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PLSC 211

Horticulture Science Lab

LAB MANUAL
Fall Semester, 2010

Dr. Chiwon W. Lee

Department of Plant Sciences


North Dakota State University
Table of Contents

PLSC 211 Syllabus .................................................................................................................... 3


Lab 1: Plant Identification ...................................................................................................... 7
Lab 2: Sexual Propagation .................................................................................................. 22
Lab 3: Asexual Propagation .................................................................................................. 29
Lab 4: Horticulture Website Design .................................................................................... 35
Lab 5: Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers ................................................................................. 36
Lab 6: Designing of a Flower Garden .................................................................................. 46
Lab 7: Greenhouse Production ............................................................................................. 50
Lab 8: Landscape Design ...................................................................................................... 57
Lab 9: Pruning and Training ................................................................................................ 60
Lab 10: Turgrasses and Lawn Care ...................................................................................... 68
Lab 11: Plants for Interiors .................................................................................................. 74
Lab 12: Exercise on Fruits .................................................................................................. 100

Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Vickie Azcuenaga, Rick Abrahamson, Barbara Laschkewitsch, and Louise Heinz for
their contributions and technical assistance in the preparation of this lab manual.

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PLSC 211-HORTICULTURE SCIENCE LAB (1 Credit)
Fall Semester, 2010
Department of Plant Sciences

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

a. Instructors: Dr. Chiwon William Lee, Professor


Office: Room 266-F, Loftsgard Hall
Phone: 701-231-8062, fax 701-231-8474, cell 701-361-9411
E-mail: <chiwon.lee@ndsu.edu>

Naa Korkoi Ardayfio, Teaching Assistant


Phone 701-540-2166
E-mail <naa.ardayfio@ndsu.edu>

Stephanie Olson, Teaching Assitant


Phone 701-306-3279
E-mail <stephanie.olson@ndsu.edu>

b. Class Hours: Section 1: 1:00-2:50 p.m. Mon


Section 2: 3:00-4:50 p.m. Mon
Section 3: 1:00-2:50 p.m. Wed
Section 4: 3:00-4:50 p.m. Wed

c. Place: Horticulture Greenhouse Classroom

d. Web Site: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/pubweb/chiwonlee/plsc211/

e. Related Course: PLSC 210-Horticulture Science (3 Credits)


General education class
10 a.m. Mon, Wed, Fri (Loftsgard Hall 114)
(http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/pubweb/chiwonlee/chlee/plsc210/)

2. OBJECTIVES

a. Rationale

Horticulture enriches our lives by providing such basic requirements as nutritious food, esthetic
environment, and emotional well-being. Gardening and other horticultural practices have long
been considered as the most favorite leisure activities in American life. This class is designed to
provide first-hand experiences in basic horticulture to students interested in the subject.

b. Goals

Upon completion of this class, students will have the basic knowledge and skills in horticulture.
With practical experience, students will be familiar with a wide range of subject matter
including plant identification, propagation, controlled environment production, horticulture
information retrieval system, pruning, and lawn care, plants for interior uses, and fruits and
vegetables.

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3. WHO SHOULD TAKE THIS COURSE

a. Horticulture Majors

This course is required for all incoming horticulture majors. Students majoring in horticulture
must complete this class before taking other horticulture courses in the Department of Plant
Sciences. Transfer students who completed a similar course from a two-year technical college
or other institution must consult the instructor to determine whether this course can be waived.

b. Non-Majors

This class is available to all students interested in the subject matter for the general education
requirement in science and technology. This course is designed to provide a broad range of
training in practical horticulture to any student who likes to work with plants.

4. TEXTBOOK

Chiwon W. Lee, 2010. PLSC 211 Horticulture Science Lab Manual, published by the NDSU
Printing Shop, 104 pp.

5. COURSE CONTENT

a. Introduction -General introduction to the field of horticulture and horticulture greenhouse


facility
b. Local greenhouse tour -Two-hour field trip to a local greenhouse
c. Plant identification - Nomenclature, classification, identification of selected horticultural plants
d. Sexual propagation - Plant propagation by seed, germination test, scarification, stratification
e. Asexual propagation - Plant propagation by cuttings, layering, grafting, tissue culture, division,
underground storage organs such as bulbs and corms
f. Horticulture internet - Horticulture websites, writing internet articles using web-authoring
programs
g. Plant nutrition - Macro- and micronutrients, fertilizer calculation, nutrient deficiency
symptoms
h. Flower garden design - Garden design for annual and perennial flowering plants
i. Greenhouse production - Environmental control, facility, culture, light measurements, hobby
greenhouses
j. Landscape design - Landscape design principles, landscape installation and maintenance
k. Pruning and training - Basic and practices of tree training and pruning
l. Turfgrasses and lawn care - Identification of warm-season and cool-season turfgrasses,
care lawns for homes, golf courses, and other recreational facility
m. Interior plants - Identification of foliage plants, cultural requirement, interior landscaping
n. Exercise on fruits - Classification and identification, cultural requirements, tasting of various
fruits and nuts
o. Plant growing – Practical experience in propagating and growing selected greenhouse crops

6. LAB REPORTS

Seven lab reports are submitted throughout the semester. Each is worth 20 points.

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7. EXAMINATIONS

There will be one mid-term exam and a final exam (lab practical). One-third of the final exam is
comprehensive covering old materials. Each exam is worth 65 points.

8. GRADING
Points Grading Scale
________________________________ ______________________________
Seven weekly lab reports 140 A 90-100%
Horticulture article 30 B 80-89%
Mid-term lab examination 65 C 70-79%
Final lab examination 65 D 60-69%
------------------------------------------------- F <60%
Total 300 --------------------------------------------

9. STUDENT OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT

You are required to take a pre-test for the course material during the first week of class and
complete the post-test during the last week of semester. These tests are administered via an internet
website (http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/pubweb/chiwonlee/plsc211/). Those who participate in both
the pre- and post-tests will receive 10 extra points toward their final grades.

10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

a. Class Attendance

Regular attendance of classes is required. In case of sickness or other emergencies, students


should contact the instructor so that make-up lab exercise can be arranged.

b. Students with Special Needs

Any student with disabilities or other special needs, who needs special accommodations in this
course, is invited to share these concerns or requests with the instructor as soon as possible.

c. Office Hours

Office hours for the instructor: 8:30 a.m.-12:00, Tues and Thurs. Please put your name on the
appointment calendar on the door (Room 266F, Loftsgard Hall) for office visits. You may also
arrange for an appointment by e-mail (chiwon.lee@ndsu.edu) or telephone (office 701-231-
8062, mobile 701-361-9411).

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PLSC 211-Horticulture Science Lab Schedule
Fall Semester, 2010

Sections I, II Sections III, IV


Week Lab No. (Mon) (Wed) Lab Exercise
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wk 1 Lab 1 Aug 30 Sep 1 Plant Identification

Wk 2 - (Sep 6)* Sept 8 Local Greenhouse Tour

Wk 3 Lab 2 Sep 13 Sep 15 Sexual Propagation

Wk 4 Lab 3 Sep 20 Sep 22 Asexual Propagation

Wk 5 Lab 4 Sep 27 Sep 29 Horticultural Website Design


(IACC 114)

Wk 6 Lab 5 Oct 4 Oct 6 Plant Nutrients and Fertilizers

Wk 7 Lab 6 Oct 11 Oct 13 Flower Garden Design


(Midterm Exam)

Wk 8 Lab 7 Oct 18 Oct 20 Contrlled Environment Production

Wk 9 Lab 8 Oct 25 Oct 27 Pruning Principles and Practices

Wk 10 Lab 9 Nov 1 Nov 3 Landscape Design

Wk 11 Lab 10 Nov 8 Nov 10 Turfgrasses and Lawn Care

Wk 12 Lab 11 Nov 15 Nov 17 (Plant Hormones and Growth


Regulators)

Wk 13 Lab 12 Nov 22 Nov 24 Plants for Interiors

Wk 14 Lab 13 Nov 29 Dec 1 Fruits, Vegetables, and Health

Wk 15 Lab 14 Dec 6 Dec 8 Free Lab and Reviews

Wk 16 Lab 15 Dec 13 Dec 15 Final Exam


___________________________________________________________________________________
Dates for lab exercises are subject to change. *No classes (holidays)

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Lab Exercise 1
PLANT IDENTIFICATION
Objectives:

1. To introduce plant nomenclature and classification.


2. To become familiar with basic plant morphology.
3. To begin to identify plants using morphological characteristics.

Introduction

Plants can be identified by observing certain distinguishing morphological characteristics. Some plants
are closely related, which is shown by the similarity of their flower structures. These plants are placed
into a specific plant family. A herbaceous example of a family that is based on similarity of flower
parts would be Asteraceae, the aster family, of which marigolds and zinnias are members. An example
of a woody plant family would be Aceraceae to which maples belong.

Within each family there are members that are more closely related than others. This relationship is
demonstrated by the similarity of basic morphological traits like leaf shape or arrangement. These
plants are placed in a group called a genus. Maples belong to the genus Acer, while marigolds are
placed in the genus Tagetes.

Members of a plant genus are again subdivided, according to their similar morphological characteristics,
into a grouping called a species. For example, each different type of maple belongs to a different
species (see list below).

The Binomial Plant Classification System, which we have just described, gives each plant a scientific
name using the genus and species.

Examples of scientific names:

Scientific Name Common Name

Acer saccharinum Silver maple


Acer platanoides Norway maple
Tagetes erecta African marigold
Tagetes patula French marigold

When botanists group plants, they use flower parts as their primary guide because the flower is the least
affected by growing conditions. In this lab we will be looking at leaf characteristics to help us identify
plants because they are more likely to be available to you.

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Plant Classification Lecture Outline

A. Plant Nomenclature

1. Binomial classification system

a. Two Latin names:

genus - the first letter is capitalized

species - all lower case

b. Varieties and cultivars:

Variety -

Cultivar -

c. Importance:

B. Morphological Characteristics

1. Plant types

a. Woody

1) deciduous

2) evergreen

b. Herbaceous

1) annual

2) perennial

3) biennial

2. Leaf types (we will study this in detail in lab)

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3. Fruit types

a. pod b. silique c. capsule

d. samara e. schizocarp g. achene

h. nut (acorn) i. berry j. pome

k. pepo l. cone m. hesperidium

n. aggregate fruit o. multiple fruit

4. Inflorescence

Flowers are borne on structures called inflorescence, which is a collection of


individual flowers arranged in a specific order or form.

a. spike b. catkin

c. raceme d. corymb

e. umbel f. compound umbel

g. cyme h. panicle

i. head j. solitary flower

5. Other characteristics

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PLANT MORPHOLOGY
In order to successfully identify woody plants it is necessary for an individual to have a keen
awareness (working knowledge) of taxonomic terminology and concise mental pictures of leaf,
bud, stem, flower, and fruit morphology.

LEAF MORPHOLOGY
ANGIOSPERM LEAF TYPES

Simple Leaf vs. Compound Leaf

The position of the bud determines whether the leaf is simple or compound. In the case of the single
leaf the bud is found in the axil of the leaf and stem. If the bud is located in the axil of a structure
containing more than one leaf it is termed compound. Compound leaves may have from three to 1500
leaflets. Ex: Acer with three or Albizia julibrissin with 400 to 1500 leaflets.

Simle Leaf Compound Leaf

Variation in Compound Leaves

Palmate Odd Pinnate Even Pennate


Ex: Acanthopanax, Ex: Acer negundo, Fraxinus Ex: Gleditsia
Parthenocissus

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Bipinnately Compound Leaves

Bipinnately compound leaves are twice divided. What was considered the leaflet of the pinnately
compound leaf is now another leaf-bearing axis to which additional leaflets are attached. The new
leaf bearing axes are referred to as pinnae. Each pinna has a certain number of leaflets. Ex:
Gymnocladus, Albizia, Gleditsia (in certain instances).

Bipinnately Compound
Ex: Gleditsia triacanthos, Honey-locust

ANGIOSPERM LEAF TYPES

Cone-bearing or naked seeded plants often display different leaf types than those associated
with angiosperm plants. Not all conifers (or cone-bearers) have evergreen foliage (exceptions
include Taxodium, Metasequoia, Larix, and Pseudolarix).

The needles (leaves) are shaped like an awl. They are usually very sharp to the touch.
Many Juniperus (Junipers) exhibit awl-shaped foliage. This character is manifested in
juvenile forms of juniper, however, there are many species and cultivars (Juniperus
communis, J. Procumbens, J chinensis ‘Pyramidalis’ to name a few) which possess the
awl-like of needle foliage in youth and old age.

Scale-like foliage overlaps like the shingles on a roof or the scales on a fish. This type of
foliage is relatively soft to the touch. Thuja, Chamaecyparis, Cupressus, Calocedrus and
many Juniperus species exhibit this type of foliage.

Needle-like foliage is typical of several evergreen genera and species. The drawing
depicts the foliage of a 5-needled pine. In the genus Pinus the leaves (needles) are
usually contained in fascicles of 2, 3, 2 and 3, or 5. Other species such as Abies, Picea,
Cedrus, Pseudotsuga, and Taxus have the needles borne singly or in clusters along the
stem. The needles may be relatively flat (2-sided) or angular (often quadrangular) in
cross-section.

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ARRANGEMENT OF LEAVES
Many vegetative keys employ the arrangement of leaves and buds as a basis for separation. The
use of the four categories by the student allows him/her to catagorize plants into groups and assists
in eliminating many plants from consideration in the process of positive identification.

Opposite Alternate

Leaves and buds are spaced in alternating fashion


Leaves and buds directly across from each other on
along the axis of the stem and seldom, if ever, are
the stem. Ex: Acer, Lonicera,Deutzia, Viburnum.
seated directly across from each other. Ex: Betula,
Fagus, Quercus, Celtis, Ulmus, Carya, Juglans.

Subopposite Whorled
Subopposite refers to a condition where the leaves
and buds are not spaced sufficiently far apart to be Whorled refers to a condition when three buds and
considered alternate nor are they perfectly opposite, leaves (or more) are present at a node. Ex: Catalpa,
hence, the term subopposite. Ex: Rhamnus Hydrangea paniculata ‘Grandiflora’, Cephalanthus
cathartica, Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Chionanthus occidentalis.
virginicus.

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LEAF VENATION

Pinnate
The leaf has a prominent central vein (often termed the Palmate
midrib) which extends from the base, where the petiole There are several main veins all of approximately equal
attaches to the blade, to the apex of the leaf. If the interveinal size which extend from the base of the leaf to the apex
areas were removed the overall effect would be that of a of the lobe or margin of leaf. Ex: Acer, Platanus,
fishbone. Pinnate venation occurs in the leaves of many plant Cercis.
types. The elm (Ulmus) and oak (Quercus) are classic
examples.

Dichotomous Parallel
A very limited type of venation, the most familiar Typical of many monocotyledonous plants. The veins
representative of which is Ginkgo biloba. The basal veins run essentially parallel to each other along the long axis
extend for a distance and then branch forming a “Y” type of the leaf. Ex: Zea (corn), Ruscus, Danae.
pattern.

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LEAF SHAPES
The tremendous quantity of terminology related to leaf shapes can be confusing. Association of
the following pictures with the terms will help to alleviate the burden of strict terminology. This
also applies to leaf bases, margins, and apices.

Lanceolate Cordate Elliptical Spatulate


Ovate

Obovate Oblanceolate Obcordate Oblong Linear

Peltate Cuneate Reniform Hastate

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LEAF BASIS

Cuneate Acute Rounded Cordate Oblique

Sagitate Truncate Auriculate


Hastate

LEAF MARGINS

Entire Serrate Serrulate Doubly-Serrate

Dentate Crenate Incised Sinuate

Undulate Lobed

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LEAF APICES

Mucronate Cuspidate Acuminate Acute

Obtuse Truncate Emarginate Obcordate

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Lab 1. List of Plants for Identification

This list is representative of the plants commonly found in landscapes. You will be responsible for
identifying some or all of them on the exam.

Woody Plants:

1. American Elm Ulmus americana

2. Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica

3. Flowering Crabapple Malus sp.

4. Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa

5. Colorado Spruce Picea pungens

6. Ponderosa Pine Pinus ponderosa

7. American Linden Tilia americana

8. Creeping Juniper Juniperus horizontalis

9. Silver Maple Acer saccharinum

Herbaceous Plants:

1. Petunia Petunia hybrida

2. Zinnia Zinnia elegans

3. Geranium Pelargonium hortorum

4. African Marigold Tagetes erecta

5. French Marigold Tagetes patula

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Plant Identification Key

A. Woody Plants

#1 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape___________Fruit type____________

Other characteristics:

#2 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape____________Fruit type___________

Other characteristics:

#3 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape____________Fruit type____________

Other characteristics:

#4 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape____________Fruit type____________

Other characteristics:

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#5 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape____________Fruit type____________

Other characteristics:

#6 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape____________Fruit type____________

Other characteristics:

#7 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape____________Fruit type____________

Other characteristics:

#8 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape____________Fruit type____________

Other characteristics:

#9 Name

Plant type____________Leaf arrangement______________Leaf type_______________

Leaf margin__________ tip____________ shape____________Fruit type____________

Other characteristics:

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B. Herbaceous Plants

#1 Name

Plant type_____________________Leaf arrangement____________________________


Leaf margin___________________tip__________________ shape_________________
Flower characteristics:
Other characteristics:

#2 Name

Plant type_____________________Leaf arrangement____________________________


Leaf margin___________________tip__________________ shape_________________
Flower characteristics:
Other characteristics:

#3 Name

Plant type_____________________Leaf arrangement____________________________


Leaf margin___________________tip__________________ shape_________________
Flower characteristics:
Other characteristics:

#4 Name

Plant type_____________________Leaf arrangement____________________________


Leaf margin___________________tip__________________ shape_________________
Flower characteristics:
Other characteristics:

#5 Name

Plant type_____________________Leaf arrangement____________________________


Leaf margin___________________tip__________________ shape_________________
Flower characteristics:
Other characteristics:

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LAB 1 - Plant Identification
Lab Report

Name _____________________________________ Lab Section __________________

1. What are three identifying characteristics of a dicot? Give an example.

2. What are three identifying characteristics of a monocot? Give an example.

3. What are the differences between annual and perennial plants? Give an example of each.

4. Why are scientific nomenclature and plant classification important?

5. What are the differences between deciduous and evergreen trees?

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Lab Exercise 2
SEXUAL PROPAGATION OF PLANTS
A seed is formed when a pollen grain lands on the stigma of the flower, and sends down a pollen tube
which releases a sperm cell into the ovule. This fertilization or joining of the sperm cell and ovule
forms a cell called a zygote. The zygote then develops into an embryo. The embryo along with the
food storage organs, cotyledons and/or endosperm, and the seed coat or testa make up what is called
the seed.

