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Although our subject is Targumic Toseftot, it is important to

first establish a general targumíc context that will serve through-
out the article as a frame of reference.
Targumic texts from the Cairo Genizah may be conveniently
divided into ñve categories:
l. Targum Proper. These are fragments of manuscripts
which originally contained a runníng Aramaic translation of the
entire Pentateuch, or at least of complete books of the Pentateuch 1•
Most of the manuscrípts publíshed by P. Kahle 2, as well as those
discovered subsequently, fall into this group.
2. Festival-Liturgical Collections. Medieval scribes often pro-
duced collections of Palestinian Targum of the Torah readings for
Festivals or special Sabbaths in the form of separate pamphlets or
as parts of Mahzor manuscripts. In the case of the festivals, they
contain the main readíng plus the mussaf (additíonal reading) or
mattir (concluding readíng) from Numbers 28. In the case of the
special Sabbaths, they comprise the readings that replaced the reg-
ular we.ekly portíons of the triennial Palestinian rite 3.
3. Fragment-Targums. Collections of selected passages, verses
and phrases of Palestinian Targum. This genre has been known
since the second Biblical Rabbinica (Veníce, 1524-5), though its
raison d'etre remains unclear to this day. The criteria by which
the redactors of these Fragment-Targums selected verses and parts
of verses for inclusion in their collectíons, and the purpose of these
1 Although no convíncíng reason has yet been proposed for tar-
gum to a single book of the Pentateuch, the fact is that all of the
fragments of Kahle's MS E are from Genesís, and all the fragments
of MS A are from Exodus.
2 Masoreten des Westens II (Stuttgart 1930; reprinted Hildesheim:
Olms, 1967).
3 Prevíously publíshed examples of restívaí collections are Kahle's
MS F, and MS J.T.S. 605, M. L. Kleín, The Fragment-Targums of the
Pentateuch (Anaiecta Bíblica 76; Rome, Bíblica! Instítute Press, 1980),
Vol. I, pp. 237--8. My forthcoming work, Genizah Manuscripts of Pa-
lestinian Targum to the Pentateuch (Hebrew Uníon College Press),
will contaín fragments of at Ieast síx more festívat-Itturgícal collections.
410 M. L. KLEIN

works are still unknown. The Fragment-Targums were usually co-

pied as sepárate manuscripts. However, in one case, it appears in •
the form of marginal glosses to a hand-written Rabbinic bible {MS
Leipzig) 4•
4. Introductory Poems. Targumic poems have been well
known for over a century, and their Sitz im Leben has always been
clear. They were recited or chanted in the synagogue befare the
Torah reading for festivals and special Sabbaths. They are targum-
ic in language, and the beginnings of Iines or strophes often form
an alphabetic acrostic.
The most famous of these poems is the i1tt'~ ~,rN ("Go Down
Mases"), in which Mases argues with the sea, which refuses to split
befare the Israelites. This early poem is preserved in a 4-5th Cen-
tury papyrus 5, as well as in two distinct Genizah manuscripts.
Another popular theme is the debate among the twelve months as
to which shall be first, and in which shall Israel be redeemed from
Egypt 6• The poems usually appear as sepárate collections, although
occasionally they are inserted into other targumic texts, in their
respective places.
5. Targumic Toseftot. One of the characteristíc features of
the Palestinian Targumim is the expansive midrashic passages,
which are frequently interwoven in the straight literal translation.
Most of these expansions are preserved in the various Fragment-
Targums mentíoned above. Many of the mídrashíc passages were
also collected by medieval scríbes in small booklets or on separate
pages, under the title "Tosefta" or "additional targum". A number
of such tosefta collections were included in early printed Hebrew
Bibles. These collections and others have been published by modern
scholars since the end of the 19th Century 7• The present article
4 Another major manuscrípt of Fragment-Targum was publíshed
at the turn of the present century by M. Ginsburger (Das Fragmen-
tenthargum; Berlin 1899; reprinted Jerusalem, Makor 1969). A'1so see
reference to The Fragment-Targums ... in the preceding note.
5 See J. Yahalom, " 'Ezel Moshe' - According to the Berlín Pa-
pyrus", Tarbi? 47 (1978) 173-184.
6 Other poems are related to Exodus 15 (Song of the Se a, read on

