

Where, N- Speed of engine in RPM

r= Radius of brake drum in m

F1&F2 = Force indicated on spring balance in Kgs

3. Specific Fuel Consumption:


W
SFC  F (kg/kW-hr)
BP

35
4. Fuel Horse Power (FHP):

WF  CV  J
FHP 
60  4500

[CV = Calorific value of fuel, J = Mechanical equivalent of heat = 427 kg-m/Kcal]

5. Thermal Efficiency

BHP
th  100
FHP

6. Rate of Air Flow


Wa  0.6  A0  Va 1.29 1.29
 2
Where, A0 = Area of orifice = d (m2)
4
d = Diameter of orifice

Va  2g(h m /1000)  [( w )  1]
a
where, hm = Manometer reading in mm
g = 9.81
ρw = Density of water = 1000 Kg/ m3
ρa = Density of air = 1.29 Kg/ m3

Results in Tabular Form:

Fuel Air
Engine Air to Fuel Engine Specific fuel Brake % η
Consumed Consumed Fuel HP
output consumption thermal
Sl.NO RPM Ratio
―Wf ―Wa ―FHP efficiency
―BHP ―SFC
N ―Wa / Wf
In Kg/Hr In Kg/Hr

36
Conclusion:

37
EXPERIMENT NO. 10
HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE WITH HYDRAULIC DYNAMOMETER

Aim: To conduct a performance test on single cylinder four stroke diesel engine for preparing
the heat balance sheet.

Apparatus used:
1. Tachometer.
2. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.
3. Differential manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into the cylinder.
4. Burette with manifold to measure the rate of fuel consumed during test.

Theory: The engine test rig is directly coupled to the hydraulic dynamometer. By allowing the
water on the impeller of the dynamometer, we can load the engine. The load can be varied in
steps of 1 , 1 , 3 full load b operating gate valve provided. The fuel is supplied to the engine
4 2 4
from main fuel tank through a graduated measuring fuel gauge (burette). To measure the fuel
consumption of the engine, fill the burette by opening the cock. By starting a stop clock, measure
the time taken to consume X cc of fuel by the engine. The suction side of the engine is connected
to the air tank. The atmospheric air is drawn into the engine cylinder through the air tank. The
manometer is provided to measure the pressure drop and also an orifice is provided in the intake
pipe of the air tank. This pressure drop is used to calculate the volume of air drawn into the
cylinder. (Orifice dia. is 20 mm). The engine is lubricated by mechanical lubrication.
Lubrication oil is recommended: SAE 40 (or equivalent).

Engine Specification:

MAKE : Kirloskar
BHP : 5 HP
RPM : 1500 RPM
FUEL : Diesel
NO. OF CYLINDERS : Single
COMPRESSION RATIO : 16.5: 1
BORE : 80 mm
Stroke length : 110 mm
Orifice diameter : 20 mm
Type of ignition : Compression ignition
Method of starting : Crank shaft
Method of cooling : Water cooled
Method of loading : Hydraulic dynamometer

38
Procedure:
1. Connect the panel instrumentation input power line at 230 V, 50 Hz, single phase power
source.
2. Connect the inlet and outlet water connection to the engine and to the hydraulic
dynamometer.
3. Fill fuel into the tank mounted on the panel frame
4. Check the lubricating oil in the engine sump with the help of dip stick provided.
5. Open the fuel cock provided under the burette and ensures zero air trapped in the fuel line
connecting fuel tank and engine.
6. De-compress the engine by decompression lever provided on the top of the engine head.
7. Crank the engine slowly with the help of handle provided and ascertains proper flow of
fuel into the pump and in turn through the nozzle into the engine cylinder. Crank the
engine and pull the compression lever down. Now the engine will start and allow it to run
and stabilize at approximately 1500 RPM (Constant speed engine).
8. Now lead the engine by allowing the water to the dynamometer by operating the gate
valve.
9. Note down the required parameters, indicated on the panel instruments on each load step
(a) Speed of the engine from tachometer.
(b) Fuel consumption from burette.
(c) Quantity of air flow from manometer.
(d) Different temperatures from temperature indicator.