The embryo is a diminutive plant and under the proper conditions it will grow into a plant. This new
plant will have characteristics from both of its parents. The embryo has two basic parts: the radicle,
which grows into the root or below ground portion of the plant and the plumule, which grows into the
above ground portion of the plant. The seed also contains food stored as either starch (wheat), fats
(sunflower), protein (beans), or a combination of all three. The food storage gives the growing embryo
and developing seedling energy until its leaves can begin photosynthesizing.

The process of seed germination is much more complicated than it would appear. Germination is a
biochemical process that involves the activation of many chemical reactions. This happens in three
stages.

The first stage of seed germination involves the uptake of water. This is called imbibition. During
imbibition the protein synthesizing systems are activated and various enzymes are synthesized. These
enzymes catalyze reactions used in the second stage of germination.

The second stage of germination involves the breakdown of the stored energy rich compounds of the
cotyledons and endosperm. The second stage is a period of readying the embryo for rapid growth
during the third stage.

During the third stage of germination, cell division begins and the embryo grows into a seedling. The
first growth occurs in the radicle, and the root system is established. This is followed by the emergence
of the plumule. Once the seedling has formed leaves it becomes a self sufficient plant.

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Lab 2. Lecture Outline

A. What is sexual propagation?

1. Definition

2. Advantages over asexual propagation

3. Disadvantages

B. Which method should you use?

1. depends on:

a.

b.

c.

C. Uses

1.

2.

3.

D. Factors affecting germination

1. Seed viability

2. Germination is affected by:

a.

b.

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3. Seed dormancy

4. Treatments to overcome dormancy

a. Scarification

1) Mechanical

2) Hot water

3) Acid treatment

b. Stratification

1) Moist chilling

2) Warm moist followed by cold moist

5. Environmental conditions needed for germination

a. Moisture

b. Aeration

c. Light

d. Temperature

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Lab 2. Sexual Propagation
Lab Exercises
I. Objective
To learn seed structure, viability test, and treatments to overcome seed dormancy.

II. Materials
Bean seeds (old, new, water-soaked, TTC-treated), razor blades, petri dish, paper towels, sand a
paper or file.

III. Procedures

1. Seed Anatomy
Cut through a soaked bean seed and observe the internal structure. Sketch and label the parts of
the seed.

2. Seed Viability
Bean seeds have been soaked overnight in TTC (triphenyltetrazolium chloride). This changes
living tissue to a red color. Uncolored spots will indicate poor viability. Cut open several seeds
and sketch your observations. Based on your observations how would you describe their
viability? Why?

3. Seed Germination Tests


Seed has been divided into "old" and "new" lots. Count out 10 seeds from each lot and plant
according to instructor's directions. Record the number of seeds that germinated for each group
and calculate corresponding germination percentages.

4. Seed Scarification
This exercise will evaluate scarification techniques and their effect on germination percentages.
Select 10 seeds for each of the four treatments and plant in the four different containers
provided.

a. Treatment 1- Control (no scarification)

b. Treatment 2- Seeds soaked in hot water

c. Treatment 3- Seeds soaked in acid (sulfuric acid)

d. Treatment 4- Mechanical scarification (use sandpaper, file, or clippers)

IV. Results

Obtain seed germination data for the steps 3 and 4 above for your group and the entire class. Use
this information for your lab report.

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Bean Seed Structure of Bean Seed

Germination and seedling development of bean

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Epigeous germination of cherry seed (endocarp removed)

Hypogeous germination of peach seed (endocarp removed)

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LAB 2 - Sexual Propagation of Plants
Lab Report

Name ___________________________________________ Lab Section __________________

1. Define seed scarification and stratification.

Scarification:

Stratification:

2. Summarize results of the seed scarification experiment (Procedure # 4).

Plant species 1 ____________________ Plant species 2 ____________________

Treatment Total no. seeds No. seeds germinated % germination


Species 1
a. Control ______________ ________________ ________________
b. Hot water ______________ ________________ ________________
c. Acid ______________ ________________ ________________
d. Mechanical ______________ ________________ ________________

Species 2
a. Control ______________ ________________ ________________
b. Hot water ______________ ________________ ________________
c. Acid ______________ ________________ ________________
d. Mechanical ______________ ________________ ________________

Comments:

3. What is the function of the cotyledon?

4. What is the difference between endosperm and embryo?

5. Why is water necessary for seed germination?

6. What are three factors that affect seed viability?

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Lab Exercise 3
ASEXUAL PROPAGATION OF PLANTS

Asexual propagation is used to reproduce or multiply many horticultural plants. Plants that are
propagated asexually are genetically the same as the mother plant. This is also called cloning.
Although cloning is being talked about a lot today, it is not a recent development. Farmers have been
cloning crop plants since before recorded history. One of the oldest clones in existence is Thompson
seedless grapes. The plant with the largest number of daughter plants is the navel orange. All clones
originate from a single plant and all of the plants that are propagated from it, asexually, are genetically
the same.

Some asexually propagated crops that are grown extensively are: tree fruits, cane fruits, strawberries,
sugar cane, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, cranberries, and most herbaceous and woody ornamental
plants. Almost all the flower crops and green plants grown as greenhouse crops are also propagated
asexually.

Plants are propagated asexually for the following reasons:

1. to preserve the genetic characteristics of a particular plant;


2. to propagate plants that do not produce viable seeds (bananas, pineapple, seedless grape, etc.);
3. to propagate plants that produce seed that is difficult to germinate or has a very short storage
life (cotoneaster, willow);
4. to bypass the juvenile stage of plant growth when the plants will not flower and bare fruit
(apple).

By far the most important of these is the first. This is the main reason that many horticulture plants are
propagated asexually.

Asexual propagation may be done by making cuttings from the stem, root or leaves of the desired plant.
Stem cuttings are made by removing a small branch or twig from the plant. This cutting will usually
contain two or more buds, one of which will grow into the top of the plant. With proper treatment,
adventitious* roots will be produced on the end of the cutting that was closest to the root of the
original plant. Root cuttings are made in a similar fashion, but produce an adventitious stem on the end
of the cutting that was nearest to the stem of the original plant. Leaf cuttings produce both roots and
stems when the leaf is placed under proper conditions.

*adventitious [not properly belonging to]- Referring to a structure arising from an unusual place,
such as buds at other places than leaf axils, or root growing from stems or leaves.

Grafting is another type of asexual propagation. In the process of grafting, a part of the stem of one
plant is mechanically joined to the stem or root of another plant. If the graft is to be successful, the
stem (scion) and the root (stock) must be closely related taxanomically. Grafting is used primarily for
woody plants and most tree fruits are propagated in this manner. The scion may be a single bud
(budding), or it may have several buds (grafting).

Some plants can be propagated asexually by dividing clumps of the plants. This is called division and
is used for such plants as iris, some lilies, orchids, many house plants and perennials. In division, the
clumps are cut or torn apart and the individual plants replanted. These will then make another clump
which can be divided to keep the process going.

Plants can also be asexually propagated by layering. The process of layering is as if you rooted a
cutting while it was still attached to the plant. There are several different ways to layer a plant, but
generally the process involves placing a part of the plant stem under conditions favorable for rooting.
29
Once roots have formed the new plant is separated from the mother plant and established in a new
location.

Over the last several years tissue culture propagation has been perfected as a way to propagate plants
asexually. Tissue culture uses very small cuttings that are sterilized and grown in test tubes under
aseptic conditions. In some instance the cutting can be as small as a single cell isolated from various
plant tissues. Once the cutting (explant) is established in a test tube, the medium on which the explant
is to grow can be modified to promote the production of numerous stems or roots. Usually the culture
is first manipulated to produce many stems. These stems are then placed under cultural conditions to
promote rooting. Plants can be reproduced very rapidly using tissue culture methods. A single bud
from a potato plant can be multiplied a million times in a single year.

30
Notes - Plant Propagation Video

A. Specialized Plant Parts

Bulbs

Corms

Tubers

Tuberous roots

B. Propagation by Division

What

How

C. Micropropagation

Explants

Sterile medium

Controlled environment

Advantages
1.
2.
3.
4.

Disadvantages
1.
2.
3.

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ASEXUAL PROPAGATION BY VEGETATIVE PARTS

A. Propagation by Cuttings

1. Four main groups of stem cuttings:

a. Hardwood- dormant

b. Semi-hardwood - late summer

c. Soft wood - late spring or early summer

d. Herbaceous - when actively growing

2. Sanitation

3. Environment

4. Transplanting

5. Harden-off

B. Layering

C. Air Layering

D. Grafting and Budding

1. Scion

2. Stock

3. Union

4. Cambium

32
Lab Exercise 3
ASEXUAL PROPAGATION - CUTTINGS
Objective: a) To acquaint the student with some of the basic techniques used in propagating plants
using cuttings, and b) to test a hypothesis that a temperature differential between root zone
and ambient air in mist room promotes root initiation and quality.

Materials Needed: Stock plants, knives, pruning shears, cell packs to hold rooting medium, rooting
hormone (IBA powder or solution), pot labels, marking pens.

Procedures:

1. Preparation of cuttings: Swedish Ivy (Plectranthus australis), Indin Laurel (Ficus benjamina).

a. Select growing shoot tips that are 8-10 cm long and contain at least 2 nodes. Cut the tips from
the stock plant. Remove leaves from the basal 4-5 cm. Make the cuttings as uniform as
possible.

b. Each group will make 80 cuttings of one species.

Label plant materials with treatment, date, your name and lab section. Use pencil or water-
proof marking pen.

c. Divide the cuttings into 4 groups of 20 cuttings each.

Treat each group as follows:

Group 1: No rooting compound - bottom heat.


Group 2: Rooting compound - bottom heat.
Group 3: No rooting compound - no bottom heat.
Group 4: Rooting compound - no bottom heat.

To treat cuttings in rooting compound, dip in water, shake off excess water and dip into rooting
powder. Then place in rooting media in packs.

2. Take cuttings from any of the additional plants provided.

Iron Cross Begonia (Begonia masoniana) - leaf cutting


Snake Plant (Sansevieria trifasciata laurentii) - leaf sections
African Violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) - leaf cutting
Giant Dumbcane (Dieffenbachia amoana) – canes (5 cm segments), lay horizontally on media
Peperomia (Peperonia obtusifolia) - stem, leaf cutting
Other materials will also be provided.

3. Check progress of plants after 7 and 14 days. Hand in results with your recommendation of the
best treatment for propagating the plant you worked with. The additional cuttings are for your
information only and may take longer to root.

33
LAB 3 - Asexual Propagation of Plants
Lab Report

Name ________________________________________ Lab Section _________________

1. Obtain data on the rooting of cuttings after 7 and 14 days. Using the data obtained after 14 days,
discuss the outcome of your experiment (part 3, lab exercise #3) and draw a conclusion whether
higher root-zone temperature in relation to ambient temperature actually promoted root initiation
and quality.

a. Experimental results:

Species #1 (Herbaceous plant)


Total no. of No. of cuttings
Treatment cuttings planted rooted % rooting
1) Control, no bottom heat ____________ _____________ ______________
2) Control, bottom heat ____________ _____________ ______________
3) IBA, no bottom heat ____________ _____________ ______________
_4) IBA, bottom heat

Species #2 (Woody plant)


Total no. of No. of cuttings
Treatment cuttings planted rooted % rooting
1. Control, no bottom heat ____________ _____________ ______________
2. Control, bottom heat ____________ _____________ ______________
3. IBA, no bottom heat ____________ _____________ ______________
_4. IBA, bottom heat

b. Conclusion and discussion:

2. Define asexual propagation. How does it differ from sexual propagation?

3. What are three reasons why plants are propagated asexually?

4. What is the purpose of using IBA (indolebutyric acid) in cutting propagation?

5. List 4 environmental factors that are important in rooting of cuttings.

34
Lab Exercise 4
HORTICULTURE ARTICLE FOR INTERNET

I. Introduction

During this lab, we will use the internet as a source of information on horticultural topics. This
information can be applied to other areas as well. We will study the basic fundamentals of surfing,
using search engines, and linking to other sites. You are required to write a horticulture article
about a topic of your choice.

Keyword - a word that describes a subject area (i.e., carnation).


Link - a clickable area on a page that will lead to another page.
Page - a document on the internet.
Search engine - a site that lists other sites and can be used to find information.
URL - an Internet address (eg. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu).

II. Objectives

This lab exercise is designed to acquaint the students with various horticulture web sites. Specific
objectives are to: a) obtain information on selected horticultural topics of student’s choice, b) learn
how to use the HTML language, and c) write a horticulture article of your interest for placement on
a web site.

III. Procedure

A 30-minute lecture will cover how to a) assemble information, b) design a web-page, c) introduce
pictures and graphic files, and d) establish links to other articles, using the web-authoring programs
(i.e., DreamWeaver). Students may be able to turn in a draft copy of a web-article by the end of the
class.

IV. Assignment

a. Select a horticultural topic of your choice,


b. Find information from horticultural web sites by surfing,
c. Write a horticulture article that will be placed on the class home page.
d. Cite references for web sites as source of information and further reference. (These web sites
must be listed at the end of your article as links so that readers can visit the specific sites as
needed)
e. Turn in: a hard copy of your article and a diskette containing your article. All graphic files must
be placed in your folder. The folder name should include the initial of your first name and full
last name.

V. Grading of Article

Articles submitted will be graded on the basis of: a) information content, b) originality, c)
organization, d) artwork and appearance, and e) appropriateness in citation and references. Sources
for the pictures and graphs used in the article must be shown with proper labeling and permission
from the original publisher. A total of 30 possible points is given.

35
Lab Exercise 5
PLANT NUTRITION
I. General Introduction

All living organisms require certain elements for their survival. Plants are known to require carbon (C),
hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (S), and
magnesium (Mg), which are called Macronutrients, because they are needed in larger amounts. Plants
also need large amounts of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) for growth and development.
Plants absorb these elements through air and water, they are not usually applied as fertilizers.

Micronutrients which are needed in very minute quantities are: iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn),
copper (Cu), boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). There is no "most important element"
since all are required for life, growth and reproduction. They are therefore called essential elements.

Plant tissues also contain other elements (Na, Se, Co, Si, Rb, Sr, F, I) which are not needed for the
normal growth and development.

Chemical Atomic Ionic forms Approximate dry


Element symbol weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration

Macronutrients
Nitrogen N 14.01 NO3-, NH4+ 4.0 %
Phosphorus P 30.98 PO43-, HPO42-, H2PO4- 0.5 %
Potassium K 39.10 K+ 4.0 %
Magnesium Mg 24.32 Mg2+ 0.5 %
Sulfur S 32.07 SO42- 0.5 %
Calcium Ca 40.08 Ca2+ 1.0 %

Micronutrients
Iron Fe 55.85 Fe2+, Fe3+ 200 ppm
Manganese Mn 54.94 Mn2+ 200 ppm
Zinc Zn 65.38 Zn2+ 30 ppm
Copper Cu 63.54 Cu2+ 10 ppm
Boron B 10.82 BO32-, B4O72- 60 ppm
Molybdenum Mo 95.95 MoO42- 2 ppm
Chlorine Cl 35.46 Cl- 3000 ppm

Essential But Not Applied


Carbon C 12.01 CO2 40 %
Hydrogen H 1.01 H2O 6%
Oxygen O 16.00 O2, H2O 40 %
____________________________________________________________________________

Under most agricultural and horticultural conditions, only nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are
depleted from the soil to the extent that growth and development are interrupted. These are the
fertilizer elements. Modern agriculture depends on the addition of these elements to the soil to ensure
optimum yields of food crops. Soil tests are used to determine the levels of the elements available to
the crop and the quantities that must be added as fertilizer to get profitable yields. Deficiencies of other
elements such as sulfur, zinc and copper may occur in some soils. These deficiencies can be corrected
by the addition of small amounts of these elements to the soil or as sprays to the plant. Under some

36
conditions the soil may contain adequate supplies of the element, but because of soil pH (acidity or
alkalinity) the element is unavailable to the plant. This occurs with iron in high pH (alkaline) soils.
Many plants growing in these soils will have yellow (chlorotic) leaves. All species of plants do not
react the same under these conditions. Some will show the deficiency symptom, while others are
apparently able to extract the iron from the soil.

II. Fertilizer Concentration Calculations

A. Units Used

ppm = parts per million


mM = milli molar
meq/l = milliequivalent per liter

B. Conversion Factors (metric vs. British system)

1 ounce = 28.35 g
1 pound = .45 kg
1 gallon = 3.78 liters
1 g = .035 ounce
1 kg = 2.205 pounds
1 acre = 43,560 ft2
1 liter = l kg

C. Fertilizer Concentrations

a. Parts per million (ppm)

The term, parts per million, is an expression of concentration used often to describe very
dilute solutions. The term states how many parts of solute there are in a million parts of the
whole solution. Parts per million almost always expresses concentrations on a mass basis.
For example, a 10 ppm solution is one in which every million grams of solution contains 10
grams of solute. The ppm designation is most often applied to dilute solutions in water. For
example,1 kilogram (1000 gram) of water contains 1 million milligrams of water; thus

1 kg = 1 kg x 1000 g/kg x 1000 mg/g = 1,000,000 mg

At normal temperatures, 1 liter of a dilute water solution has a mass of approximately 1


kilogram. If we have 10 mg of solute in 1 liter of solution, it will be 10 ppm.