Passover), Exodus 19-20 (Sinai revelation and the Ten Gommandments,

read on Shavu'ot), and the death of Meses (Deuteronomy 34). Large
collections of targumíc poems were published by S. Hurwitz in Machsor
Vitry (Nürnberg 1923), between pp. 305-344, and by M. Ginsburger (see
following note).
7 The larger collections are: A. Epstein, "Tosefta du Targoum Ye-
rouschalrní", REJ 30 (1895), 44-51; M. Ginsburger, "Zusatzthargumim",
in Das Fragmententhargum, pp. 71-74; A. Sperber, "Targum shel To-
sefta", in The Bible in Aramaic I (Leiden, Brill 1959) 354-357. Indivi-
dual toseftot have also been published in recent times:

will be devoted primaríly to severa! newly discovered tosefta pas-

sages from the Cairo Genizah manuscripts, and to an attempt at an-
swering the questíons of their ori,gin and purpose.


Oxford Bodleian Ms. e 74r
Tosefta Genesis 4: 23 23 :1 ri'WKi:J Kri!Joir,

'i.)l/ 17UI •;-mv:i ';, 7T.)';, ii.)K1 .. 11:l7 il:K'1 (23) .. KT1!:lOlT1 . . . . 27

111·¡:, ';,:nm K?'l/7 ¡:,l';,o ,,:in '7K 11::>m Kl/71 KT.)¡:,:ó K::lJt!/l'J íl'::l l1i1'K'? .28
[l[''::l:.: KJíl:lK r,•';, :,,'¡ [1[il'JKl K"IVJ 1::l'iO :,•m¡';, tv'JJT1' ll/J l/il'J :l':JC' .29
['i]6'1'J? Kn'irn 7i.)';, itvJ •';,¡:, :7l/l'Jtv :,';,:.:, :,w 11:,';, :l'r,:, l'Ó:JK? :7171Kl :7Kll/K'7 .30
1 1
[il'J]K1 71'J7 :,•', 'l/T1tllK 01K7 :7'7.)'l/ ,,:i•n[iln ,,rx KJ'1 '[:Jl7 'l'Jl/
,,w K::l,1 l::l CK .31
•••• :,•:i'T.) ~";,::i¡:,', K::l'iO 1::l1 ll:76l/ :,,7 l/il/1 i"l~ .32

verso _
K"tvJ 177.)K ;-¡,J 'l'J K7::lj?? 7T.)',7K"IVJ71¡:,; KJT.) '1::i•::i ;-¡,J 'l'J lll/i!líl' 1[171) .5
7Ml'K rnn ll'J ntv70T1'K1 Ki.):J i"l'l'l'J !Vi!líl'K? 1'1;"1 :71'Jino? ;"l'Jl6 ?[ J .6
m•;i';, 1'1;"1 ll'J ;-¡,::¡,',::¡ 71'JK1 K1 KJYO:J 1:7'i.).líl!) ll'J 01K ,;¡;i¡::in'K Km•i[::i•::iJ . 7

