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Different Qualitative

Research Designs

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Learning Objective
● To identify and describe different
qualitative research designs

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Key Understanding
● Knowledge of the different qualitative
research designs is essential in conducting a
doable research study.

Key Question
● What are the different qualitative research
designs?

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Qualitative Research Designs

1. Case Study
● To do a research study based on this research
design is to describe a person, a thing, or any
creature on Earth for the purpose of explaining the
reasons behind the nature of its existence.
● Your aim here is to determine why such creature
(person, organization, thing, or event) acts, behaves,
occurs, or exists in a particular manner. Usually, a
case study centers on an individual or single subject
matter.

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Qualitative Research Design

1. Case Study
● Your methods of collecting data for this
qualitative research design are interview,
observation, and questionnaire.
● One advantage of case study is its capacity to deal
with a lot of factors to determine the unique
characteristics of the entity. (Meng 2012; Yin,
2012)

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Qualitative Research Designs

2. Ethnography
● It involves a study of a certain cultural group or
organization in which you, the researcher, to obtain
knowledge about the characteristics, organizational
set-up, and relationships of the group members,
must necessarily involve you in their group
activities.

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Qualitative Research Designs

2. Ethnography

● Since this design gives stress to the study of a


group of people, in a way, this is one special kind of
a case study. The only thing that makes it different
from the latter is your participation as a researcher
in the activities of the group.

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Qualitative Research Designs

2. Ethnography
● It requires your actual participation in the group
members’ activities while a case study treats you,
the researcher, as an outsider whose role is just to
observe the group.
● Realizing this qualitative research design is living
with the subjects in several months; hence, this is
usually done by anthropologists whose interests
basically lie in cultural studies. (Winn 2014)

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Qualitative Research Designs

3. Historical Study

● This design tells you the right research method to


determine the reasons for changes or permanence of
things in the physical world in a certain period (i.e.,
years, decades, or centuries).

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Qualitative Research Designs

3. Historical Study
● The scope or coverage of a historical study refers to
the number of years covered, the kind of events
focused on, and the extent of new knowledge or
discoveries resulting from the historical study.
● Examples:
• A Five-Year Study of the Impact of the K-12 Curriculum
on the Philippine Employment System
• The Rise and Fall of the Twenty-Year Reign of Former
Philippine President, Ferdinand E. Marcos

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Qualitative Research Designs

3. Historical Study
● The data collecting techniques for this research design
are biography or autobiography reading, documentary
analysis, and chronicling activities.
● This last technique, chronicling activities, makes you
interview people to trace series of events in the lives of
people in a span of time.
● However, one drawback of historical study, is the
absence, or loss of complete and well-kept old that
may hinder the completion of the study.

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Qualitative Research Designs

4. Phenomenology
● A phenomenon is something you experience on Earth
as a person. It is a sensory experience that makes you
perceive or understand things that naturally occur in
your life such as death, joy, friendship, caregiving,
defeat, victory, and the like.
● This design makes you follow a research method that
will let you understand the ways of how people go
through inevitable events in their lives.

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Qualitative Research Designs

4. Phenomenology
● Comparing these two qualitative research designs,
phenomenology and ethnography, the first aims at
getting a thorough understanding of an individual’s
life experiences for this same person’s realistic
dealings with hard facts of life while the second
aims at defining, describing, or portraying a certain
group of people possessing unique cultural traits.

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Qualitative Research Designs

4. Phenomenology
● Focusing on people’s meaning and making strategies
in relation to their life experiences, phenomenology as
a qualitative research design finds itself relevant or
useful to people such as teachers, nurses, guidance
counselors, and the like, whose work entails giving
physical and emotional assistance or relief to people.
● Unstructured interview is what this research design
directs you to use in collecting data. (Paris 2014; Winn
2014).

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Qualitative Research Designs

5. Grounded Theory
● It aims at developing a theory to increase your
understanding of something in a psycho-social context.
Such study enables you to develop theories to explain
sociologically and psychologically influenced
phenomena for proper identification of a certain
educational process.

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Qualitative Research Designs

5. Grounded Theory
● A research study following a grounded theory
design takes place in an inductive manner,
wherein one basic category of people’s action and
interactions gets related to a second category; to
third category; and so on, until a new theory
emerges from the previous data. (Gibson 2014;
Creswell 2012)

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Qualitative Research Designs
5. Grounded Theory
● A return to the previous data to validate a newly
found theory is a zigzag sampling.
● Moving from category to category, a study using a
grounded theory design is done by a researcher
wanting to know how people fair up in a process-
bound activity such as writing.
● Collecting data based on this design is through
formal, informal, or semi-structured interview, as well
as analysis of written works, notes, phone calls,
meeting proceedings, and training sessions. (Picardie
2014)

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