10 mg solute = 10 mg solute = 10 ppm


1 liter solution 1,000,000 mg solution

Thus when we say that the concentration of nitrogen in water is 200 ppm, we mean that 1
liter of the solution contains 200 milligrams of nitrogen. The important thing to remember
is:

1 kg = 1,000,000 mg
1 liter water = 1 kg
therefore, 1 liter water = 1,000,000 mg

37
b. Milli-molar (mM)

One millimolar (mM) concentration refers to a solution containing one-thousandth of


molecular weight (g) of the solute per liter of water. One molar (M) concentration equals
1000 millimolar (mM) concentration.
Molecular or
Chemical atomic weight
N 14.01
K+ 39.10
NH4NO3 80.05
+
NH4 18.01
NO3- 62.01
Ca++ 40.08
Mg++ 24.32
S 32.07
SO4-2 96.07
MgSO47H2O 246.50

1 mM NH4NO3 = 80.05 mg per liter (mg/l)


1 mM NO3- = 62.01 mg/l
1 mM SO4-2 = 96.07 mg/l
1 mM MgSO47H2O = 246.5 mg/l

c. Milliequivalent per liter (meq/l)

Milliequivalent per liter (meq/l) concentrations are often used to show the strength of fertilizer
ions (anion or cation) in a solution. Since one equivalent weight is the molecular weight
divided by valence, one meq/l refers to the ionic concentration of a solution that contains one
millimole/valence per liter of water.

NH4NO3 −−→ NH4+ + NO3- (Monovalent ions)


(80) (18) (62)

MgSO47H2O −−→ Mg++ + SO4-2 (Divalent ions)


(246.5) (24.3) (96.1)

1 meq/l NH4NO3 = 80 mg/l


1 meq/l NH4+ = 18 mg/l
1 meq/l NO3- = 62 mg/l

1 meq/l MgSO47H2O = (246.5 mg/2)/l = 123.3 mg/l


1 meq/l Mg++ = (23.3 mg/2)/l = 11.6 mg/l
1 meq/l SO4-2 = (96.1 mg/2)/l = 48.0 mg/l

D. Fertilizer Analysis

a. Commercial Analysis

Commercial analysis is given by the percentages of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2O5), and
potassium (K2O) in that order. For example, Peters 20-16-20 fertilizer contains 20% N, 16%
P2O5, and 20% K2O by weight.

38
b. Elemental Analysis

Elemental analysis is used for more technical and scientific purposes. It is expressed as
percent weights of elemental nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in that order.

c. Conversion of Commercial Analysis to Elemental Analysis

By using the ratios of elemental to oxides for phosphorus and potassium, the commercial
analysis can be converted to elemental analysis.

Nitrogen - always expressed as elemental N


Phosphorus - P2 /P2O5 = 0.44, or P2O5/ P = 2.99
Potassium - K2 /K2O = 0.83, or K2O/K = 1.20

Thus, Peters 20-16-20 commercial analysis fertilizer can be labeled as a 20-7.04-16.6


elemental analysis fertilizer.

20% N - 16% P2O5 - 20% K2O = 20% N - 7.04% P - 16.6% K

For example, if you want to apply 200 ppm nitrogen to your plants and were going to mix
up 1 liter of solution you then would have to put 1000 mg or 1 gram of fertilizer into the
liter of water.

1 liter water = 1,000,000 mg, therefore, 200 mg of N are needed.


However, the fertilizer is only 20% N. So:

200 = x x = 1000 mg = 1 g.
.20 1.00

39
III. Problems

1) You wish to prepare 5 gallons of a 100 ppm nitrogen (N) fertilizer. How much 15-10-5
commercial analysis fertilizer will you need to add to 5 gallons of water to get the desired
concentration?

2) You are mixing 5 gallon of concentrate fertilizer to apply with a hose-on (1:15 proportion), and
you want the final concentration to be 200 ppm nitrogen (N). What amount of fertilizer, if you
are using 20- 20-20 commercial analysis fertilizer, do you need to add to 5 gallon of water?

3) What would be the concentrations of phosphorus and potassium in the fertilizer solution above?
(see #2)

Nitrogen = 200 ppm N


Phosphorus = ___________ ppm P2O5 = _____________ ppm P
Potassium = ___________ ppm K2O = _____________ ppm K

4) The fertilizer bag says add 5 oz. to 100 gallons of water. What ppm N, P, K will this solution
be, assuming the fertilizer has a commercial analysis of 20-20-20?

40
DEMONSTRATION OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES
Lab Experiment
A. Objective

Plants require large quantities of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S). Of these macronutrients,
deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can be visually detected on plants
grown under an artificially controlled culture system. The objective of this study is to artificially
induce and characterize deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on selected
plants. During the course of this study, students will observe and characterize abnormal symptoms
of plants lacking nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium.

B. Materials and Method

Plant Materials

Three species of plants (corn, bean, leaf lettuce) will be used. Corn and bean will be grown in
perlite, whereas leaf lettuce will be grown hydroponically.

Nutrient Solutions

Five different solutions containing the complete combinations of macronutrients lacking one of the
three macronutrients N, P, and K. All solutions will contain the standard concentrations of
micronutrients (a modification of Hoagland Solution):

Treatment 1 --- Complete fertilizer


Treatment 2 --- Lacking nitrogen (-N)
Treatment 3 --- Lacking phosphorus (-P)
Treatment 4 --- Lacking potassium (-K)
Treatment 5 --- Lacking calcium (Ca)
Treatment 6 --- Lacking all macronutrients

C. Procedures

Germinate seeds of the three species on an inert medium (rockwool, perlite, sand, etc.) using
deionized water. When the seedlings start developing true leaves, plant them in 6-inch plastic pots
containing perlite (corn and bean). For lettuce, place the seedlings on the a styrofoam board which
will float on top of a hydroponic solution contained in a plastic tub. Observe plant growth and
development of deficiency symptoms for 8 weeks.

D. Observations

Observe the growth of plants with each of the four treatments. Characterize the growth and
development of nutrient deficiency symptoms for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in 8 weeks
of observation. Using the findings of the experiment, complete your lab report.

41
PREPARATION OF HOAGLAND SOLUTION
1. Preparation of Nutrient Solutions: Method A, for Amateurs

Either one of the solutions given in Table 1 may be tried. Solution 2 may often be preferred because the
ammonium salt delays the development of undesirable alkalinity. The salts are added to the water, preferably
in the order given. To either of the solutions, add the elements iron, boron, manganese, and in some cases,
zinc and copper, which are required by plants in minute quantities. There is danger of toxic effects if much
greater quantities of these elements are added than those indicated later in the text. Molybdenum and
possibly other elements required by plants in minute amounts will be furnished by impurities in the nutrient
salts or in the water, and need not be added deliberately.

Table 1. Composition of nutrient solutions (amounts given are for 25 gallon solutions).

Approximate Approximate
Grade amount, amount, in
Salt of salt in ounces level tablespoons__ ___
Solution 1*
Potassium phosphate (monobasic) Technical 0.5 1
Potassium nitrate Fertilizer 2 4
Calcium nitrate Fertilizer 3 7
Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) Technical 1.5 4

Solution 2*
Ammonium phosphate (monobasic) Technical 0.5 2
Potassium nitrate Fertilizer 2.5 5
Calcium nitrate Fertilizer 2.5 6
Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) Technical 1.5 4
_______________________________________________________________________________________
*To either of these solutions, supplements of elements required in minute quantity must be added; see directions in
the text.

a. Boron and Manganese Solution - Dissolve 3 teaspoons of powdered boric acid and 1 teaspoon of
chemically pure manganese chloride (MnCl2.4H2O) in a gallon of water. (Manganese sulfate could be
substituted for the chloride.) Dilute 1 part of this solution with 2 parts of water, by volume. Use a pint of
the diluted solution for each 25 gallons of nutrient solution.

The elements in group a are added when the nutrient solution is first prepared and at all subsequent
changes of solution. If plants develop symptoms characteristic of lack of manganese or boron, solution a,
in the amount indicated in the preceding paragraph, may be added between changes of the nutrient
solution or between addition of salts needed in large quantities. But care is needed, for injury may easily
be produced by adding too much of these elements.

b. Zinc and Copper Solution - Ordinarily this solution may be omitted, because these elements will almost
certainly be supplied as impurities in water or chemicals, or from the containers. When it is needed,
additions are made as for solution a. To prepare solution b, dissolve 4 teaspoons of chemically pure zinc
sulfate (ZnSO4.7H2O) and 1 teaspoon of chemically pure copper sulfate (CuSO4.5H2O) in a gallon of
water. Dilute 1 part of this solution with 4 parts of water. Use 1 teaspoon of the diluted solution for each
25 gallons of nutrient solution.

c. Additions of Iron to Nutrient Solution - Generally, iron solution will need to be added at frequent and
regular intervals, for example, once or twice a week. If the leaves of the plant tend to become yellow,
even more frequent additions may be required. However, a yellowing or mottling of leaves can also arise
from many other causes.

The iron solution is prepared as follows: Dissolve 1 teaspoon of iron tartrate (iron citrate or iron sulfate
can be substituted, but the tartrate or citrate is often more effective than the sulfate) in 1 quart of water.
Add 1/2 cup of this solution to 25 gallons of nutrient solution each time iron is needed.
42
2. Preparation of Nutrient Solutions: Method B, for Schools or Technical Laboratories

For experimental purposes, the use of distilled water and chemically pure salts is recommended. Molar stock
solutions (except when otherwise indicated) are prepared for each salt, and the amounts indicated below are
used.

cc in a liter of
nutrient solution
Solution 1
1M KH2PO4, potassium acid phosphate 1
1M KNO3, potassium nitrate 5
1 M Ca(NO3)2, calcium nitrate 5
1 M MgSO4, magnesium sulfate 2
Solution 2
1M NH4H2PO4, ammonium acid phosphate 1
1M KNO3, potassium nitrate 6
1M Ca(NO3)2, calcium nitrate 4
1M MgSO4, magnesium sulfate 2

To either of these solutions, add solutions a and b below.

a. Prepare a supplementary solution which will supply boron, manganese, zinc, copper, and molybdenum,
as follows:
Grams dissolved
Compound in 1 liter of H2O
H3BO3, boric acid 2.86
MnCl2.7H2O, manganese chloride 1.81
ZnSO4.5H2O, zinc sulfate 0.22
CuSO4.5H2O, copper sulfate 0.08
H2MoO4.H2O, molybdic acid 0.09
Add 1 cc of this solution for each liter of nutrient solution, when solution is first prepared or subsequently
changed, or at more frequent intervals if necessary.

This will give the following concentrations:


Parts per million of
Element nutrient solution
Boron 0.5
Manganese 0.5
Zinc 0.05
Copper 0.02
___Molybdenum 0.05

b. Add iron in the form of 0.5 per cent iron tartrate solution or other suitable iron salt, at the rate of 1 cc per
liter, about once or twice a week or as indicated by appearance of plants. The reaction of the solution is
adjusted to approximately pH 6 by adding 0.1 N H 2SO4 (or some other suitable dilution).

MOLAR SOLUTIONS

The concentrations of stock solutions of nutrient salts used in preparation of nutrient solutions are
conveniently expressed in terms of molarity. A molar solution is one containing 1 gram-molecule (mol)
of dissolved substance in 1 liter of solution. (In all nutrient-solution work, the solvent is water.) A gram-
molecule or mol or a compound is the number of grams corresponding to the molecular weight.

Example 1, how to make a molar solution of magnesium sulfate: The molecular weight of magnesium
sulfate, MgSO4.7H2O is 246.50. One mol of magnesium sulfate consists of 246.50 grams. Hence to
make a molar solution of magnesium sulfate, dissolve 246.50 grams of MgSO 4.7H2O in water and make
to 1 liter volume.

43
Example 2, how to make a one-twentieth molar (0.05 M) solution of monocalcium phosphate, Ca
(H2PO4)2.H2O (used in deficiency studies, below): The molecular weight of monacalcium phosphate,
Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O is 252.17. Hence 0.05 mol of Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O is 525.17 grams/20 = 12.61 grams.
Therefore, to make a 0.05 M solution of monocalcium phosphate, dissolve 12.61 grams of
Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O in water and make to 1 liter volume.

3. Nutrient Solutions for Use in Demonstrating Mineral Deficiencies in Plants

In any experiment to demonstrate mineral deficiencies in plants, solution 1 or solution 2 should be used as a
control to show normal growth in a complete solution. Below are given six solutions, each lacking in one of
the essential elements. Distilled water should be used in making these solutions.

cc in a liter of
nutrient solution
a. Solution lacking nitrogen
0.5 M K2SO4 5
1 M MgSO4 2
0.05 M Ca(H2PO4)2 10
0.01 M CaSO4 200
b. Solution lacking phosphorus
1M Ca(NO3)2 4
1M KNO3 6
1M MgSO4 2
c. Solution lacking potassium
1M Ca(NO3)2 5
1M MgSO4 2
O.O5M Ca(H2PO4)2 10
d. Solution lacking calcium
1M KNO3 5
1M MgSO4 2
1M KH2PO4 1
e. Solution lacking magnesium
1M Ca(NO3)2 4
1M KNO3 6
1M KH2PO4 1
0.5M K2SO4 3
f. Solution lacking sulfur
1M Ca(NO3)2 4
1M KNO3 6
1M KH2PO4 1
1M Mg(NO3)2 2
__________________________________________________________________________________

To any of these solutions, add iron and the supplementary solution supplying boron, manganese, zinc, copper
and molybdenum as previously described. For use with solution f, lacking sulfur, a special supplementary
solution should be prepared in which chlorides replace the sulfates. Also, sulfuric acid should not be used in
adjusting the reaction of the nutrient solution.

In order to produce iron-deficiency symptoms, plants should be grown in glass containers and no iron should
be added to the otherwise complete nutrient solution. Similarly, it may be possible to produce boron- or
manganese-deficiency symptoms with certain plants (tomatoes, for example) by omitting either one of these
elements from the supplementary solution. Zinc-, copper-, and molybdenum-deficiency symptoms can
usually be produced only by the use of a special technique, the description of which exceeds the scope of this
handout.

(Reference. Hoagland, D.R. and D.I. Arnon. 1938. The water culture method for growing plants without soil, University of California
Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 347.)

44
LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION
Lab Report

Name ________________________________ Lab Section _________________________

1. Describe the functions of macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and calcium
(Ca) in plants.

2. Write the chemical forms (ions) of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca)
that are actually absorbed by plants.

3. Why is an inert growing medium used to grow plants for detecting nutrient deficiencies?

4. Describe macronutrient deficiency symptoms that you have observed in each species, and provide
comments on your findings.

Symptoms:

Nitrogen (N) deficiency:

Phosphorus (P) deficiency:

Potassium (K) deficiency:

Calcium (Ca) deficiency:

Conclusion:

45
Lab Exercise 6
DESIGNING A FLOWER GARDEN
Notes from video:

A. Where to put it

View from 3 locations

B. Zone you live in. Fargo is in plant hardiness zone 4.

C. Light

1. light each day - morning, afternoon, evening

2. light each season

3. Four classifications of areas by light

a. full sunlight - some heat stress

b. part sunlight - 5-6 hr. of full sun

c. part shade - dappled sun

d. full shade - not good for blooming plants

D. Many types - rock gardens, wall gardens, water gardens etc.

1. Decorative Home Garden


a. mix of flowers and shrubs

b. advantages -
1)
2)
3)

2. Herbaceous Border Garden


Made up of a mixture of annuals, perennials, and spring bulbs

46
E. Planning and Designing

1. Curved shapes

2. Plan from background to foreground


3. Three levels - each 1/3 of bed depth

a. Avoid step look

4. Plant flowers in groups

a. Annual and perennials in groups up to 6 plants


(odd numbers in groups look best)

b. Spring bulbs - 6 to 12 in a group - 20 is max

c. Keep in scale

5. Keep texture and shape varied

6. Color - beginners should start with 3-5 colors

a. Contrast - not touching on the color wheel

b. Harmonious - next to each other on the wheel

7. Objective is to have some color blooming in each level at all times

a. Two perennials to each annual


- Perennials usually bloom about 3 weeks
- Annuals bloom most of the summer

b. Choose perennials to bloom in late spring, summer, and fall in each of the three areas of the
border.

c. Make 3 lists, one for annuals, one for perennials, and one for bulbs. (See Lab 6 Worksheet)
Start by listing your favorites in each category, making sure they will grow here.

d. Background plants should be tall; a rule of thumb: as tall as 2/3 the width of the bed.

e. Middle plants should be 12 - 36" tall.

f. Foreground plants should be 12" or under

47
F. Preparing the flower bed.

1. add organic matter

2. till or dig

a. mix in organic matter

b. improve drainage

c. make more oxygen available for the roots

G. Watering systems

1. emitter drip irrigation

2. porous hose type

3. drip irrigation
a. saves 30 - 40% on water

b. no evaporation or runoff

c. reduces water on leaves and therefore reduces disease

d. reduces compaction

H. Mulch

1. weeds compete for nutrients and water

2. one way to control is with 2-4" of mulch


a. reduces weeds, evaporation, and compaction
b. mulch should: allow air through, resist wind, hold moisture, and look good

3. types:

4. winter mulch 4- 6" deep helps protect plants from frost heave

I. Compost

1. active or passive

J. Maintenance

48
LAB 6 - FLOWER GARDEN DESIGN
Lab Report

Name ___________________________________________ Lab Section ___________________

Assignment. Design a flower garden using the principles you saw in the video. This may be for an
existing yard or you may make up an area with a flower garden about 8 ft x 25 ft. Please turn in the
these lists as well as the design, which should be drawn to scale. Be original but adhere to the basic
precepts given in the video.

Bloom Plant
Plant name (Scientific preferable) Period Color Height Spread
List 1 - Perennials

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

List 2 - Annuals

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

List 3 - Bulbs and Corms

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
_________________________________________________________________________________

49
Lab Exercise 7
GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION

In this lab we will look at the basic components of a greenhouse and the specific needs of three
different types of greenhouses: hobby, research, and commercial.

No matter what the use of a greenhouse the environment must be maintained for the health of the plant.
The components of that environment are: temperature, light, humidity and air movement.