M. Ginsburger, "Aramaísche Introductionen zum Thargumvortrag

an Festtagen": Z'D MG 44 (1900), 113-124 (poems and toseftot).
Idem., "Les Introductions Araméennes a la Lecture du Targum":
REJ 73 (1921), 14-26, 186-194.
A. Díez Macho, "Nuevos Fragmentos de Tosefta Targúmica": Se-
farad 16 (1956), 313-324.
P. Grelot, "Une Tosephta targoumique sur Genese XXII dans
un manuscrit liturgique de ta Geniza du Catre": REJ N.S. 16
(195"7) 5-27.
R. Kasher, "ni , :i n•tttN,:i, n1~l)"1J1 NM tl1l1 ": Sinai 78 (1975) 9-17.
M. Kiein, "The T,argumic Tosefta to Exodus 15:2): JJS 26 (1975)
Note also the following full length study: R. Kasher, The Targumic
Tosephta to the Prophets, M. A. Thesis (Advisor: M. Goshen-Gottstein);
Ramat-Gan: Bar Ilan University, 1973 (Hebrew wíth English sum-
mary). Kasher finds many of the toseftot to be quite early - prior
to the mid-Fourth Century C.E. - and of Palestínían origin.
412 M. L. KLEIN

Tose/ta ... And Lamech said... And Lamech said to his wives:
Enter with me to the bed chamber, so that [I might] establish
progeny through you. For Enoch ascended to the above, and Tubal-
cain lies [deathly] ill, and will soon be gathered in to his people.
The wives refused, and said to him: We do not wish to become
pregnant and give birth, only for [the child] to be devoured. He
answered them: Adah and Zillah hear my voice, wives of Lamech
listen to my speech. If this is so, then come with me to the court
of justice. The [two] of them went with hím to Adam. Lamech told
him what had happened to him with them (í.e. his wives), (and)
that they had refused his request ...
Adam said to him: The Merciful One has [indeed] said: There-
fore, whoever kills Oaín, vengeance shall be taken on him for
seven [generatio]ns. At that moment he ordered the wíves of La-
mech to agree to his request. The wíves said [to Adam that they
take an example] from him in this matter, to separate from him
(i.e. Lamech), just as you (i.e. Adarn) separated from Eve your
wife. [At that] moment Adam was astounded by their words [and]
by this argument; and he said to himself: By right [I] should
[return to Eve and continue to have children].
Although Ginsburger published the begínníng of this tosefta as
found on the recto of the manuscript 8, he apparently overlooked
its continuation on the verso. This midrash comes to explain the
immediately following verse 25, "Adam knew his wife again", as
the direct result of hís being admonished by Lamech's wives (ver-
se 24). The midrash is known from the Bereshit Rabba 9 and else-
where; but ít is otherwise unattested in targumic literature.
Cambridge University Library MS T-S AS 69.11
Tosefta Genesis 21: 10 10: KJ n'lVKi:l Kn!:loin

m< w,~ Kr;nd.[i]:i :-r;iif' :,,~ .6
'J~ ;,J::, mn nKt;:i :ir.ac, .7
'~J? 7~~ ?KV7?4': J;)~l;lt.f,' .8
vQn KJ?i:l K~~ Ktf'~~ ,9
l'JJ;) 10 ?:e' J'OJ KJt{ KJ;~n 10

a Das Fragmententhargum, p. 72.

9 P. 225. This· and following references are to Midrash Bereshit
Rabba, ed. J. Theodor and Ch. Albeck (Jerusalem, Wahrmann 1965).

:,•';, ñJ'?t{ K~t{ 't:i~Jl':) .11

mn;, ;,;,:ix;, 1:i !Qi" x'? •:;, .12

/ KQ'71J;1'K; pniP 'J:J Cl/ .13

... when Sara said to him {i.e. Abraham) in [an]ger: Cast out
this slave-woman and her son, because I heard Ishmael telling peo-
ple: I am the first-born and Isaac is the second; I shall inherit a
double portian of 'm y father's fortune. She said to hím: For the
son of this staoe-uioman shall not inherit together with my son
Isaac. You were revealed ...