10. Turn off the fuel knob provided on the panel after the test.

Thermocouple Details:
T1: Inlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T2: Outlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T3: Exhaust gas temperature (℃)
T4: Room temperature (℃)

Calculations:

Heat Balance Sheet

mf  CV
A. Heat input = (kJ/min)
60
B. Heat equivalent to BP
C. Heat carried away by cooling water (engine jacket)
mw  Cpw (T2  T1 )
Where, Mass of water mw = Vw × ρw × 60

39
Vw = volume of water flow to the engine rotor meter 1
ρw = 1000 kg/m3
Cpw = 4.187 kJ/kg-K
(T  T )
D. Heat carried away by the exhaust gas = 4 a  m w  Cpw  (T1  T3 ) (kJ/min)
(T4  T5 )
Where, Mass of water mw = Vw2 × ρw × 60
Vw2 = volume of water flow to the engine rotor meter 2
Cpw = 4.187 kJ/kg-K
E. Unaccounted heat = Heat input (H) – (A+B+C)

Heat Balance:

Sl No. Load Heat Heat Heat Heat Unaccounted heat =


(kW) input H equivalent carried carried Heat input (H) – (A+B+C)
(kJ/min) to BP A away by away by
(kJ/min) engine exhaust
cooling gas C
water B (kJ/min)
(kJ/min)

Conclusion:

40
EXPERIMENT NO. 11
HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE WITH DC GENERATOR

Aim: To conduct a performance test on single cylinder four stroke diesel engine for preparing
the heat balance sheet.

Apparatus used:
1. Tachometer.
2. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.
3. Differential manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into the cylinder.
4. Burette with manifold to measure the rate of fuel consumed during test.
5. Digital voltmeter: 0-300 V DC.
6. Digital ammeter: 0 – 20 A DC.

Theory: The engine test rig is directly coupled to the DC generator single phase, 3.5 kW, 50 Hz,
which in turn is loading by resistance load bank. The load can be varied in steps by operating DP
switches provided n the load bank panel. The fuel is supplied to the engine from main fuel tank
through a graduated measuring fuel gauge (burette). To measure the fuel consumption of the
engine, fill the burette by opening the cock. By starting a stop clock, measure the time taken to
consume X cc of fuel by the engine. The suction side of the engine is connected to the air tank.
The atmospheric air is drawn into the engine cylinder through the air tank. The manometer is
provided to measure the pressure drop and also an orifice is provided in the intake pipe of the air
tank. This pressure drop is used to calculate the volume of air drawn into the cylinder. (Orifice
dia. is 15 mm).
Lubrication
The engine is lubricated by mechanical lubrication.
Lubrication oil is recommended: SAE 40 (or equivalent)

Engine Specification:

MAKE : GANGA diesel


BHP : 5 HP
RPM : 1500 RPM
FUEL : Diesel
NO. OF CYLINDERS : Single
COMPRESSION RATIO : 16.5: 1
BORE : 80 mm
Stroke length : 110 mm
Orifice diameter : 15mm

41
Type of ignition : Compression ignition
Method of starting : Crank shaft
Method of cooling : Water cooled
Method of loading : DC generator – 3.5 kVA

Thermocouple Details
T1: Inlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T2: Outlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T3: Outlet water temperature from calorimeter (℃)
T4: Exhaust gas temperature from the engine (℃)
T5: Exhaust gas temperature from the calorimeter (℃)

Procedure:
1. Connect the panel instrumentation input power line at 230 V, 50 Hz, single phase power
source.
2. Connect the inlet and outlet water connection to the engine and to the hydraulic
dynamometer.
3. Fill fuel into the tank mounted on the panel frame
4. Check the lubricating oil in the engine sump with the help of dip stick provided.
5. Open the fuel cock provided under the burette and ensures zero air trapped in the fuel line
connecting fuel tank and engine.
6. De-compress the engine by decompression lever provided on the top of the engine head.
7. Crank the engine slowly with the help of handle provided and ascertains proper flow of
fuel into the pump and in turn through the nozzle into the engine cylinder. Crank the
engine and pull the compression lever down. Now the engine will start and allow it to run
and stabilize at approximately 1500 RPM (Constant speed engine).
8. Now lead the engine by allowing the water to the dynamometer by operating the gate
valve.
9. Note down the required parameters, indicated on the panel instruments on each load step
a. Speed of the engine from tachometer.
b. Fuel consumption from burette.
c. Quantity of air flow from manometer.
d. Different temperatures from temperature indicator.