Temperature is provided to the greenhouse by the energy of the suns rays, or when that isn't sufficient,
by supplemental heat. Different plants need different temperature ranges. Most will do well in
temperatures from 50 to 70 degrees. Tropical plants need temperatures in the 70 to 80 degree range.
The heat in the green house must be maintained at a more or less constant temperature during the day
with a 10 degree drop at night. There are four ways to maintain the temperature at the desired level:
prevent heat loss, store heat, add heat and vent out excess heat. We will discuss this in more detail later.

Light is measured in two areas, quality and quantity. Quality refers to the brightness of the light.
Quantity refers to duration. A plant needs a certain length of light. If quality is low a small amount can
be made up by adding quantity. In the greenhouse the glazing is the covering that lets the light in.
Examples of glazing are: glass, plastic, acrylic (Exolite) and fiberglass. Each has advantages and
disadvantages.

Glass lets 90 % of the light through but it loses a lot of heat. Plastic, especially double inflated plastic,
is inexpensive and is used extensively in bedding plant production. Its major drawback is that it lasts
only 2-3 years before recovering is necessary. Exolite, polycarbonate rigid sheets, is being used widely.
It allows excellent light penetration, and it is also fuel efficient. Fiberglass is rarely used anymore,
because it is a fire hazard and has a great reduction in light penetration over time. The invention of heat
curtains and the ability to line glass with a thin sheet of plastic is making glass gain ground as the most
popular covering for large commercial greenhouses. This is because glass is still the best at letting in
light.

Humidity is the measure of the amount of water that is carried in the air at a given temperature. The
ideal humidity for the greenhouse is 50 - 60%. If the humidity is too high the environment will be just
right for diseases to attack the plants. If the humidity is too low the plants suffer from water stress.
You can control humidity by watering in the morning and venting out the moist air. Never water in the
evening.

Air movement is a necessity in a greenhouse. When a plant is outdoors the air is constantly moving
providing the plant with fresh air next to its leaves so is can replenish the oxygen and carbon dioxide it
uses. In the greenhouse air movement must be supplied through fans. Air movement also helps keep
relative humidity down and keep the temperature even throughout the greenhouse.

Hobby greenhouses have all the needs listed above, but they must be carried out in a small space. Heat
can be stored or released into the home to double its usefulness.

Commercial greenhouses also have the needs listed above and many more besides. The basic need is to
make a profit, to do this a commercial greenhouse must be efficient at providing environments to the
plants. The light and temperature needs must be very strictly controlled, computers are now being
widely used to provide these controls. Heat must not be wasted; new systems of curtains, which are
pulled out at night and rolled back in the morning, have reduced heat losses up to 50%. Movement of
plants is another area seeing great strides in efficiency. Benches that move to allow isles, or move from
head house to greenhouse and then out to be loaded onto a truck without human hands ever lifting the
plants, are now a reality.
50
How have all these inventions come to pass? One basic answer is research. The research greenhouse,
like those here on campus, meets the basic four needs of light temperature, humidity control and air
movement like the other greenhouses do. However they do so in small divided spaces. This is not
efficient like the commercial greenhouses but it is efficient for research. Small areas can be kept rigidly
controlled and separate from each other. Research is very important to all of us in horticulture.

Soils Used in Plant Propagation and Greenhouse Production

Soil Makeup: Solid - Sand, Clay, Humus, Silt


Liquid - Water (Solution containing minerals)
Gas - Air (Oxygen, Nitrogen, CO2)

Soil Texture: Related to solid portion, i.e., sand, clay, organic materials

Most greenhouse soils are mixtures of two or more of the following:

Field Soil - not used much


Sand - washed quartz sand
Peat - decomposed plant materials deposited in bags. Sphagnum peat usually used.
Sphagnum Moss - dried and ground sphagnum moss
Vermiculite - micaceous mineral that has been heated to 2000oF
Perlite - Silica material of volcanic origin heated to 1400oF, very porous
Compost - composted leaves or other organic materials - usually "well rotted"
Shredded Bark & Sawdust - wood product wastes used in mixing soils. May or may not be
composted, depending on tree species.

51
Environment and Growing Media

Light

Light is essential for photosynthesis. House plants are classified into 3 general light-requirement
categories.

Low light: 75-200 foot-candles. Reflected light or inner rooms. Chinese evergreen, philodendron, cast-
iron plant.

Medium Light: 200-500 foot-candles. Light from a north window, or indirect light from a south, east,
or west window. Begonia, peperomia, African violet, piggyback plant.

Bright Light: 500-1000 foot-candles. Direct or filtered sunlight from an east, west, or south window.
Cacti, dieffenbachia, sansevieria, geraniums and many others.

A foot-candle is the illumination of a surface one foot from the light of a standard candle. Light meters
measure light intensity in foot-candles, luxes, or micro-Einsteins.

pH

The pH of a soil is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity. A pH of 7 is neutral, above 7 is alkaline (basic)
and below 7 is acidic. Most House plants prefer slightly acid conditions (pH 6.5-7.0), especially
orchids and African violets. A few do better in mildly alkaline soils, such as most succulents and
geraniums. The following is a list of the pH of some common substances.

Lemon juice 2
Tomato juice 4.5
Blood 6.6
Soap 9
Household ammonia 12

Soluble Salts

Soluble salts are defined as the total of all dissoluble mineral residues in the soil. This includes sodium,
magnesium, potassium and calcium. Monitoring soluble salts is important because if they are too low,
it may indicate inadequate fertility. If they are too high, water passes out of the root system instead of
into the plant, causing dehydration and starvation.

52
TROUBLE SYMPTOMS FOR FOLIAGE PLANTS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES

1. Lower leaves turn yellow and drop off easily.


a. over-watering
b. insufficient light

2. Burned margins or brown tips on leaves.


a. accumulated salts in soil
b. drought or low humidity

3. Pale leaf color, long internodes, loss of vigor, dropping lower leaves.
a. lack of sufficient light

4. Growing tips chlorotic or growth slow.


a. accumulated salts in soil
b. too high a soil pH

5. Brown spots on leaves no pathogen present.


a. excessive light
b. water spotting

6. Interveinal chlorosis.
a. iron (Fe) deficiency
b. high pH

7. Poor flowering.
a. insufficient light intensity
b. vegetative growth encouraged (N fertilizers, too large pot, improper photoperiod)

8. Lower leaf drop, yellowing and/or dieback, roots brown and rotting (lower stems may be soft).
a. excessive watering
b. poor drainage
c. accumulated salts (over fertilization)
d. root rot caused by pathogens: Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora

53
Lab 7 - Greenhouse Production Lab Exercises
Soil pH and Salinity

1. Measure pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the following solutions using a portable pH meter
and an EC meter. Estimate the concentration of total dissolved salts (TDS) for each solution.

Electrical conductivity TDS


Water or soil sample pH mmho/cm µmho/cm (ppm)______
a. RO water ________ __________ ___________ ______________
b. Bottled water (Aquafina) ________ __________ ___________ ______________
c. Tap water ________ __________ ___________ ______________
d. Fertilizer water (greenhouse) ________ __________ ___________ ______________
e. House plant soil extract ________ __________ ___________ ______________
f. Sunshine mix extract ________ __________ ___________ ______________
g. Peat extract ________ __________ ___________ ______________
h. Pointsettia pot soil extract

2. Why and how electrical conductivity (EC) is used to estimate salt concentrations in solutions?

3. Establish relationship between NaCL concentration and electrical conductivity.

__Solution no. ppm g L-1 EC (µmho/cm) EC (mmho/cm)_______


1 0 0 _____________ _____________
2 500 0.5 _____________ _____________
3 1,000 1 _____________ _____________
4 2,000 2 _____________ _____________
5 4,000 4 _____________ _____________
6 6,000 6 _____________ _____________
7 8,000 8 _____________ _____________
8 10,000 10

a. Using the data above, plot the EC readings NaCl concentration on a graph
(x = ppm NaCl, y = mmho/cm).

EC

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10
ppm NaCl (x1000)

b. Derive regression equations for estimating salinity using EC readings:

1) y = _______________________ x.
2) x = _______________________ y, where y = electrical conductivity in mmho/cm
x = parts per million (ppm) salt

3) 1 mmho/cm = __________________ ppm NaCl


1 μmho/cm = __________________ ppm NaCl

54
Lab 7 - Greenhouse Production Lab Exercises
Light Measurements

Name ___________________________________ Lab Section ___________________

1. Light Intensity Measurements

This exercise is designed to familiarize you with one method of determining light intensity. A
knowledge of light intensities, which are commonly associated with the direction a window
faces, can help you choose an appropriate plant, or place plants you already have in a better
environment.

Light measurements will be taken at five different locations in the greenhouse.

North

1 2

4 5

Location Foot-candle Lux µmol m-2 s-1


1 _________ _______ __________
2 _________ _______ __________
3 _________ _______ __________
4 _________ _______ __________
5 _________ _______ __________
Average _________ _______ __________

Outside _________ _______ __________

% reduction _________ _______ __________

Comments:

55
LAB 7 - Greenhouse Production
Lab Report

Name ________________________________________ Lab Section___________________

1. List five environmental factors that affect plant growth in the greenhouse and briefly explain how
these factors can be regulated.

2. What kinds of plant problems can occur with following greenhouse conditions?

a. Excessive heat

b. Lack of ventilation

c. High humidity

d. Low water pH

e. High water pH

f. High soil salinity

3. Should you water the plants in a greenhouse just before you go home at night or wait until the next
morning? Why?

4. What percentage of sunlight is transmitted into the greenhouse according to your measurements?
Show calculations.

5. What is the optimum soil pH range for most greenhouse crops?

6. Why is high salinity of growing media detrimental to plant growth?

56
Lab Exercise 8
LANDSCAPE DESIGN
I. Benefits of a well planned landscape

A. Personal benefits

B. Conservation

C. Economic

D. Aesthetic

II. Landscape Design


Profession, Art, Science, Process

A. Profession

1. Landscape Architect

2. Landscape Designer

B. An Art

1. Principles of landscape design

a. Unity

b. Repetition

c. Balance

d. Dominance

e. Scale

2. Elements of Landscape Design

a. Form

b. Line

c. Texture

d. Color

57
C. A Science

1. Know plants

2. Construction

3. Soils

4. Irrigation systems

5. Drafting and graphic presentation technique

D. A Process

Site Analysis Design Program

Schematic Diagram

Plan Development

Project Installation

1. Site Analysis

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f..

2. Design Program

a.

b.

c.
58
d.

e.

3. Schematic Diagram or Bubble Diagram

a.

b.

c.

4. Plan Development

a. Preliminary Plan

b. Final Plan

5. Project Installation

a.

b.

c.

59
Lab Exercise 9
PRUNING AND TRAINING
General Recommendation

1. Remove all limbs and branches that obstruct walks and drives.
2. Prune back to clear all doors and windows.
3. Remove all broken, diseased, or dead branches from all trees and shrubs.
4. Go back to prune your plants for form, shape, vigor, and beauty!
5. It is usually is best to prune deciduous trees and shrubs during early spring before full leaf.
6. Evergreens, especially shrubs, should where practical, be encouraged to grow and branch to
the ground. This not only gives a more healthy plant, but in most cases a much better
looking plant.

Purposes of Pruning

1. To control habit of growth.


2. To remove all dead, broken, or diseased plant parts.
3. To produce desired shape and form.
4. To improve flowering and fruiting.
5. To improve chances of survival (usually at transplanting).

Some Pruning Tools

1. Hand Shears (7-1/2 inches long)


2. Pruning Loppers (26 inches long)
3. Pruning Saw (folding)
4. Pole Tree Saw (10 foot handle)

Botany of Pruning

Trees grow, above the ground, primarily from two areas:


1. Branches elongate from buds.
2. Branches increase in diameter from the cambium.

Water and mineral nutrients travel up from the roots through the wood or xylem into the leaves.
Here, in the leaves, food is manufactured and sent back through the phloem out to feed all parts
of the plant, twigs, buds, flowers, roots, etc.

If the terminal buds are removed, or twig end cut off side branching is induced, and a more
compact habit of growth is obtained. If side branches or laterals are removed, a more upright
form results.

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This Seasons Growth Terminal Bud
Auxillary Bud (Lateral or Side Bud)
Last Seasons Growth
Lateral or Side Twig
Dormant Leaf and Bud Scars (From Last Years Terminal)
Bud
Epidermis and Phloem (Bark)
Cambium (Thin, Slick Tissue)
Pith
This Years Wood
Last Years Wood Xylem

Anatomy of a shoot branch

Where to Cut

IN RELATION TO TWIGS.

IN RELAT ION T O BUDS.

Good T oo much Stub T oo Close


Right Wrong
Surface T oo Long T o Bud

BUILD YOUR TREE!

Grow your plants by choice, not by chance.

Cut to outside buds Save inside buds


For spreading growth. For erect growth.

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General Pruning

On all “heavy cuts,” make removal in three teps:

Remove weak 1. Under Cut


Crotches 2. Over-cut off
3. Stub removal at shoulder ring

Keep all diseased, dead, and broken branches


Cut pruned out of your trees at all times.
Remove “Cross over”
Branches Off
Avoid weak crotch branching and remove
1 Under cut “cross over” or “interfering” branches.

Remove stub Prune to side branches, laterals, or main trunks.


At shoulder ring
Remove stubs Never leave stubs, snags, or ragged cuts.

Big Cuts

Live bark

Dead bark

Proper cut line

Proper cut line. Cut at “shoulder ring,”


Tight-weak crotch
area of rapid growth and heal over.

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Directional Pruning (Trees)

Top work
to reduce
size, clear
lines, etc.

All cuts to side branches


All cuts to clean
Stay as near as possible to natural form

Good Stub pruning causes


“bird nesting”
Prune to Side Branches

Shouler Ring Excessive flush cut


Cut to leave small surface area Too much surface
Slow heel over
Prune Limbs to Soulder Rings

63
Deciduous Shrubs
Prune for Form

Remove old
canes at
ground level

Rejuvenation Do Not Top


To induce new and compact growth Never Make Butchery Cut

HEADING BACK
To reduce size
All cuts made to side branches or buds!

NOTE: When shrubs get old and leggy - one of three things may be done.

1. Consider rejuvenation. Remove at least half of the existing old canes at ground level. Dormant
pruning is best for this. Next year remove remaining canes. As new growth comes up - keep
terminal growth pinched back to induce side branching and compact growth.
2. In a few cases you may wish to cut all growth back. Thus allowing all growth to come up new.
3. Complete removal and replanting may be the most practical and economical solution.

64
Prune with a purpose on Junipers

Discipline: “Training which corects, molds, strengthens, or perfects” (Webster)

Start when plants are young, if possible! Strive for a disciplined form. Avoid neglect and abuse.

Prune “deep” enough to hide all cuts


Cut “Back In” to a top growing twig!
Be careful not to leave unsightly “Holes”

The form to achieve on uprights is with a


single - center trunk, and a “controlled” natural
look.

Neglect (left), disciplined (center), abuse (right)

In maintaining spreading junipers, strive for


the “disciplined” look. Avoid “butch” cut and
“scalp jobs”.
Neglect (left), disciplined (center), abuse (right)

Avoid Shearded and Ugly Ends!

Make a cut deep enough to avoid the look of


truncation. Remove a stem at the branching
point.

Much of your pruning can be done by pinching


back the new, young shoot growth as it develops
each season! This stops terminal growth and
avoids stringy.

65
Building a Hedge

Tight guide wires 2" x 4" stakes


2" x 4" stakes
7th year

6th year
4th year
5th year

3rd year

Stakes and tight guide wires or ropes insure a


more even surface. Make sure wire is tight and not
misplaced by twig.

1st year
2nd year
Prune when planted and each year after Best Ok Poor

Overhanging top edges shade sides, which soon


loose their leaves and become leggy.

SOME GOOD HEDGE PLANTS

Low hedge (2 to 4 feet) Large hedge (over 6 feet, continued.)


Pygmy Peashrub Medora Juniper
Alpine Current Chinese Lilac
Fritsch Spirea Fragrant Sumac
Dakota Sunset Potentilla Siberian Arborvitae
Bergeson Compact Dogwood
Little Giant Arborvitae
Wayfaring Tree Viburnum
Hetz Midget Arborvitae
Screening (over 10 ft tall)
Emerald Carousel Barberry
Eastern Red Cedar
Dwarf Gooseberry
Medora Juniper
Medium hedge (4 to 6 feet) Grizzly Bear Juniper
Globe peashrub
Miss Canada Late Lilac
Threelobe Spirea
Embers (or Redwing) Amur Maple
Triumph Potentilla
Siberian Peashrub (Caragana)
Globe Arborvitae
Black Hills Spruce
Miniglobe Honeysuckle
Colorado Spruce
Palibin Dwarf Lilac
Pyramidal Arborvitae
Large hedge (over 6 feet)
Bailey Compact Amur Maple
Miss Kim Lilac
Minuet Lilac Techny Arborvitae

66
LAB 9 - PRUNING AND TRAINING
Lab Report

Name__________________________________________ Lab Section______________________

1. Diagram the procedure for removing a large limb from a tree. Explain why large limbs are
removed in this way.

2. Why are narrow crotches undesirable in a tree? What are two ways to deal with them?

3. List three ways to deal with overgrown shrubs. What would be the result of each treatment?

4. If you have an old apple tree in the yard of the house you just bought, how are you going to decide
which branches to prune?

67
Lab Exercise 10
TURFGRASSES AND LAWN CARE
1. Lawn Grass

By definition, a lawn is “a plot of closely mown grasses.” Actually, a lawn is composed of


thousands of individual plants crowded and forced into a very unnatural growth habit. To achieve the
desired results for an attractive turf, we should know a few of other facts:

a. Lawns must have irrigation water.


b. Lawns must have fertilizer.
c. Lawns must have light.
d. Lawans must have desirable soil conditions.
e. Lawns must be mowed regularly.
f. Lawns must have adequet top growth.

Naturally grown grass


Grasses in the lawn

Not just the lawn collectively, but each plant in this actual “forest” needs to be supplied with all of
these in proper amounts, and at all times to some degree. Many factors tend to restrict or prevent full
use of these things, even when they are available.

Lawns need fertilizers to grow properly. Fertilizers are not “food” but raw materials used
in the manufacturing of foods by the plants. Sugars, starches, proteins, etc. are the real foods.
Both made and used by the plant for growth and production.