As in the previous passage, we have an unattested targumic

interpretation, paralleled only in the Bereshit Rabba 10, namely,
that Ishmael had publicly laid claim to the first-born rights. This
is quite different from the other targumic explanations that Ish-
mael practiced idolatry, or that he tried to murder Isaac .
Both of the preceding passages are written in the dialect of
Onqelos - in fact, the first passage is interwoven with Onqelos, viz.:
. . . ['i ]~'?:)7 l'\l1'll'\ 7?:)7 iTVl '7v :1l7?:)!V :17li :,¡17 ••• ':1iTVl71?:)7 ,?:)l'\i
Cambridge University Library MS T-S B 8.9, folio 2
Genesis 22: 5 5 : :¡:, Í,, tvK1::l

verso recto

~i:, ::l'Dl KJ':)01 Kíllll'K1 Cli'1'1:l 11ílK V:ln ':111:l''?1l1 .1

11:1'1iíl ;'l'iíl 1'?1K1 :1'1'::l 1lK íl''? :,,'¡ 1il':ll{1 Kl:l'?l/:::1 .2
K1m ::l'M Kl:l'ill::l Pli'11:l 1~r;t .3
'l':ln ílK ;,i¡::¡ ¡;,r,~•'¡ il':lK1 .4
'7:ln KlK K;'l :,,'¡ il':lK Cl111:l .5
Kli''¡?il':l Klll,'1 K111':lli' .6
l/1' Kílli'IV K':1:1::l Kli'iK', ,7
xn'?v'? ,n:::inx ¡;,,,~,, K::lo .8
Kl':lli' •;,,r:i,,w' 1r:iK1 ::¡, n1:i .9
i,:,'? D'i1K Kir:in:i ,,,,n1:i, .1 o

'li o,, ,~w Kil:ln v cv K:m .11

:,,',::¡ ¡;,n:-i' '¡¡,, '11111 K'li'I( :l'OJ (6) , 12

JO P. 568.
414 M. L. KLEIN

... [And Abraham said] to bis lads: Do you see anything at all? And
they said: We do not see anything at all, He addressed his son Isaac,
and said: Do you see anything? He said to him: Behold I see a
pillar of cloud [extending] from heaven to earth. At that moment
the patriarch knew that Isaac had been chosen as the burnt offer-
íng, He then said to his lads, [who were of] a people that is lik-
ened to the donkey: Wait here with -donkey: You remain et. seq.
He took the wood and placed [ít] on Isaac bis son, and he took in
his own hand the fire and the knife; and they both walked together.

The importance of this tosefta, which was first published by

P. Grelot in 1957 11, líes in the vestíges of the Palestinian dialect
that is preserves. The use or '~M instead of 'tn (lines 1, 3, 4, 5),
and the beginning of the word ¡i;,,¡r, {verso líne 2) are telltale.
The scribe apparently stopped short in the middle of the word,
marked ít for deletion with a superlinear Une, and "corrected"
the text to p;,,i¡r, (et. verso líne 10). These vestiges are especially
significant since the literal translation into which the tosefta was
embedded is that of Onqelos, viz.: ¡i:i, ,:i,¡u~ i~Ni ... ,;,,~,,,v,
Ni~M ClV N:in It would seem that these midrashic expansions
of Palestinian origin 12 were reworked for inclusion in the prevail-
ing Onqelos targurn. Finally, we note that once agaín the midrash-
ic interpretation of the tosefta is quite different from that of the
other extant Palestinian Targumim 13_
11 See note 7, above.
12 cr. Ber. R., pp. 595-596.
13Another uníque tosefta (publíshed by Ginsburger in Das Frag-
mententhargum, pp. 71-72) attributes the first case of fratricide to
jealousy over a beautíful woman:
Oxford Bodleian Ms. Heb. e 74r
Tosefta Génesis 4: 8 8: ¡ n'lVK7::J Kmiom
[ :,, )nnK n,:, '7K KJi nlJiP7.:l '¡:::¡:,'¡ ,::i:li 7'!JJ 1'P rnrn .18
,::i:11 :i'nnJ'K n,:,¡ l'Pi :,,nnK:::, Ki 1::i K7'!ltv m:, N,, 1-¡;,1 :,,nn'N ,::i:-n .19