10. Turn off the fuel knob provided on the panel after the test.
11. Please read the owner manual of the engine.

Heat Balance Sheet

42
mf  CV
A. Heat input = (kJ/min)
60
B. Heat equivalent to BP

C. Heat carried away by cooling water (engine jacket)


mw  Cpw (T2  T1 )
Where, Mass of water mw = Vw × ρw × 60
Vw = volume of water flow to the engine rotor meter 1
ρw = 1000 kg/m3
Cpw = 4.187 kJ/kg-K

(T4  Ta )
D. Heat carried away by the exhaust gas =  m w  Cpw  (T1  T3 ) (kJ/min)
(T4  T5 )
Where, Mass of water mw = Vw2 × ρw × 60
Vw2 = volume of water flow to the engine rotor meter 2
Cpw = 4.187 kJ/kg-K

E. Unaccounted heat = Heat input (H) – (A+B+C)

Heat Balance Sheet:

Sl No. Load Heat Heat Heat Heat Unaccounted heat =


(kW) input H equivalent carried carried Heat input (H) – (A+B+C)
(kJ/min) to BP A away by away by
(kJ/min) engine exhaust
cooling gas C
water B (kJ/min)
(kJ/min)

43
EXPERIMENT NO. 12
HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE WITH BRAKE DRUM DYNAMOMETRE

Aim: To conduct a performance test and retardation test on the four stroke single cylinder diesel
engine.

Apparatus used:
1. Tachometer.
2. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.
3. U-tube manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into the cylinder.
4. Burette with stop cock to measure the rate of fuel consumed during test

Theory: The brake drum is directly coupled to the engine flywheel and belt brake is wounded
around the drum, a top end of the rope is connected to the spring balance S. the load to the
engine can be varied by rotating the hand wheel provided. The rear spring balance will be S 1 and
front spring balance is S2. The fuel is supplied to the engine from main fuel tank through a
graduated measuring fuel gauge (burette). To measure the fuel consumption of the engine, fill the
burette by opening the cock. By starting a stop clock, measure the time taken to consume X cc of
fuel by the engine. The suction side of the engine is connected to the air tank. The atmospheric
air is drawn into the engine cylinder through the air tank. The manometer is provided to measure
the pressure drop and also an orifice is provided in the intake pipe of the air tank. This pressure
drop is used to calculate the volume of air drawn into the cylinder. (Orifice dia. is 15 mm).

Lubrication
The engine is lubricated by mechanical lubrication.
Lubrication oil is recommended: SAE 40 (or equivalent).

Temperature Meausrement:
A digital temperature indicator with selector switch is provided on the panel to read the
temperature in ℃, directly sensed by respective thermocouples located at different places on the
test rig.
Thermocouple Details:
T1: Room temperature (℃)
T2: Exhaust gas temperature (℃)

44
Engine Specifications:

MAKE : Villers
BHP :3 HP
RPM : 3000 RPM
FUEL : Diesel
NO. OF CYLINDERS : Single
BORE : 70 mm
Stroke length : 55 mm
Orifice diameter : 12mm
STARTING : Rope and pulley
OIL SUMP CAPACITY : 750 ml
Type of ignition : Compression ignition
Method of cooling : Air cooled
WORKING CYCLE : Four stroke

Procedure:
1. Fill up the diesel into the fuel tank mounted on the panel frame.
2. Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230 V, single phase power source.
Now the digital meters will show the respective readings.
3. Connect the water line to the brake drum.
4. Check the lubricating oil in the sump.
5. Open the fuel valve and ensure zero air trapped in the fuel line. Start the engine and allow
it to stabilize rated speed (2800 RPM). Now load the engine in steps of 1 , 1 , 3 ,
4 2 4
full load and 10% over load and allow the engine to stabilize at each load.
6. Record all the required parameters indicated on digital indicators which are mounted on
the panel board like:
(e) Speed of engine from Tachometer.
(f) Load from spring balance.
(g) Fuel consumption from burette.
(h) Quantity of airflow from manometer.
(i) Temperature from temperature indicator.