2. The Turfgrasses

a. Groth characteristics

Bunch-type,
Rhizome-forming
Stolon-froming
68
b. Temperature requirement

Cool-season grasses

Transitional zone grasses

Warm-season grasses

Cool-season

Transitional zone

Warm-season

69
3. General Lawn Care

1. Mow often enough that you never remove more than one-third of the total height at any one
cutting.

2. If and when irrigation is needed - water deep. Roots cannot get water or nutrients out of dry soil.
In areas where tree and shrub roots compete with the lawn, extra deep irrigation can be of great
worth.
3. Do not starve your lawn. But do not overfeed either. A good lawn is judged by its color and
density, not by how often it has to be mowed. The even cut tops, not the closeness of cut, gives
a lawn a more tailored look.

4. Soil compaction should be avoided where practical. Healthy grass can do much to avoid
problems and resist compaction. Dry soils compact less than wet soils. If heavy use is expected
for a special occasion try to have the lawn on the “dry side”, even if it requires an extra irrigation
in your schedule. Avoid the use of lawn rollers, in most cases rollers do more damage then good.
Lawns should be left to grow a little long before times of heavy use. Extra top growth gives
extra padding and encourages better root condition.

5. Leave the clippings on your lawn if they are short enough to sift into the grass. However, any
clippings that remain on the top after an hour or so should be removed.

6. Rake all leaves and debris from the lawn to avoid “burned” and “smothered” spots.

7. Compaction problems can be relieved by aeration and soil conditioning.

8. Aeration can be done with one of many tools. For general use, the tool
found easiest and most practical is the common garden digging fork.

a. Water the area.

b. Insert fork into the soil six to eight inches holding the fork in a
near vertical position (figure 1).
Figure 1
b. Pull handle back twelve to eighteen inches (figure 2). If condition
is not too bad remove fork. Repeat every eight to twelve inches
over the compacted area.

c. If compaction is severe or soil is very heavy, push handle forward


and fill with a mixture of 50% peat moss and 50% sand. Remove Figure 2
fork.

Note: This process breaks plant roots and may necessitate


supplemental irrigation.

Figure 3

70
LAWN CARE VIDEO

I. EVALUATING
Problems
1.
2.
3.

Tests to evaluate lawn:


1. Visual

2. Thatch

3. Conditions beneath soil

4. Compaction

5. Earthworms

6. Soil test

II. SEED

Two questions to ask before deciding on type of seed:


1. Which grasses work for your area of the country?
2. How old is existing lawn?

Other factors in determining type of grass seed:


1. Three growing areas:

a. cool season:
Bluegrass-Kentucky bluegrass
Perennial rye
Fescue-fine fescue

b. warm season:
Bermudagrass
Zoysiagrass
Buffalograss
St. Augustine grass

c. transitional:

2. Shade vs. sun


3. Time
4. Decoration or recreation

71
III. PREPARING LAWN

Renovate or Redo?
Renovation best done in early spring or early fall
1. scalp
2. remove thatch
3. aerate soil-1/4"deep
4. fertilize and lime if needed

Special steps for bare spots:


1. remove debris and rocks
2. add organic matter to depth of 6-8"
3. rake smooth

IV. SEEDING

Best done in early spring or early fall


If overseeding use half recommended rate
Water in thoroughly
Roll it
flattens
increases contact between seed and soil

Bare spot/brand new lawn:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

V. SODDING

VI. MOWING
Frequency:
Height:
Taller grass:
1.
2.
3.
Seasonal Mowing:
Summer:
Fall:
Final mowing:
Shady areas:

Proper Maintenance:

72
VII. WATERING

Best Way:
Best Time:

VIII. FEEDING

Only need to fertilize once or twice a season


Timing:
Warm season:
Cool season:
Results:
Fall fertilizing:
Spring fertilizing:
North area:
NOTE: Clippings return 50% of N back into soil.
Types of nutrition:

IX. PEST/DISEASE CONTROL

Backyard Pest Management


1.

2.

Insects:
1. Above soil:
Cinchbugs, armyworm, sod webworm

2. Below Soil:
Billbug grub, white grub

Method to check for bugs:

Contact Insecticides include Safer's Insecticidal Soap and Pyrethrums

Weeds:
Compacted Soil
Improper watering or fertilizing

1. Annual Weeds:
Crabgrass, chickweed, knotweed

2. Perennial Weeds:
Dandelions, thistle, plantain, buckhorn

73
Lab Exercise 11
PLANTS FOR INTERIORS
Scientific Name Family Common Name

1. Beloperone guttata Acanthaceae Shrimp Plant


2. Dracaena marginata Agavaceae Dragon Tree of Madagascar
3. Sansevieria trifasciata Agavaceae Snake Plant
4. Dieffenbachia amoena Araceae Giant Dumbcane
5. Philodendron scandens oxycardium Araceae Heart-leaf Philodendron
6. Epipremnum aureum Araceae Golden Pothos
7. Spathyphyllum clevelandii Araceae Peace Lily or White Flag
8. Brassaia arboricola Araliaceae Hawaiian Schefflera
9. Hedera helix Araliaceae English Ivy
10. Araucaria heterophylla Araucariaceae Norfolk Island Pine
11. Begonia masoniana Begoniaceae Iron Cross Begonia
12. Aechmea fasciata Bromeliaceae Silver Vase
13. Mammillaria albilanata Cactaceae Mammillaria Cactus
14. Crassula argentea Crassulaceae Jade Plant
15. Euphorbia splendens Euphorbiaceae Crown-of-Thorns
16. Euphorbia trigona Euphorbiaceae African Milktree
17. Saintpaulia ionantha Gesneriaceae African Violet
18. Plectranthus australis Lamiaceae Swedish Ivy
19. Chlorophytum comosum 'Vittatum' Liliaceae Variegated Spider Plant
20. Asparagus densifloris ‘Sprengeri’ Liliaceae Sprenger Asparagus
21. Ficus benjamina Moraceae Weeping Fig
22. Ficus elastica Moraceae Rubber Plant
23. Cattleya spp. Orchidaceae Cattleya Orchid
24. Peperomia obtusifolia variegata Piperaceae Variegated Peperomia
25. Nephrolepis exaltata 'Dallas' Polypodiaceae Dallas Fern
26. Platycerium bifurcatum Polypodiaceae Staghorn Fern

74
Lab 10: Guidelines for Completing Plant ID Sheets
Names:
Family Name: Origin:
Scientific Name:
Common Name: Cultivar:

Environmental Requirements:
1. Temperature: Cool (C) .......................... 50-60 F
Medium (M) ................... 60-70 F
High (H) ......................... 70-80 F

2. Light: Low (L) .......................... Minimum 50 fc (recommended 70-150 fc)


Medium (M) ................... Minimum 100 fc (recommended 200 fc)
High (H) ......................... Minimum 200 fc (recommended 500 fc)
Very High (VH) Minimum 500 fc (recommended 1000+ fc)

3. Moisture: Dry (D) Let dry completely between watering


Moist (M) Keep uniformly moist but not wet
Wet (W) Never let soil dry out

4. Humidity: Low (L) Up to 40% RH


Medium (M) 60-70% RH
High (H) 70-80% RH

5. Medium: Heavy (H) High in soil for wet conditions


Medium (M) Well drained, moist conditions
Light (L) Dry, sandy conditions

Plant Characteristics:
1. Plant Type: Tree (Single-stem, Multi-stem) (Tr)
Shrub (Shr)
Ground Cover (GC)
Vine (V)

2. Shape/Form: Upright (Up) Oval (Ov)


Spreading (Spr) Round (R)
Cascading or Weeping (Cas) Irregular (Ir)
Climbing (Cl) Pyramidal (Py)

3. Plant Size: Very Tall (VT) ............... Greater than 6 feet


Tall (T) ........................... 4-6 feet
Medium (M) ................... 2-4 feet
Short (S) ......................... 1-2 feet
Creeping (C) ................... Shorter than 1 foot

4. Growth Rate: Slow (S)


Medium (M)
Fast (F)

5. Leaf Texture: Pubescent (P), Waxy (W), Dull (D), Thick (T)
6. Plant Texture: Fine (F), Medium (M), Coarse (C)

75
1. Shrimp Plant Beloperone guttata (also Justicia brandegeana)
Family - Acanthaceae
250 Genera of dicots-herbs or shrubs-perfect flowers
Temp. Medium
Light High
Moist. Dry
Pests-Dis
Prop. Cutting
Notes Keep plants on dry side. Cut back 1/3 of plants in the spring.

2. Dragon Tree of Madagascar Dracaena marginata


Family - Agavaceae
20 Genera of monocots - leaves mostly narrow
Temp. Med
Light Medium
Moist Moist
Pests-Dis
Prop. Tip cutting
Notes Pointed leaves, sensitive to fluoride

3. Snake Plant Sansevieria trifasciata


Family - Agavaceae (also found it listed in Liliaceae family in two references)
Temp. Cool to high
Light low to high
Moist. Dry to medium dry
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, root rot if too wet
Prop. Division, leaf cutting
Notes Excellent low light plant; used for terrarium, dish garden, atrium; slow-growing;
durable; does best in peat containing soil.

4. Giant Dumbcane Dieffenbachia amoena


Family - Araceae - Arum or Philodendron family
13 genera of monocots - herbs -stemless or erect and climbing stems; inflorescence
spadix usually subtended by a spathe; genera include Anthurium plus others listed.
Temp. Medium to high
Light Medium
Moist. Moist
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, root rot and stem rot
Prop. Tip cutting, stem cutting
Notes Can be tall (15 ft); susceptible to cold (at 55 oF); produces oxalic acid crystals that are
toxic to skin (causes inflamation).

5. Heart-leaf Philodendron Philodendron scandens oxycardium


Family - Araceae
Temp. Medium to high
Light Low to medium
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, root rots
Prop. Tip or nodal cuttings
Notes Very tolerant to all indoor conditions including low light; most comon of all
philodendrons.

6. Golden Pothos Epipremnum aureum


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Family - Araceae
Temp. Medium
Light Medium
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, root rot
Prop. Tip and nodal cuttings; tissue culture
Notes Used for terrarium, atrium, hanging baskets; easy to grow.

7. Peace Lily or White Flag Spathyphyllum clevelandii


Family - Araceae
Temp. Medium to high
Light Low to medium
Moist. Moist
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, root rot
Prop. Tissue culture, division
Notes Very tolerant to low light conditions; use well-drained medium.

8. Hawaiian Schefflera Brassaia arboricola


(also B. actinophylla, Schefflera arboricola)
Family - Araliaceae
80 genera of dicots - herbs, shrubs, trees, vines
Temp. Cool to medium
Light Medium to high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Spider mite, scale, root rot
Prop. Seed, cutting
Notes More bushy and compact than B. actinophylla; attractive shrub.

9. English Ivy Hedera helix


Family - Araliaceae
Temp. Cool to medium
Light Medium to very high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Spider mite, scale
Prop. Tip cutting, nodal cuttings
Notes Used as for hanging basket, dish gardens; terrariums; does poorly in low light

10. Norfolk Island Pine Araucaria heterophylla


Family - Araucariaceae
Two genera of gymnosperms. Large pine-like trees; high light; won't take a freeze
Temp. Medium
Light High
Moist. Moist
Pests-Dis. Spider mite
Prop. Tip cuttings, seed
Notes Used for specimen, atrium, terrarium; seasonal use as Christmas tree

11. Iron Cross Begonia Begonia masoniana


Family - Begoniaceae
3 genera of dicots; herbs with lopsided leaves
Temp. High
Light Medium to high
Moist. Moist
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Pests-Dis. Mealybug, aphid, whitefly, root rot, powdery meldew
Prop. Leaf sections
Notes Used for terrarium, pot plants; best in cool greenhouse, need high humidity; attractive
foliage accent.

12. Silver Vase Aechmea fasciata


Family - Bromeliaceae - Pineapple Family
44 genera of monocots; mostly epiphytic; stiff leaves which are colored toward base;
leaves basal or rosette forming to hold water
Temp. Cool to medium
Light Medium to high
Moist. Dry
Pests-Dis. No insect problem, root rot
Prop. Tissue culture, division
Notes Floral accent, pot plant; flowers last 4 -6 months, easy to grow

13. Mammillaria Cactus Mammillaria albilanata


Family - Cactaceae - Cactus Family
50 to 150 genera of dicots; succulents found in drier regions of tropical areas; leaves
reduced to spines; flowers showy and solitary
Temp. High
Light Very high
Moist. Dry
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, root rot
Prop. Seed, division
Notes Very attractive; used for dish garden and as a pot plant; keep dry during winter months.

14. Jade Plant Crassula argentea


Family - Crassulaceae - Orpine Family
35 genera of succulent herbs or undershrubs; annuals or perennials; includes Sedum,
Sempervivum, Kalanchoe
Temp. Cool, medium, high
Light Medium to very high
Moist. Dry
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, scale aphid, spider mite; root and stem rot
Prop. Stem cuttings
Notes Very tolerant of all conditions; prefers high light; sensitive to salty soil; used for bonsai,
specimen.

15. Crown of Thorns Euphorbia splendens (E. milii splendens)


Family - Euphorbiaceae - Spurge Family
290 genera of dicots with often milky sap; herbs, shrubs and trees; frequently cactus-
like
Temp. Medium to high
Light High to very high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, root rot
Prop. Stem cuttings
Notes Thorny; very good indoor plant for warm sunny areas

16. African Milk Tree Euphorbia trigona


Family - Euphorbiaceae
Temp. Medium to high
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Light High
Moist. Dry
Pests-Dis. Spider mite, mealybug, root rot
Prop. Stem cuttings
Notes Prefers dry, high-light areas; durable; latex poisonous.

17. African Violet Saintpaulia ionantha


Family - Gesneriaceae
moist tropical herbs and creepers; leaves frequently colored above or below and hairy
Temp. Medium to high
Light Very high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Spider mite, cyclamen mite, root and stem rot
Prop. Tissue culture, seed, leaf cuttings
Notes Most popular flowering house plant; avoid chilling.

18. Swedish Ivy Plectranthus australis


Family - Lamiaceae - Mint Family
180 genera of dicots with square stems; aromatic
Temp. Medium to high
Light Low to high
Moist. Moist
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, spider mite, root rot
Prop. Tip cutting; nodal cutting
Notes Very easy to grow, does not like chilling; sap stains skin and clothing orange.

19. Variegated Spider Plant Chlorophytum comosum 'Vittatum'


Family - Liliaceae - Lily Family
335 genera of monocots; herbaceous perennials; flowers often showy; grow from
rhizomes, corms or bulbs; includes lily, daylily, tulip, onion, daffodil, hyacinth
Temp. Cool to high
Light Medium to high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Scale, mealybug, spider mite
Prop. Division, stolons; tissue culture
Notes Good for hanging basket; sensitive to fluoride damage.

79
20. Sprenger Asparagus Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri'
Family - Liliaceae
Temp. Cool to high
Light High to very high
Moist. Dry
Pests-Dis. Spider mite
Prop. Seed
Notes Used for hanging baskets and cut foliage; very durable; easy to grow; does best under
high light conditions.

21. Weeping Fig Ficus benjamina


Family - Moraceae - Mulberry Family
53 genera of dicots; trees and shrubs - rarely herbs; milky sap
Temp. Cool to high
Light Medium to very high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Spider mite, mealybug, scale
Prop. Tip cutting, air layering
Notes Most common indoor tree; used as specimen, bonsai, pot plant; avoid drying, drafts,
low lights; requires acclimatization; grow up to 70 feet.

22. Rubber Plant Ficus elastica


Family - Moraceae
Temp. Cool to high
Light Medium to very high
Moist. Moist
Pests-Dis. Scale, mealybug
Prop. Air-layering, tip cuttings; tissue culture
Notes Many different cultivars; used as specimen, pot plant; can be used for exterior.

23. Cattleya Orchid Cattleya sp.


Family - Orchidaceae - Orchid Family
735 genera of monocots; herbaceous perennials; epiphytic, saprophytic, or terrestrial;
stem often with pseudobulbs and aerial roots; one of the largest families of flowering
plants
Temp. High
Light Very high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Scale, spider mite, mealybug
Prop. Division, protocorm culture; seed
Notes Flower initiation takes place at 2000-3500 fc; a large number of hybrids exists; used for
flowering pot or corsages; slow growing.

24. Variegated Peperomia Peperomia obtusifolia 'Variegata'


Family - Piperaceae
tropical herbs and vines; small flowers without petals or sepals
Temp. Medium to high
Light High to very high
Moist. Medium to dry
Pests-Dis. Mealybug, spider mite, root and stem rot
Prop. Tip cuttings, leaf cuttings
Notes Used for terrarium, dish gardens.

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25. Dallas Fern Nephrolepis exaltata 'Dallas'
Family - Polypodiaceae - Ferns (Pteridophytes)-Common Fern Family
most common ferns; no distinct trunk; nonflowering plants reproducing from
spores
Temp. Medium to high
Light High to very high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Spider mite, mealybug, scale, whitefly, root rot
Prop. Division, tissue culture
Notes Used for hanging basket, pot plant; burns in direct sun; more compact than the Boston
fern.

26. Staghorn Fern Platycerium bifurcatum


Family - Polypodiaceae
Temp. Medium to high
Light Medium to very high
Moist. Medium
Pests-Dis. Spider mite, scale, root rot
Prop. Spore, division
Notes Used for hanging basket or slab; epiphytic; attractive fronds.