[77.:l)Ki :1'7n::i i,:,7 ,::i•¡ 1 Km'T n¡•n:::,¡tvK ll7::> 77..:)N :,,::¡, '-1::l
ll '- l
:,,:, :,7.:) l'v 7::>iK ¡:, .20
[:ir.i¡1 y,, :,1:, K,1 :,•', por.l, NinK S¡::i¡~ n::>tvK N'i •p'i,n::i n•::i•on 'l77N7.:l ¡;,10 :,,, .21
:,•,:in ',y ,n c¡;,111n7.:ln' K~¡,¡bw rin xrm n :,:,',1 :,:::,', 'J!lnN1 ;,·~·n7.:l' .22
¡,:,, )nK ,::i:i::i p 1::iY11'P :,•m ri'iNn'K n'lJi ¡y :1'7.:li itvn'K1 ;,•h,o::i •:-rn7.:li .23
¡ •;,1 IPY r"JPT i':Jl7' :17.:l Yi' :,1:, N,1 :i•m 'l7:J7.:)', •:,1::iN 17.:l ',•m, n'7.:l K;,1 xrm .24
[ :,,7 jJn', ;"1'77.:)tJNi 7!ln1 Nl77K::l ~'7.:l1!l::l !J'PJ K1:11 :1'7:Jn ',i,¡;,•¡ K!lu.' Ni:,:, KTn1 . 25
¡,:,,::iNj :,•n:::itvN K, ¡::, ,::i:i:J p¡::, p¡;, i:Jl7 Nnlltv :1':J ,:,,,31 Ni0l7 :J'1"11(1 ~n·r.i .26

Among the tosefta collections from the Genizah are a number

of texts that are essentially the same as corresponding expansions
in the various Palestinian Targumim. And yet, the tosefta texts
contain unique midrashíc elements, that set them apart from the
other targumim.
Oxford Bodleian Ms. Heb. c. 75r
Tosefta Genesis 38: 25 25: n'? r,•wtti::i NI1!lC111

Nnbom !25)
11:,r,, nn:nvN N71 ,,,:,o :,r,',n m1:n N1j?l11'N7 Nj?!l11'7J ¡7:)n, hK~1~ K':1 .13
¡K:i j?K 7J'IJ U1:J:J nil'JN1 KIJ1il'J? N;-tl'lJ n,,, K;-tl'Ji 1¡, lll'il)U ?Nl)O Kn'N 1::, .14

Ki[nl nlJ¡,::i::i N"v'U :in'?n [n'J';i'J NJNi N'i'l KJN1 NnlJW Ni:i::i ,llll N''n .15
:, i'? 1U':J:i'1 nnn ?N'i:J) '? ,,, 1r.i, :iMlll :,::i ,,,, ?ll NiU:J 11'n,•1 .16
iN"1lJ ¡r., NJN ;-t'J'7:) ;-t'7'1 l'?N1 i:J)? ni7:)N1N"J'1111;-t'?)i C11j? 11:,r,, , 17

.. l 1'7N ¡:, Nimm N!l'lll1lll1 Nn¡,1lJ ll'J1 llJJ lJ11bnlll'N nimn un ll 'J ¡::i .18

Tose/ta She was being taken out: Now Tamar was being
taken out to be burned, and she sought the three wítnesses, but