7. Load the engine step by step.


8. Note down the corresponding parameters.
9. Turn off the fuel knob provided on the panel after the test.

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Calculation for Heat Balance Sheet:
WF  CV
1. Heat supplied in fuel = Fuel consumed (kg/min) × CV = (Kcal/min) …… (A)
60
2. Heat carried away by engine head cooling water = mw  Cpw  (T1  T2 ) (Kcal/min)…… (B)
3. Heat carried away by calorimeter water = mw  Cpw  (T3  T2 ) (Kcal/min)……… (C)
4. Heat carried away by exhaust gases = mg  Cpg  (T5  T4 ) (Kcal/min) [mg = Wa + WF]….. (D)
5. Unaccounted heat loss = [A- (BP+A+B+C)] (Kcal/min)

Conclusion:

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EXPERMENT NO-13
VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO 4-STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE
AIM: To conduct a load test on a single cylinder, 4-stroke variable compression ratio petrol
engine and study air fuel ratio and volumetric efficiency under various compression ratios.

Apparatus used:
1. Dial gauge
2. Tachometer.
3. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.
4. U-tube manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into the cylinder.
5. Burette with stop cock to measure the rate of fuel consumed during test.
6. Digital voltmeter: 0-300 V DC
7. Digital ammeter: 0 – 20 A DC
Theory: The Test Rig consists of Four-Stroke Diesel Engine (Air Cooled) to be tested for
performance is coupled to AC Generator .To facilitate the change in compression ratio, an
auxiliary head-piston assembly above the main head has been provided. The auxiliary piston is
operated up-down by hexagonal-screw rod assembly to fix the required compression ratio. When
the piston is in the bottom most position, the compression ratio is at its maximum value, and in
the top most position it is at minimum value. The hexagonal-screw hexagonal which operates the
screw holding the auxiliary piston is provided with holes circumferentially along the locking
plate. The bolts used for locking the movement of screw are loosened and the hand wheel is
operated. A scale with the compression ratio directly marked is provided for indicating this.
After adjusting to the required compression ratio, all the bolts are tightened well before
conducting experiment.

Engine Specification:

MAKE : assembled diesel engine


BHP : 5 HP
RPM : 1500 RPM
FUEL : Diesel
NO. OF CYLINDERS : Single
COMPRESSION RATIO : 11 to 15
BORE : 87.5 mm
Stroke length : 110 mm

Thermocouple Details
T1: Inlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)

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T2: Outlet water temperature of engine jacket (℃)
T3: Outlet water temperature from calorimeter (℃)
T4: Exhaust gas temperature from the engine (℃)
T5: Exhaust gas temperature from the calorimeter (℃)

Procedure:
1. Loosen the locking bolt of the auxiliary piston screw rod assembly.
2. Rotate the hand wheel and bring the indicator to the required compression ratio.
3. Lock the screw rod assembly before conducting the experiment for the compression ratio
selected.
4. Open the 3-way cock. So that fuel flows into the engine.
5. Supply the cooling water to engine head.
6. Start the engine and allow it to run on no load condition for few minutes.
7. Apply the load on the engine by switching ON the heater switch which is provided on the
control panel loading the AC generator by switching.
8. Allow the engine to run at this load for few minutes.
9. Note the following readings:
a. Engine Speed
b. Energy meter reading
c. Manometer
d. Time for 10cc of fuel consumption
10. Repeat the steps 7,8 & 9 at different loads.
11. Stop the engine after removing load on the engine
12. Repeat the above procedure for different compression ratios.

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OBSERVATIONS:
Compression ratio =

Air Time for 10 Air


Speed Mass of Mass of fuel Swept Theoretical
consumption cc fuel

Volt Current air


ratio ηv
S.NO Loading ( mm of Fuel consumption volume
Rpm volume ,
water) consumption, meter amp. intake, mf Kg/min m3/min

ma
Sec m3/min
,Kg/min

52
Compression ratio =

Air Time for 10 Air


Speed Mass of Mass of fuel Swept Theoretical
consumption cc fuel

Volt Current air


S.NO Loading ( mm of Fuel consumption volume ηv
Rpm volume , ratio
consumption, meter amp.
water) intake, mf Kg/min m3/min

ma
Sec m3/min
,Kg/min

53
Compression ratio =

Air Time for 10 Air


Speed Mass of Mass of fuel Swept Theoretical
consumption cc fuel

Volt Current air


S.NO Loading ( mm of Fuel consumption volume ηv
Rpm volume , ratio
consumption, meter amp.
water) intake, mf Kg/min m3/min

ma
Sec m3/min
,Kg/min

54
Conclusion:

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