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PLANTS FOR INTERIORS
LISTING BY PLANT FAMILIES

ACANTHACEAE
Aphelandra squarrosa Zebra Plant
Beloperone guttata Shrimp Plant
Crossandra infundibuliformis Crossandra
Fittonia minima Miniature Silver Nerve Fittonia
Fittonia vershaffeltii 'Pearlei' Pink Nerve Fittonia
Fittonia vershaffeltii 'Argyroneura' White Nerve Fittonia
Graptophylum pictum Caricature Plant
Hemigraphis 'Exotica' Purple Waffle Plant
Hypoestes sanguinolenta Polka Dot Plant or Freckle Face
Pachystachys lutea Lollipop Plant
Jacobinia carnea Pink Lollipop Plant
Pseuderanthemum atropurporeum tricolor
Sanchezia speciosa Tiger Plant

AGAVACEAE
Agave americana Century Plant
Agave angustifolia marginata Variegated Caribbean Agave
Agave attenuata Dragon Tree Agave
Beaucarnea recurvata Ponytail or Elephant-Foot Tree
Cordyline terminalis Baby Doll Dracaena
Cordyline stricta Cordyline
Dracaena craigii 'Compacta' Compact Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Bausei' Striped Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig' Janet Craig Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' Warneckii Dracaena
Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana' Corn Plant
Dracaena godseffiana 'Florida Beauty' Gold Dust Dracaena
Dracaena marginata Dragon Tree of Madagascar
Dracaena marginata 'Tricolor' Tricolor Dragon Tree
Dracaena sanderiana Ribbon Plant
Dracaena thalioides Lance Dracaena
Pleomele reflexa Pleomele
Pleomele reflexa 'Variegata' Song of India Pleomele
Sansevieria intermedia Pygmy Bowstring
Sansevieria trifasciata Snake Plant
Sansevieria trifasciata 'Golden Hahnii' Golden Birdsnest Sansevieria
Sansevieria trifasciata laurentii Variegated Snake Plant or Birdsnest Sansevieria
Yucca elephantipes False Agave

AIZOACEAE
Lithops leslii Living Stones

AMARANTHACEAE
Alternanthera versicolor Joseph's Coat
Iresine herbstii 'Aureo-reticulata' Clown Plant
Iresine lindenii Bloodleaf or Achyranthus
Iresine lindenii formosa Bloodleaf or Achyranthus

AMARYLLIDACEAE
Clivia miniata Kaffir Lily
Eucharis grandiflora Eucharis Lily
Hippeastrum spp. Amaryllis
Nerine bowdenii Naked Lady Lily

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APOCYNACEAE
Mandevilla splendens Alice DuPont Mandevilla
Mandevilla sanderi 'Rosea' Rose Dipladenia
Nerium oleander Oleander

ARACEAE
Aglaonema commutatum maculatum Silver Chinese Evergreen
Aglaonema commutatum 'Pseudo bracteum' Golden Chinese Evergreen
Aglaonema commutatum 'Treubii' Variegated Chinese Evergreen
Aglaonema crispum Painted Droptongue
Aglaonema modestum Chinese Evergreen
Anthurium scherzeranum Flamingo Flower
Caladium spp. Caladium
Diffenbachia amoena Giant Dumbcane
Dieffenbachia 'Exotica' Dumbcane
Dieffenbachia oerstedii 'Variegata' Velvet Dumbcane
Dieffenbachia maculata Spotted Dumbcane
Dieffenbachia maculata 'Rudolph Roehrs' Gold Dieffenbachia
Epipremnum aureum Golden Pothos
Epipremnum aureum 'Marble Queen' Marble Queen Pothos
Monstera deliciosa 'Variegata' Variegated Split-Leaved Philodendron
Monstera deliciosa Split-Leaved Philodendron
Monstera guttiferum Angel Winged Philodendron
Monstera friedrichsthalii Windowleaf Philodendron
Philodendron bipennifolium Horsehead Philodendron
Philodendron x 'Burgundy' Purple Prince Philodendron
Philodendron cannifolium Flask Philodendron
Philodendron hastatum Spade-Leaf Philodendron
Philodendron scandens oxycardium Heart-Leaf Philodendron
Philodendron micans Velvet-Leaf Philodendron
Philodendron mortianum Giant Philodendron
Philodendron panduraeforme Fiddle-Leaf Philodendron
Philodendron selloum Tree Philodendron
Philodendron squamiferum Red Bristly Philodendron
Scindapsus pictus 'Argyraeus' Satin Pathos
Spathiphyllum clevelandii Peace Lily or White Flag
Syngonium auritum Five Fingers Syngonium
Syngonium podophyllum Arrowhead or Nephthytis
Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly' White Butterfly Nephthytis
Zamioculcas zamiifolia ZZ Plant

ARALIACEAE
Brassaia actinophylla Schefflera or Umbrella Tree
Brassaia arboricola Hawaiian Schefflera
Dizygotheca elegantissima False Aralia
Fatsia japonica Japanese Aralia
Fatshedera x lizei Tree Ivy, Botanical Wonder
Hedera canariensis Algerian Ivy
Hedera canariensis variegata Variegated Algerian Ivy
Hedera helix English Ivy
Hedera helix 'Glacier' Glacier Ivy
Hedera helix 'Golddust' Golddust Ivy
Hedera helix 'Needlepoint' Needlepoint Ivy
Hedera helix 'Scutifolia' Sweetheart Ivy
Polyscias balfouriana Balfour Aralia
Polyscias balfouriana marginata Variegated Balfour Aralia
Polyscias fruticosa Ming Aralia
Polyscias guilfoylei 'Victoriae' Lace Aralia
Tupidanthus calyptratus Tupidanthus

ARAUCARIACEAE
Araucaria bidwillii Monkey Puzzle, Bunya Bunya Tree
Araucaria heterophylla Norfolk Island Pine

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ARECACEAE
Caryota mitis Cluster Fishtail Palm
Caryota obtusa Fishtail Palm
Chamaedorea elegans 'bella' Neanthe Bella Palm
Chamaedorea seifrizii Bamboo Palm
Chamaerops humilis European Fan Palm
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Areca Palm, Butterfly Palm
Howea forsteriana Kentia Palm
Phoenix roebelenii Pigmy Date Palm, Dwarf Date Palm
Rhapis excelsa Lady Palm

ASCLEPIADACEAE
Ceropegia ampliata Lantern Flower
Ceropegia woodii String of Hearts
Hoya bella Miniature Wax Plant
Hoya carnosa Wax Plant
Hoya carnosa rubra
Hoya carnosa 'Tricolor' Tricolor Wax Plant
Hoya carnosa 'Variegata' Variegated Wax Plant
Hoya compacta Hindu Rope
Hoya compacta 'Variegata' Variegated Wax Plant
Hoya keysii Queensland Wax Plant
Hoya 'Silver Pink' Silver Pink Hoya
Stapelia gigantea Giant Toad Plant
Stephanotis floribunda Stephanotis, Wedding Flower

ASTERACEAE
Gynura aurantiaca Velvet Plant
Gynura sarmentosa Trailing Velvet Plant
Senecio macroglossus variegatus Variegated Wax Ivy
Senecio mikaioides Parlor Ivy, German Ivy
Senecio herreianus String of Beads
Senecop rowleyanus String of Pearls
Senecio serpens Blue Chalksticks

BEGONIACEAE
Begonia bowerii Eyelash Begonia
Begonia 'Chantilly Lace'
Begonia foliosa
Begonia 'Lucerna' Angelwing Begonia
Begonia masoniana Iron Cross Begonia
Begonia rex Rex Begonia
Begonia semperflorens 'Charm' Charm Begonia

BIGNONIACEAE
Radermachera sinica China Doll

BROMELIACEAE
Aechmea chantinii
Aechmea rhodocyanea Silver Urn Plant
Aechmea fulgens discolor Coralberry
Ananas comosus Pineapple
Ananas comosus variegatus Variegated Pineapple
Billbergia nutans Queen's Tears
Cryptanthus roseus pictus Earth Star
Gusmania musaica Mosaic Vase
Neoregelia carolinae 'Tricolor' Tricolor Neoregelia

BUXACEAE
Buxus microphylla japonica Japanese Little Leaf Boxwood

CACTACEAE
Astrophytum myriostigma Bishop's Cap
Cephatocereus senilis Oldman's Cactus
Cereus peruvianus 'Monstrosus' Giant Club
84
Echinocactus grusonii Golden Barrel
Epiphyllum ackermannii Red Orchid Cactus
Epiphyllum cooperi White Orchid Cactus
Ferocactus lastispinus Devil's Tongue
Gymnocalycium mihanovichii Plain Chin Cactus
Mammilaria celsian
Mammilaria collinsii
Mammilaria elongata Golden Star
Opuntia basilaris
Opuntia microdasys 'Albispina' Bunny Ears
Opuntia microdasys rufida Red Bunny Ears
Opuntia subulata Eve's Pin Cactus
Rhipsalis cereuscula Coral Cactus
Schlumbergera bridgesii Christmas Cactus
Schlumbergera truncata Thanksgiving Cactus

CELASTRACEAE
Euonymus japonicus Euonymus
Euonymus japonicus variegatus Variegated Euonymus

CLUSIACEAE
Clusia rosea Fat Pork Tree

COMMELINACEAE
Callisia elegans Striped Inch Plant
Cyanotis kewensis Teddy Bear Plant
Rheo spathaceae Moses on a Raft
Setcreasea purpurea Purple Heart
Tradescantia albiflora 'Albo-Vittata' Giant White Inch Plant
Tradescantia fluminensis 'Variegata' Variegated Wandering Jew
Tradescantia multiflora Tahitian Bridal Veil
Tradescantia silamontana White Velvet Tradescantia
Zebrina pendula Wander Jew

CORNACEAE
Aucuba japonica 'Variegata' Gold Dust Tree

CRASSULACEAE
Aeonium arboreum 'Atropurpureum' Tree Aeonium
Aeonium hawarthii Pinwheel
Crassula arborescens Silver Dollar
Crassula argentea Jade Plant
Crassula argentea 'Variegata' Variegated jade Plant
Crassula flacata Propeller Plant
Crassula tetragona Miniature Pine Tree
Echeveria 'Doris Taylor' Wooly Rose
Echeveria gilva Green Mexican Rose
Echeveria pulvinata Plush Plant
Graptopetalum paraguayense Ghost Plant, Mother-of-Pearl
Gassulaceae huerina spp. Dragon Flower
Kalanchoe beharensis Velvet Leaf
Kalanchoe daigremonitana Maternity Plant
Kalanchoe marmorata Pen Wiper
Kalanchoe tomentosa Panda Bear Plant
Kalanchoe tubiflora Chandelier Plant
Pachyphytum oviferum Moonstones
Sedum morganianum Burro Tail

CYCADACEAE
Cycas circinalis Fern Palm
Cycas revoluta Sago Palm

CYPERACEAE
Cyperus alternifolius Umbrella Plant
Cyperus papyrus Papyrus
85
EUPHORBIACEAE
Acalypha hispida Chenille Plant, Foxtail
Acalypha wikesiana macafeana Copper Leaf
Codiauem variegatum pictum 'Bravo' Croton
Euphorbia mammilaris Indian Corncob
Euphorbia pseudocactus
Euphorbia pulcherrima Poinsettia
Euphorbia splendens prostrata Crown of Thorns
Euphorbia tirucalli Pencil Tree
Euphorbia trigona African Milk Tree
Pedilanthus tithymaloides 'Variegatus' Redbird Cactus, Devil's Backbone

FARBACEAE
Mimosa pudica Sensitive Plant

GESNERIACEAE
Aeschynanthus lobbianus Lipstick Plant
Aeschynanthus marmoratus Black Pagoda
Chrysothemis folgens Sunset Plant
Columnea microphylla Miniature Lipstick Plant
Episcia cupreata Flame Violet
Nautilocalyx lynchii Purple Shrub Violet
Saintpaulia ionantha African Violet
Sinningia speciosa Gloxinia
Streptocarpus rexii Cape Primrose
Streptocarpus saxorum False African Violet

LAMIACEAE
Coleus blumei Coleus
Plectranthus australis Swedish Ivy, Creeping Charlie
Plectranthus coleoides 'Marginatus' Candle Plant
Plectranthus oertendahii Prostrate Charlie
Plectranthus purpuratus Moth King

LEEACEAE
Leea coccinea West Indian Holly

LILIACEAE
Aloe aristata Lace Aloe
Aloe barbadensis Aloe Vera, Medicine Plant
Aloe variegata Tiger Aloe
Asparagus densiflorus ‘Meyeri’ Plume Asparagus Fern
Asparagus densiflorus ‘Sprengeri’ Sprenger Asparagus
Asparagus setaceus Asparagus Fern
Aspidistra elatior Cast Iron Plant
Aspidistra elatior 'Variegata' Variegated Cast Iron Plant
Chlorophytum comosum Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Variegatum' Inside-Out Spider Plant
Chlorphytum comosum 'Vittatum' Variegated Spider Plant
Haworthia cuspidata Star Window Plant
Haworthia fasciata Fairy Washboard
Haworthia margaritifera Pearl Plant
Haworthia reinwardtii

MALVACEAE
Abutilon x hybridum Chinese Lantern
Abutilon x hybridum 'Souvenir de Bonn' Variegated Flowering Maple
Abutilon megapotamicum Hanging Chinese Lantern
Abutilon pictum 'Thompsonii' Flowering Maple
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Chinese Hibiscus, Rose of China
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cooperi Variegated Hibiscus

86
MARANTACEAE
Calathea clossonii
Calathea insignis Rattlesnake Plant
Calathea makoyana Peacock Plant
Calathea picturata 'Argentea'
Calathea roseo-picta
Maranta leuconeura 'Erythroneura' Red-Veined Prayer Plant
Maranta leuconeura kerchoveana Prayer Plant

MORACEAE
Ficus benjamina Weeping fig
Ficus benjamina 'Exotica' Javan Fig
Ficus deltoidea Mistletoe Fig
Ficus elastica 'Decora' Rubber Plant
Ficus elastica 'Honduras' Variegated Rubber Plant
Ficus elastica 'Variegata' Variegated Rubber Tree
Ficus lyrata Fiddle Leaf Fig
Ficus palmeri Mexican Blue Fig
Ficus petiolaris Redvein Mexican Blue Fig
Ficus pumila Creeping Fig
Ficus retusa nitida Indian Laurel
Ficus rubignosa Rusty Fig
Ficus rubignosa 'Variegata' Variegated Rusty Fig

MUSACEAE
Musa acuminata Dwarf Banana

MYRSINACEAE
Ardisia crispa Coral Berry

NICTAGINACEAE
Bougainvillea glabra Bougainvillea
Bougainvillea glabra 'Raspberry Ice' Variegated Bougainvillea
Pisonia umbellifera 'Variegata' Bird Catcher Tree

OLEACEAE
Jasminum sambac Arabian Jasmine
Jasminum polyanthum Pink Jasmine

ORCHIDACEAE
Cattleya spp. Lady of the Night Orchid
Cymbidium spp. Cymbidium Orchid
Dendrobium spp. Dendrobium Orchid
Epidendrum spp. Fiery Reed Orchid
Miltonia spp. Pansy Orchid
Oncidium spp. Dancing Doll Orchid
Paphiopedilum spp. Lady Slipper Orchid
Phalaenopsis spp. Moth Orchid
Vanda spp. Vanda Orchid
Vanilla planifolia Vanilla Orchid
OXALIDACEAE
Oxalis regnellii 'rubra alba' Oxalis
Oxalis rubra Pink Oxalis

PANDANACEAE
Pandanus veitchii Veitch Screw Pine

PASSIFLORACEAE
Passiflora caerulea Passion Flower

PIPERACEAE
Peperomia astrid
Peperomia caperata 'Emerald Ripple' Emerald Ripple Peperomia
Peperomia griseoargentea Silver Leaf Peperomia
Peperomia griseoargentea 'Blackie' Dark Silver Leaf Peperomia
87
Peperomia incana Felted Peperomia
Peperomia obtusifolia Baby Rubber Plant
Peperomia obtusifolia variegata Variegated Baby Rubber Plant
Peperomia rubella Pepe Peperomia
Peperomia sandersii Watermelon Peperomia
Peperomia scandens Philodendron Peperomia
Peperomia scandens 'Variegata' Variegated Philodendron Peperomia
Peperomia viridis

PITTOSPORACEAE
Pittosporum tobira Mock Orange
Pittosporum tobira 'Variegata' Variegated Mock Orange

POACEAE
Oplismenus hirtellus 'Variegatus' Ribbon Grass

PODOCARPACEAE
Podocarpus macrophylla Buddhist Pine
Podocarpus macrophyllus 'Maki' Japanese Yew Pine
Podocarpus gracilior Fern Pine

POLYGONACEAE
Coccoloba latifolia Sea Grape

POLYPODIACEAE
Adiatum cuneatum Delta Maidenhair Fern
Adiatum mircophyllum Maidenhair Fern
Alsophila australis Australia Tree Fern
Asplenium nidus Birdnest Fern
Asplenium bulbiferum Mother Fern
Crytomium falcatum 'Rochefordianum' Rochford Holly Fern
Davallia fejeensis Rabbit's Foot Fern
Davallia trichomanoides Squirrel's Foot Fern
Nephrolepis exaltata bostoniensis Boston Fern
Nephrolepis exaltata 'Florida Ruffles' Florida Ruffles Fern
Nephrolepis exaltata 'Fluffy Ruffles' Dwarf Feather Fern
Nephrolepis exaltata 'Whitmanii' Feather Fern
Pellaea rotundifolia Button Fern
Phlebodium aureum Hare's Foot Fern
Platycerium wilhelminae reginae Staghorn Fern
Polystichum tsus-simense Leather Fern
Pteris cretica Table Fern
Pteris ensiformis 'Victoria' Victoria Table Fern
Stenochlaena palustris Climbing Fern

PORTULACACEAE
Portulacaria afra Elephant Bush
Portulacaria afra 'Variegata' Variegated Elephant Bush

PRIMULACEAE
Cyclamen percicum Cyclamen

RUBIACEAE
Gardenia jasminoides Gardenia
Ixora spp. Jungle Geranium
Coffea arabica Coffee Plant

RUTACEAE
Citrus mitis Calamondin

SAXIFRAGACEAE
Saxifraga stolonifera Strawberry Begonia
Saxifraga stolonifera 'Tricolor' Variegated Strawberry Begonia
Tolmiea menziesii Piggy-back Plant

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SELAGENELLACEAE
Selaginella lepidophylla Resurrection Plant
Selaginella kraussiana Creeping Moss

STRELITZIACEAE
Strelitzia nicolai Giant Bird of Paradise
Strelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise

URTICACEAE
Helxine soleirolii Baby's Tears
Pellionia pulchera Satin Pellionia
Pilea cadierei Aluminum Plant
Pilea depressa Creeping Pilea
Pilea involucrata Friendship Plant
Pilea microphylla Artillery Plant
Pilea 'Moon Valley' Moon Valley Pilea
Pilea 'Silver Tree' Silver Tree Pilea
Pilea spruceana 'Norfolk' Norfolk Pilea

VERBENACEAE
Clerodendrum thomsoniae Bleeding Heart Plant

VITACEAE
Cissus adenopoda Pink Cissus
Cissus antarctica Kangaroo Vine
Cissus rotundifolia Arabian Wax Cissus
Cissus quadrangula Veldt Grape
Cissus rhombifolia Grape Ivy
Cissus rhombifolia 'Ellen Danica' Oak-Leaf Grape Ivy

ZAMIACEAE
Zamia furfuracea Cardboard Palm

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PLANTS FOR HIGH-LIGHT SITUATIONS

These plants will tolerate or excel in situations with an interior light level of 1000 Foot Candles or more. Remember that
temperature levels are not a consideration for this list.