... Now, Cain had been bearíng a grudge against Abel from before this,
because Abel's [twin] sister was Cain's wife, and she was not as good
looking as Cain's [twin] sister who was .A!bel's wife. When Caín recalled
what was in his heart, he saíd: Now I have fou[nd] an opportunity
for [my] hatred. He ran after him, and sa.Iíd l to him: Get off my
land, which I have taken as my lot. Abel could not find any place to
go to. And he (Le. Cain) did not know where to strike him. He Iooked
about here and there, untíl he saw two birds fighting; and one rose up
agaínst the other, and struck it on its mouth, and its blood spurted
out, until it died. Cain took a lesson fr.om it, and did the same to
Abel [his] brother. Then seeing .that he was dead, he feared that his
father would demand [Abel] from him; and he did not know what to
do. Looking up, he saw the bird that had killed its fellow putting its
mouth to the ground; and ít dug [a hole], and buried the other dead
one, and covered it with earth. At that moment, Caín did the same
to Abe!, so that [hts father] might not find him.
This Midrash also answers some basic questions: 1) Since Cain
and Abel are the only children of Adam and Eve mentioned in the
Bible, whom did they marry? 2) Who taught Cain to kill and to bury
the dead in the earth?
416 M. L. KLEIN

did not find them; for Sama'el had come [and] concealed them
from her. She lifted up her eyes to the height[s], and said: I beg
of You, O Living God, answer me in this hour, for I am pure 14, and
I shall [bring forth] three righteous men, in the Valley of [Du]ra
who will cast themselves into the fire, for me 15• At that moment,
the Lord signalled to Gabriel, who descended and gave them to
her. [She cast] them befare the feet of the judg.es, and said: By
the man to whom these belong - by him I am [pregnant] with
children of prostitution. And she said: Acknowledge, now, whose
are these ring, cloth and staff.
Cambridge University Library T-S NS 184.81r
Tosefta Genesis 38: 25 25 :n', I'l'IVl<i::J 1<[1!)0in

x-;,u~ 1q¡,,inr.i ( I'li?I !)l ,-ir.in nx~,7j x•:i (25l

[m1::i, 1 ' ' l. '1 '
(n:,n, ¡r.ii,xi] ,xr.io KI'lK 1i:,n, n[n:av ]K x,, Ki:,o Kn'in
f l • f 'f 1

...• :i1:mnr.i .11

Cambridge University Library T-S NS 182.2

n:,['7 l ¡,,~( ]
[ P 1r.i 1 1 nnl n l ,x,,:::i,.I, ,,, m, :, Jrn11b:,:;i .1
. . . . x:J:n 1i:,•7~:, c7p7 .2
(English translation very similar to that of previous passage).

The Judah and Tamar story attracted midrashic embellishment

in all of the Palestinian Targumim, i.e., Neofiti, the Fragment-Tar-
gums, Genizah MSS D,E, and Pseudo-Jonathan. Yet none of these
texts describes the loss of the three objects by Tamar. Only the
toseftot explain that Sama'el (= Satan) had hidden them from her.
And whereas in all the Palestinian Targumim, God orders the angel
Michael to return them to Tamar, the toseftot direct the order to
14 This is probably a scribal error f.o r "hour of distress". It would
seem that the Aramaic words N'Pl NlNi are a corruption of 'i'l'lNi
(<üreek aváyKY]), cf. Neofiti, Fragment-Targums and Pseudo-Jonathan.
I.e., Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (= Shadrach, Meshach, and
Abed-nego); see Daniel 3: 14-27.

Cambridge University Library T-S NS 182.2
Tosefta Genesis 38:26 26: n'i n•tuKi::l xncoin.


:,,~r;i 'i(,)K [l'K::lT] 11::l')';lD 1in•1y 1i:,7 n[i]~t:(1 K;T;)q1 .1

''r,J'J! n; j?º~) l:{;T;)~ 717'J/ tJÍ7o/?) •;•1 (K]~~WTJ KD'~ .i
;'l):J '~'t;l 'iK 'JO 1';:):¡l KIV'Ji;''r,J n•~'¡ [K];T;)7?f '[l';JI;) ,3
;,7tp7 ;"JD;ly? K7 P 7')/ 'J~ ;,71:,? '17,115 1'~1 K7,)l1:\•~ ,4
: [;i]i7'~? iiP '1Qil( K77 '~1 ,5
Thereupon, a voice carne forth from heaven and said to them:
Both of you were [innocent], because from him will descend the
Lord's Messiah. And he will rule over all the natíons, and bring
forth My people from am[ongst the] natíons, to the Holy Temple.
Rejoice, therefore, for the matter carne about through Me. There-
upon Judah said: It is for this reason that I did not give her 16
to my son Shelah; and he did not know her again.
Oxford Bodleian Ms. Heb. c74v
Tosefta Genesis 49: 18 18: oo Tl'lVKi::l Kmiom

Tl'i:JO 7lj?i1!)7 ,m,,w,, . 21

"K71i:Jl71j?ii!) Ki;-J1 lUKi' ,::i nn,., ;-J'lj?'11!:l[7 K.7 ::i¡;,]~' Kl[1:J]K (iO]K '[P] .22

"1111:J íl'!V01 ;-J'lj?i1!)7 K7K ;-Jl7lU 1i?i1!) K[1;-J1] rm[O i::l] i,ivOt!'1 :1'.lj?[i1!)?] .23

'IV!)) K'::lO ;-J'lj?i1!)7 :1[']7 7Kitzl' 'l:J7 ;'IKT1'K71'íll7 Ki:i, / .24

For Your deliverance: I wait for Your delíverance, [O Lord.]

Our father Jacf ob sa]id: [Neither for] the deliverance of Gideon
son of Joash, which is a transient deliverance, nor [for the
del liverance of Samson [son of Ma]noah, [which] is a momentary
deliverance; rather for the deliverance of the Messiah son of Da-
vid, that He will eventually bríng for the People of Israel - it is his
deliverance that my soul awaits.
16 In Ievírate marriage.
418 M. L. KLEIN

Cambridge University Library T-S NS 182.69, leaf 2v, 3r
Tosefta Genesis 49: 18 18: o~ Ii'lVK1:J ~m!:loin

¡,::i 1Ji5lVl :·,,~¡n1!:l7 t-1 1i;i1::ii:- ::iv1/~ 1,;,7 ,~i:- .11
11w[~tv)1 ;i•~¡¡,·:n!:l7 K1?[1) K{\1/IP li?)1!:l K'::t7 n•·:99. Wl;{i' .12
x:l(';,~), [;-i]'~i?".11[!:l?) x7[K) K{\1/IV li?)1D K[•:i,] oiJ~ ,~ .13
'!11[~'~:l ni]~~ '7 P~7(51)' K~i¡')1!:l K[')::i7 K~'IP7? .14
leaf 3r
:';' 11'".1~9 ;-¡~~i¡'7'1!:l7 :,~7 ?ntf: 11'~ 77?V7 :i•n•,;;i7 ; l

For Your deliverance: Their father Jacob said to them: Nei-

ther for the deliverance of Gideon [son of] Joash do I wait, for it
is a momentary deliverance; nor for the deliverance of [Sam]son
son of Manoah, [for it is] a momentary deliverance; rather [for
the de]liverance of the [Ki]ng Messiah - which is the eternal
deliverance, that [You,] through Your [mem]ra, promised to bring
for Your people, the House of Israel - it is his deliverance · that
I await, O Lord.

All three of these toseftot interpret the Lord's salvation in terrns

of the Messiah son of David, the King Messiah, or the Messiah of
the Lord. This messianic element is absent from all of the above-
mentioned Palestinian targumim to these verses.
It is important to note that the many non-Genízah tosefta texts
published by Epstein, Ginsburger and Sperber share a common
angelology with the Genizah toseftot. They also contain the same
messianic interpretations as do the Genizah texts. It is, therefore,
clear that the toseftot, as a whole, constitute a distinct targumic
Although many of the tosettot are presently written in the Ara-
maic dialect of Onqelos, there are indications that they originate
in the Palestinian Targum tradition. The midrashic material of
sorne toseftot is unique within targumic literature. The material
of others is closely paralleled in the extant Palestinian targumim.
And yet, in spite of this affinity, the toseftot display distinct cha-
racteristics such as a special angelology and a preponderance of
messianic references.