Abutilon hybridum 'Fireball' Chinese Lantern


Abutilon pictum 'Thompsonii' Flowering Maple
Acalypha hispida Chenille Plant or Foxtail
Acalypha wikesiana macafeana Copper Leaf
Aeonium arboreum 'Atropurpreum' Tree Aeonium
Aeonium hawarthii Pinwheel
Agave americana Century Plant
Agave angustifolia marginata Variegated Caribbean Agave
Agave attenuata Dragon Tree Agave
Agave victoriae-reginae
Aloe aristida Lace Aloe
Aloe barbadensis Aloe Vera
Aloe variegata Tiger Aloe
Alternanthera versicolor Joseph's Coat
Aphelandra squarrosa Zebra Plant
Araucaria bidwilli Monkey Puzzle
Araucaria heterophylla Norfolk Island Pine
Ardisia crispa Coral Berry
Asparagus meyeri Plume Asparagus Fern
Asparagus plumosus Plumosa Fern
Asparagus sprengeri Sprenger Asparagus
Aspidistra elatior Cast Iron Plant
Aspidistra elatior 'Variegata' Variegated Cast Iron Plant
Beaucarnea recurvata Ponytail or Elephant-Foot Tree
Beloperone guttata Shrimp Plant
Bougainvillea glabra Bougainvillea
Brassaia actinophylla Schefflera or Umbrella Tree
Brassaia arboricola Hawaiian Schefflera
Buxus microphylla japonica Japanese Little Leaf Boxwood
Caryota obtusa
Cephatocereus senilis Oldman's Cactus
Chlorophytum comosum Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Variegatum' Inside-Out Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Vittatum' Variegated Spider Plant
Chrysal idocarpus lulescens
Cissus antarctica Kangaroo Vine
Cissus arabica Arabian Wax Cissus
Cissus rhombifolia Grape Ivy
Cissus rhombifolia Oak-Leaf Grape Ivy
Citrus mitis Calamondin
Clusia rosea Fat Pork Tree
Coffea arabica Coffea Plant
Coldiaeum variegatum pictum 'Bravo' Croton
Cordyline terminalis Baby Doll Dracaena
Crassula arborescens Silver Dollar
Crassula argentea Jade Plant
Crassula argentea 'Variegata' Variegated Jade Plant
Crassula falcata Propeller Plant
Crassula tetragona Miniature Pine Tree
Dieffenbachia picta 'Rudolph Roehrs' Gold Dieffenbachia
Dipteracanthus portellae Monkey Plant
Dizygotheca elegantissima False Aralia
Dracaena craigii 'Compacta' Compact Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Bausei' Stripped Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig' Janet Craig Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckei' Warneckei Dracaena
Dracaena fragrans massangeana Corn Plant
Dracaena godseffiana 'Florida Beauty' Gold Dust Dracaena
Dracaena marginata Dragon Tree of Madagascar
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Dracaena marginata 'Tricolor' Tricolor Dragon Tree
Dracaena sanderiana Ribbon Plant
Dracaena thalioides Lance Dracaena
Echeveria 'Doris Taylor' Wooly Rose
Echeveria gilva Green Mexican Rose
Echeveria pulvinata Plush Plant
Epidendrum spp.
Euphorbia mammilaris Indian Corncob
Euphorbia pseudocactus
Euphorbia pulcherrima Poinsettia
Euphorbia splendens prostrata Crown of Thorns
Euphorbia tirucalli Pencil Tree
Fatshedera lizei Tree Ivy
Fatsia japonica Japanese Aralia
Ficus benjamina Weeping Fig
Ficus benjamina 'Exotica' Weeping Fig
Ficus deltoides Mistletoe Fig
Ficus elastica 'Decora' Rubber Plant
Ficus elastica 'Honduras' Variegated Rubber Plant
Ficus elastica variegata Variegated Rubber Tree
Ficus lyrata Fiddle Leaf Fig
Ficus petifolia
Ficus petiolaris var. petiolaris Redvein Mexican Blue Fig
Ficus petiolaris var. palmeri Mexican Blue Fig
Ficus pumila Creeping Fig
Ficus retusa nitida Indian Laurel
Ficus rubignosa Rusty Fig
Ficus rubignosa 'Variegata' Variegated Rusty Fig
Gardenia jasminoides Gardenia
Graptopetalum paraguayense Ghost Plant or Mother-of-Pearl
Gynura aurantiaca Velvet Plant
Gynura sarmentosa Trailing Velvet Plant
Haworthia cuspidata Star Window Plant
Haworthia fasciata Fairy Washboard
Hawthoria margaritifera Pearl Plant
Haworthia reinwardtii
Hedera canariensis variegata Algerian Ivy
Hedera helix English Ivy
Hedera helix 'Golddust' Golddust Ivy
Hedera helix 'Needlepoint' Needlepoint Ivy
Hedera helix 'Scutifolia' Sweetheart Ivy
Hemigraphis 'Exotica' Purple Waffle Plant
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Huerina spp. Dragon Flower
Iresine lindenii Bloodleaf or Achyranthus
Iresine lindenii formosa Bloodleaf or Achyranthus
Ixora spp. Jungle Geranium
Jasminum sambac Arabian Jasmine
Kalanchoe beharensis Velvet Leaf
Kalanchoe daigremontiana Maternity Plant
Kalanchoe marmorata Pen Wiper
Kalanchoe tomentosa Panda Bear Plant
Kalanchoe tubiflora Chandelier Plant
Musa acuminata Dwarf Banana
Oxalis regnellii 'Rubra Alba' Oxalis
Oxalis rubra Pink Oxalis
Pachyphytum oviferum Moonstones
Pedilanthus tithymaloides 'Variegatus' Redbird Cactus or Devil's Backbone
Pisonia umbellifera 'Variegata' Bird Catcher Tree
Pittosporum tobira Mock Orange
Pittosporum tobira 'Variegatum' Variegated Mock Orange
Pleomele angustifolia honoriae Narrow-Leaved Pleomele
Polyscias balfouriana Balfour Aralia
Polyscias balfouriana marginata Variegated Balfour Aralia
Polyscias fruticosa Ming Aralia
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Polyscias quilfoylei 'Victoriae' Lace Aralia
Portulacaria afra Elephant Bush
Portulacaria afra 'Variegata' Variegated Elephant Bush
Sansevieria intermedia Pygmy Bowstring
Sansevieria trifasciata Snake Plant
Sansevieria trifasciata 'Golden Hahnii' Golden Birdsnest Sansevieria
Sansevieria trifasciata hahnii Birdsnest Sansevieria
Sansevieria trifasciata laurentii Snake Plant
Sedum morganianum Burro Tail
Senecio macroglossus variegatus Variegated Wax Ivy
Senecio mikaioides Parlor Ivy or German Ivy
Senecio rowleyanus String of Pearls
Senecio serpens Blue Chalksticks
Strelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
Syngonium podophyllum Arrowhead or Nephthytis
Tupidanthus calyptratus Tupidanthus
Vanda spp. Vanda Orchids
Yucca elephantipes False Agave

PLANTS FOR LOW-LIGHT SITUATIONS

These plants will tolerate light levels of less than 300 Foot Candles. Usually in these situations, plants will grow very slowly
or not at all, and care should be taken not to apply too much water or fertilizer.

Aechmea rhodocyanea Coralberry


Aglaonema commutatum 'Psuedo bracteum' Golden Chinese Evergreen
Aglaonema commutatum 'Treubii'
Aglaonema commutatum macultatum Silver Chinese Evergreen
Aglaonema crispum
Aglaonema modestum Chinese Evergreen
Aspidistra elatior Cast Iron Plant
Aspidistra elatior 'Variegata' Variegated Cast Iron Plant
Aucuba japonica variegata Gold Dust Tres
Chlorophytum comosum Spider Plant
Clivia miniata
Epipremnum aureus Golden Pothos
Epipremnum aureus 'Marble Queen' Marble Queen Pothos
Ficus elastica 'Decora' Rubber Plant
Maranta leuconeura kerchoveana Prayer Plant
Monstera deliciosa Split-Leaved Philodendron
Peperomia obtusifolia Baby Rubber Plant
Philodendron cannifolium Flask Philodendron
Philodendron oxycardium Heart-Leaf Philodendron
Rhoeo spathaceae Moses on a Raft
Spathiphyllum clevelandii Peace Lily or White Flag

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PLANTS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SITUATIONS

These plants will withstand average temperatures between 80o and 95o Fahrenheit. Remember that at approximately 95oF,
plant metabolism stops for most plants, and cooler night temperatures are necessary for survival. With average temperatures
over 100oF, few plants, if any, can be expected to survive.

Agave americana Century Plant


Agave angustifolia marginata Variegated Caribbean Agave
Agave attenuata Dragon Tree Agave
Agave victoriae-reginae
Asparagus sprengeri Sprenger Asparagus
Astrophytum myriostigma Bishop's Cap
Bougainvillea glabra Bougainvillea
Caryota mitis Cluster Fishtail Palm
Caryota obtusa Fishtail Palm
Cephatocereus senillis Oldman's Cactus
Cereus peruvianus 'Mostrosus' Giant Club
Coldiaeum variegatum pictum 'Bravo' Croton
Crassula argentea Jade Plant
Crassula argentea 'Variegata' Variegated Jade Plant
Echinocactus grusonii Golden Barrel
Ferocactus lastispinus Devil's Tongue
Ficus benjamina Weeping Fig
Ficus benjamina 'Exotica' Weeping Fig
Ficus deltoides Mistletoe Fig
Ficus rubignosa Rusty Fig
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Jasminum sambac Arabian Jasmine
Kalanchoe beharensis Velvet Leaf
Kalanchoe tomentosa Panda Bear Plant
Lithops leslii Living Stones
Pandanus veitchii Veitch Screw Pine
Pittosporum tobira Mock Orange
Pittosporum tobira 'Variegatum' Variegated Mock Orange
Sedum morganianum Burro Tail
Yucca elephantipes False Agave

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PLANTS FOR COOL SITUATIONS

These plants will tolerate average temperatures of 50oF to 65oF. they will also do well in normal interior temperature ranges
but are good for placement near cooler windows and entryways.

Abutilon hybridum 'Fireball' Chinese Lantern


Abutilon pictum 'Thompsonii' Flowering Maple
Adiatum cuneatum Delta Maidenhair Fern
Adiatum microphyllum Maidenhair Fern
Ardisia crispa Coral Berry
Asparagus meyeri Plume Asparagus Fern
Asparagus plumosus Plumosa Fern
Asparagus sprengeri Sprenger Asparagus
Aspidistra elatior Cast Iron Plant
Aspidistra elatior 'Variegata' Variegated Cast Iron Plant
Asplenium nidus Birdsnest Fern
Aucuba japonica variegata Gold Dust Tres
Beloperone guttata Shrimp Plant
Brassaia actinophylla Schefflera or Umbrella Tree
Brassaia arboricola Hawaiian Schefflera
Calthea clossonii
Calthea insignis Rattlesnake Plant
Calthea makoyana Peacock Plant
Calthea picturata 'Argentea'
Calthea roseo-picta
Ceropegia woodii String of Hearts
Chlorophytum comosum Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Variegatum' Inside-Out Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Vittatum' Variegated Spider Plant
Cycas revoluta Sago Palm
Cyclamen percicum Cyclamen
Cyrtomium falcatum 'Rochefordianum' Rochford Holly Fern
Davallia fejeensis Rabbit's Foot Fern
Davallia trichomanoides Squirrel's Foot Fern
Dizygotheca elegantissima False Aralia
Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig' Janet Craig Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckei' Warneckei Dracaena
Dracaena fragrans massangeana Corn Plant
Dracaena godseffiana 'Florida Beauty' Gold Dust Dracaena
Dracaena marginata Dragon Tree of Madagascar
Epiphyllum ackermannii Red Orchid Cactus
Epiphyllum cooperi White Orchid Cactus
Euonymus japonicus Euonymus
Fatshedera lizei Tree Ivy
Fatsia japonica Japanese Aralia
Hedera canariensis variegata Algerian Ivy
Hedera helix English Ivy
Hedera helix 'Golddust' Golddust Ivy
Hedera helix 'Needlepoint' Needlepoint Ivy
Hedera helix 'Scutifolia' Sweetheart Ivy
Helxine soleirolii Baby's Tears
Hippeastrum spp. Amaryllis
Hoya carnosa Wax Plant
Hypoestes sanguinolenta Polka-Dot Plant or Freckle Face
Leea coccinea West Indian Holly
Maranta leuconeura 'Erythroneura' Red-Veined Prayer Plant
Maranta leuconerua kerchoveana Prayer Plant
Mimosa pudica Sensitive Plant
Musa acuminata Dwarf Banana
Nephrolepis exaltata 'Florida Ruffles' Flordia Ruffles Fern
Nephrolepis exaltata 'Fluffy Ruffles' Dwarf Feather Fern
Nephrolepis exaltata 'Whitemanii' Feather Fern
Nephrolepis exaltata bostoniensis Boston Fern
Oplismenus hirtelus 'Variegatus' Ribbon Grass
Oxalis regnellii 'Rubra Alba' Oxalis
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Oxalis rubra Pink Oxalis
Passiflora caerulea Passion Flower
Pellaea rotundifolia Button Fern
Pellionia pulchera Satin Pellionia
Phlebodium aureum Hare's Foot Fern
Pilea 'Moon Valley' Moon Valley Pilea
Pilea 'Silver Tree' Silver Tree Pilea
Pilea cadierei Aluminum Plant
Pilea depressa Creeping Pilea
Pilea involucrata Friendship Plant
Pilea microphylla Artillery Plant
Pilea spruceana 'Norfolk' Norfolk Pilea
Pittosporum tobira Mock Orange
Pittosporum tobira 'Variegatum' Variegated Mock Orange
Platycerium wilhelminae reginae Staghorn Fern
Plectranthus australis Swedish Ivy or Creeping Charlie
Podocarpus macrophylla Buddhist Pine
Podocarpus macrophylla maki Japanese Yew Pine
Polystichum tsus-simense Leather Fern
Pteris cretica Table Fern
Pteris ensiformis 'Victoria' Victoria Table Fern
Sansevieria trifasciata Snake Plant
Sansevieria trifasciata laurentti Snake Plant
Saxifraga stolonifera Strawberry Begonia
Saxifraga stolonifera 'Tricolor' Variegated Strawberry Geranium
Stenochlaena palustris Climbing Fern
Tolmiea menziesii Piggy-back Plant
Tradescantia albiflora 'Albo-Vittata' Giant White Inch Plant
Tradescantia fluminensis 'Variegata' Variegated Wandering Jew
Tradescantia multiflora Tahitian Bridal Veil
Tupidanthus calyptratus Tupidanthus
Zamia furfuraceae Cardboard Palm
Zebrina pendula Wandering Jew

95
PLANTS WITH LOW WATER REQUIREMENTS

These plants tolerate low water situations and are valuable for hard to reach or low water areas.

Aechmea chantinii
Aechmea fulgens discolor Coralberry
Aechmea rhodocyanea Silver Urn Plant
Aeonium arboreum 'Atropurpreum' Tree Aeonium
Aeonium hawarthii Pinwheel
Agave americana Century Plant
Agave angustifolia Variegated Caribbean Agave
Agave attenuata Dragon Tree Agave
Agave victoriae-reginae
Aloe aristida Lace Aloe
Aloe barbadensis Aloe Vera
Aloe variegata Tiger Aloe
Ananas comosus Pineapple
Ananas comosus variegatus Variegated Pineapple
Asparagus densiflorus ‘Myers’ Myers Asparagus
Asparagus densiflorua ‘Sprengeri’ Sprenger Asparagus
Asparagus setaceus Asparagus Fern
Aspidistra elatior Cast Iron Plant
Aspidistra elatior 'Variegata' Variegated Cast Iron Plant
Astrophytum myriostigma Bishop's Cap
Beaucarnea recurvata Ponytail or Elephant-Foot Tree
Bilibergia nutans Queen's Tears
Brassaia arboricola Hawaiian Schefflera
Cephatocereus senilis Oldman's Cactus
Cereus peruvianus 'Mostrosus' Giant Club
Ceropegia woodii String of Hearts
Chamaedorea elegans 'Bella' Neanthe Bella Palm
Chamaerops humilis European Fan Palm
Chlorophytum comosum Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Variegatum' Inside-Out Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Vittatum' Variegated Spider Plant
Cordyline terminalis Baby Doll Dracaena
Crassula arborescens Silver Dollar
Crassula argentea Jade Plant
Crassula argentea 'Variegata' Variegated Jade Plant
Crassula falcata Propeller Plant
Crassula tetragona Miniature Pine Tree
Cryptanthus roseus pictus Earth Star
Cycas revoluta Sago Palm
Dracaena craigii 'Compacta' Compact Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Bausei' Stripped Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig' Janet Craig Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckei' Warneckei Dracaena
Dracaena fragrans massangeana Corn Plant
Dracaena godseffiana 'Flordia Beauty' Gold Dust Dracaena
Dracaena marginata Dragon Tree of Madagascar
Dracaena marginata 'Tricolor' Tricolor Dragon Tree
Dracaena sanderiana Ribbon Plant
Dracaena thalioides Lance Dracaena
Echeveria 'Doris Taylor' Wooly Rose
Echeveria gilva Green Mexican Rose
Echeveria pulvinata Plush Plant
Echinocactus grusonii Golden Barrel
Epiphyllum ackermannii Red Orchid Cactus
Epiphyllum cooperi White Orchid Cactus
Euphorbia mammilaris Indian Corncob
Euphorbia tirucalli Pencil Tree
Ferocactus lastispinus Devil's Tongue
Graptopetalum paraguavense Ghost Plant or Mother-of-Pearl
Gymnocalcycium mihanovichii Plain Chin Cactus
Haworthia cuspidata Star Window Plant
96
Haworthia fasciata Fairy Washboard
Haworthia margaritifera Pearl Plant
Haworthia reinwardtii
Hoya 'Silver Pink'
Hoya bella Miniature Wax Plant
Hoya carnosa Wax Plant
Hoya carnosa rubra
Hoya carnosa tricolor Tricolor Wax Plant
Hoya carnosa variegata Variegated Wax Plant
Hoya compacta Hindu Rope
Hoya keysii
Huerina spp. Dragon Flower
Kalanchoe beharensis Velvet Leaf
Kalanchoe daigremontiana Maternity Plant
Kalanchoe marmorata Pen Wiper
Kalanchoe tomentosa Panda Bear Plant
Kalanchoe tubiflora Chandelier Plant
Lithops leslii Living Stones
Mammilaria celsian
Mammilaria collinsii
Mammilaria elongata Golden Star
Neoregelia carolinae tricolor
Opuntia basilaris
Opuntia microdasys 'Albispina' Bunny Ears
Opuntia microdasys rufida Red Bunny Ears
Opuntia subulata Eve's Pin Cactus
Pachyphytum oviferum Moonstones
Pandanus veitchii Veitch Screw Pine
Pedilanthus tithymaloides 'Variegatus' Redbird Cactus or Devil's Backbone
Phoenix roebelenii Pigmy Date Palm or Dwarf Date
Palm
Pleomele angustifolia honoriae Narrow-Leaved Pleomele
Polyscias balfouriana Balfour Aralia
Polyscias balfouriana marginata Variegated Balfour Aralia
Polyscias fruticosa Ming Aralia
Portulacaria afra Elephant Bush
Portulacaria afra 'Variegata' Variegated Elephant Bush
Rhipsalis cereuscula Coral Cactus
Sansevieria intermedia Pygmy Bowstring
Sansevieria trifasciata Snake Plant
Sansevieria trifasciata 'Golden Hahnii' Golden Birdsnest Sansevieria
Sansevieria trifasciata hahnii Birdsnest Sansevieria
Sansevieria trifasciata laurentii Snake Plant
Schlumbergera bridgesii Christmas Cactus
Schlumbergera truncata Thanksgiving Cactus
Sedum morganianum Burro Tail
Stapelia gigantea Giant Toad Plant
Stephanotis floribunda Stephanotis
Strelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
Yucca elephantipes False Agave
Zamia furfuraceae Cardboard Palm

97
PLANTS FOR SMALL SPACES

These plants will keep a low bushy shape in most situations.

Adiatum cuneatum Delta Maidenhair Fern


Adiatum microphyllum Maidenhair Fern
Aechmea rhodocyanea Coralberry
Aglaonema commutatum 'Pseudo-bracteum' Golden Chinese Evergreen
Aglaonema commutatum 'Treubii'
Aglaonema commutatum macultatum Silver Chinese Evergreen
Aglaonema crispum
Aglaonema modestum Chinese Evergreen
Asparagus meyeri Plume Asparagus Fern
Aspidistra elatior Cast Iron Plant
Aspidistra elatior 'Variegata' Variegated Cast Iron Plant
Asplenium nidus Birdsnest Fern
Aucuba japonica variegata Gold Dust Tres
Buxus microphylla japonica Japanese Little Leaf Boxwood
Calthea insignis Rattlesnake Plant
Calthea makoyana Peacock Plant
Chlorophytum comosum Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Variegatum' Inside-Out Spider Plant
Chlorophytum comosum 'Vittatum' Variegated Spider Plant
Cissus rhombifolia Grape Ivy
Cissus rhombifolia 'Danica' Oak-Leaf Grape Ivy
Clivia miniata Cafir Lily
Cordyline terminalis Baby Doll Dracaena
Crassula argentea Jade Plant
Crassula argentea 'Variegata' Variegated Jade Plant
Cycas revoluta Sago Palm
Dieffenbachia 'Exotica' Dumbcane
Dracaena craigii 'Compacta' Compact Dracaena
Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckei' Warneckei Dracaena
Echinocactus grusonii Golden Barrel
Fatsia japonica Japanese Aralia
Ficus pumila Creeping Fig
Kalanchoe tomentosa Panda Bear Plant
Maranta leuconeura 'Erythroneura' Red Veined Prayer Plant
Maranta leuconeura kerchoveana Prayer Plant
Nephrolepis exaltata bostoniensis Boston Fern
Peperomia astrid
Peperomia caperata 'Emerald Ripple' Emerald Ripple Peperomia
Peperomia griseoargentea Silver Leaf Peperomia
Peperomia griseoargentea 'Blackie' Dark Silver Leaf Peperomia
Peperomia incana Felted Peperomia
Peperomia obtusifolia Baby Rubber Plant
Peperomia obtusifolia variegata Variegated Baby Rubber Plant
Peperomia rubella Pepe Peperomia
Peperomia sandersii Watermelon Peperomia
Peperomia scandens
Peperomia scandens 'Variegata'
Peperomia viridis
Philodendron cannifolium Flask Philodendron
Rhoeo spathaceae Moses on a Raft
Sansevieria trifasciata Snake Plant
Sansevieria trifasciata laurentti Snake Plant
Schlumbergera bridgesii Christmas Cactus
Schlumbergera truncata Thanksgiving Cactus
Scindapsis aurerus Golden Pothos
Scindapsis aureus 'Marble Queen' Marble Queen Pathos
Spathiphyllum clevelandii Peace Lily or White Flag

98
PLANTS FOR USE IN SITUATIONS REQUIRING HEIGHT

These plants, in general, can be easily purchased in sizes that allow for a five foot plant or taller.

Araucaria bidwilli Monkey Puzzle


Araucaria heterophylla Norfolk Island Pine
Bougainvillea glabra Bougainvillea
Brassaia actinophylla Schefflera or Umbrella Tree
Brassaia arboricola Hawaiian Schefflera
Caryota obtusa Fishtail Palm
Chamaedorea seifrizii Bamboo Palm
Chrysalidocarpus lulescens Areca Palm or Butterfly Palm
Coffea arabica Coffea Plant
Coldiaeum variegatum pictum 'Bravo' Croton
Dizygotheca elegantissima False Aralia
Dracaena fragrans massangeana Corn Plant
Dracaena marginata Tricolor Dragon Tree
Ficus benjamina Weeping Fig
Ficus benjamina 'Exotica' Weeping Fig
Ficus elastica 'Decora' Rubber Plant
Ficus elastica 'Honduras' Variegated Rubber Plant
Ficust elastica variegata Variegated Rubber Plant
Ficus lyrata Fiddle Leaf Fig
Ficus retusa nitida Indian Laurel
Gardenia jasminoides Gardenia
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Howea belmoreana Pigmy Date Palm or Dwarf Date
Palm
Leea coccinea West Indian Holly
Musa acuminata Dwarf Banana
Pandanus veitchii Veitch Screw Pine
Pisonia umbellifera 'Variegata' Bird Catcher Tree
Pleomele angustifolia honoriae Narrow-Leaved Pleomele
Podocarpus macrophylla Buddhist Pine
Podocarpus macrophylla maki Japanese Yew Pine
Polyscias balfouriana Balfour Aralia
Polyscias balfouriana marginata Variegated Balfour Aralia
Polyscias fruticosa Ming Aralia
Rhapis excelsa Lady Palm
Strelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
Tupidanthus calyptratus Tupidanthus
Yucca elephantipes False Agave

99
Lab Exercise 12
EXERCISE ON FRUITS AND NUTS

I. FRUIT TYPES

Botanically speaking, the fruit of a flowering plant may be defined as a matured ovary and its contents,
together with other flower parts that may sometimes adhere to it.

The ovary wall, known as the pericarp, consists of three layers in fruits: the exocarp, or outer layer,
which is often the skin; the mesocarp, or middle layer, which may become fleshy; and the endocarp,
or inner layer, which is sometimes modified in various ways.

The following is a list of the types of fruits we'll consider:

Achene - a dry, simple fruit that does not dehisce when ripe. (Example: sunflower)

Aggregate - a cluster of fruits derived from a single flower the flower consists of many pistils on a
common receptacle. The individual fruits of the aggregate may be drupes or achenes. (Example:
strawberry)

Berry - a simple fruit in which the entire pericarp is fleshy. It may contain one or more seeds.
(Example: tomato)

Drupe - a simple, fleshy fruit with a single seed enclosed in a stony endocarp or pit. The skin of
these fruits is the exocarp; the fleshy edible portion is the mesocarp. (Example: peach)

Hesperidium - A type of berry in which the rind is made up of exocarp and mesocarp; the "edible"
portion is the endocarp. (Example: orange)

Legume - a simple dry, dehiscent fruit usually splitting along two sutures. (Example: pea)

Multiple Fruit - a fruit which is derived from many separate but closely clustered flowers.
(Example: pineapple)

Nut - a simple, dry indehiscent fruit with a bony shell. (Example: chestnut)

Pepo - a berry with a hard rind made up of exocarp and receptacle tissue. (Example: muskmelon)

Pome - a simple, fleshy fruit in which the inner portion of the pericarp forms a dry paper-like
"core". (Example: apple)

Note the following fruit types:

Dehiscent fruits are those which split apart when ripe.


Indehiscent fruits are those which do not split apart when ripe.
Simple fruit are those which are composed of a single ovary.

100
EDIBLE FRUITS

1. Kumquat. A small tropical citrus used for marmalade and for table decorations. They are
rather bitter even after made into marmalade.

2. Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). Imported from New Zealand. New Zealand has a law that their
import-export ratio must balance so in order to sell them refrigerators and cars, etc.,
we must purchase something. The kiwi has caught the fancy of the Americans and
most who taste it, like it. The small trees are now being planted in California.

3. Grapefruit. So called because the original "wild" type or Pomelo, bears its fruit in large
bunches. The fruit is a citrus or hesperidium, a special type of berry. Note that it is
divided into sections and that the pulp or juice is compartmented into large cell-like
structures within the sections. The grapefruit is subtropical though it is often
produced in more tropical areas. It is best when some cold weather is involved in
its development. The trees are evergreen and develop in alternate "growth flushes"
and "rest periods." It may be easily damaged while in a growth flush but may
withstand 25-26 oF for considerable periods if in rest. The grapefruit is called the
"wake up" fruit and is a favorite for breakfast. It has just a hint of bitterness if you
think it is too sour, you are probably eating too much sugar laden food.

The best grapefruit comes from Texas and the Indian River area of Florida. Look
for smooth skin, slightly flattened, symmetrical shape, heavy for its size. Do not
buy if light or has a sheep-nose shape. Scale insects on the surface should not
affect the internal quality, nor should a russetted surface. Pits on the surface with a
brown color indicate exposure to chilling temperatures and such fruit should be
avoided.

4 Mango. A truly tropical fruit with a large flat seed. They generally are chilled to the point
where they will rot before they ripen and develop their characteristically bright
flavor. They are really good, so do not judge them by their "Fargo flavor".

5. Mandarins. Oranges with a particular bright flavor, generally very juicy and thin skinned. A
different species from the true "orange." Mandarins include the Tangerine, King,
Satsuma, etc., and usually cost more than oranges because they require special
handling and have a short shelf life.

6. Pineapple. Native to Mexico and Central America. Now grown in Hawaii. They are easily
chilled so are seldom good when purchased at Fargo stores. When imported by
boat or from Mexico by train or truck, they may be picked very green if not chilled,
they will ripen satisfactorily. Or they may be picked almost ripe and flown in, in
which case they are very expensive and usually delicious. Even when fully ripe,
they should not be chilled below 45oF. When green, they will chill at temperatures
under 60 oF. Each section appearing on the surface is a fruit, all are fused together
in a giant multiple fruit.

7. Pear. A pome fruit. Note the structure of the core. Till recent years, pears were seasonal
fruits, seen only for a week or two in the stores each year. Now they are harvested
in a green mature condition and placed in a "controlled atmosphere" (CA) storage
where the carbon dioxide is raised to about 3% and the oxygen is lowered to about
5% which puts the living tissue into a suspended state. They may be held this way
for several months in almost perfect condition, then packed and sent to distant
stores, they are still green and will stay "asleep" for two or three weeks. Take them
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home and expose them to room temperatures till they turn yellow. Eat then when
they become just slightly soft and be sure to eat the core and the seeds too. (In CA
they are also kept cold, about 32oF.) What is the ambient concentration of CO2 and
O2 in the atmosphere? If the CA is made to the specifications above, what material
composes the remainder? The most popular and best tasting pear is the Bartlett,
however, it does not store as well as the d'Anjou which is usually larger. The pears
on exhibit may include a variety that is russetted, the Bosc.

8. Tangelo. A cross between the grapefruit (Pomelo) and the tangerine (Mandarin). There are
many types. One called the Mineola has a characteristic sheep-nose. What kind of
fruit is the Tangelo Hybrid?

9. Temple Orange. a cultivar with a bright flavor much like a Mandarin and highly colored and
thin skinned, too.

10. Nuts. Define the nut as a type of fruit! Some of the nuts on exhibit may include the
Coconut, English Walnut, Pecan, Almond, Brazil Nut and Filbert or Hazelnut.
There are some trees of a wild Hazelnut that grow in North Dakota. Their nuts are
very small and are not sold commercially. Acorns may be eaten, too, but
sometimes must have their tannins extracted to avoid poisonous consequences. No
other nut crops are produced in North Dakota. (Peanuts are not nuts, what are
they?)

11. Coconuts. Grow on very tall "fan" palms. The white meat inside is the copra of commerce
from which the oil is extracted. Inside is a liquid endosperm called "milk" because
it is rich in vitamins and growth factors. Outside the copra is a hard shell which
makes the best quality charcoal absorbent for use in gas masks. Surrounded the nut
is a strong fibrous coating that enables the nut to survive falling from the 150 foot
high trees or floating across the salty oceans.
Open the coconut by first driving a nail into two eyes and draining the
milk before smashing the shell with a hammer.

12. Banana. A berry (seeds embedded in the pulp) but the seeds in the popular fruit are mere
remnants. The banana seen in our stores is a bland icky fruit that is almost
flavorless compared to many good bananas. But so it is that it was so chosen you
will have to go to the tropics yourself to partake of the heavenly goodness. As you
see it, the fruit is sent here completely green and ripened when desired by exposure
to ethylene gas. Bananas are easily chilled by putting them in the refrigerator
where they will quickly blacken. If they are already ripe, it won't harm them
internally, however. Bananas belong to the genus Musa. A similar plant of this
genus is the source of Manilla Hemp.

13. Lemons. The variety most popular is the Eureka which normally has two puffy pointed ends.
The Eureka is yellow, but all varieties are not. Lemons are tropical, injured by
light frosts, so limited in the US to California. Highly acid, rich in Vitamin C.
Recent research demonstrated that the Vitamin C is lost rapidly when the lemon is
juiced, even when the juice is stored in cold temperatures! Vitamin C is water
soluble, therefore, your body needs a daily supply.

14. Honeydew Melon.


A pepo berry. The honeydew is very popular with the Semite peoples, but
increasing in use by others as it becomes more available. Remember that it will not
be good until it becomes soft. Put it out at room temperature and wait for it to
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soften which may take 2 days to 2 weeks; be patient. There is a variety that will
mature in North Dakota's short season. Of the melon fruits that can be produced in
North Dakota include the muskmelon and the watermelon.

15. Dried fruits.


An old method of food preparation being revived. Fruits are the most easily
prepared because they contain larger amounts of sugar than vegetables and meats.
Drying was once done in the sun, but the task can be accomplished faster and with
less loss of flavor and nutritious vitamins when forced air dried. The dried fruits
on exhibit are those popularly sold in the grocery such as raisins (dried grapes),
currants (miniature raisins), apricots, pears, apples, plums (prunes), peaches, figs
and dates (fruit of a frond palm).

Drying removes the moisture and leaves the remaining fruit pulp which is very
concentrated. Use care not to eat very much at one time, it is not natural to
consume such highly concentrated foods. You may be surprised at the price of
dried fruits, but if you could the numbers of fruits instead of thinking of it as
weight or quantity, the price is rational. There is some savings in shipping costs of
dried food, but it probably is not enough to balance the cost of drying. Some of the
dried fruit is first sulfured by exposing the fresh material to sulfur dioxide fumes.
This preserves the color, makes the fruit a little more tart, and preserves the
vitamins, which ordinarily are lost in the drying process. There is no indication
that sulfuring is deleterious to health, but some health food "purists" suggest that
this might be a possibility.

16. Limes. Small citrus, very sour, distinctive taste, high in vitamin C. Long before Vitamin C
was understood, the British Navy rationed limes to their sailors to prevent them from
becoming diseased from scurvy. This enables them to compete against the navies of
the world and become superior in sea faring it also gave the British people the name
of "Limey". Purchase limes when they are green. When they begin to ripen to a
yellow color, they begin to dry and lose their juice. Do they lose their Vitamin C,
too?

17. Figs. Seldom seen fresh this far north. Dried figs have been in common use for ages
though. The fig is another "Multiple Fruit". But different from the pineapple
which has its stigmas facing inward. There is a small hole at the bottom of the fig
through which a small wasp can fly to reach the pollen and stigmas and pollinate
them. Considered a tropical fruit, figs can be grown in northern Texas.

18. Apples. Pome fruits in shades of yellow, red and green. One of the more important tree
fruits which can be grown in North Dakota. Haralson is the favorite variety. It is
fairly tart and stays crisp for a considerable period. Haralson is excellent for
cooking. Commercially the variety Delicious is sold most. Delicious is lovely to
look at with its characteristic elongated cheeks on the blossom end.

19. Quince. A pome of ancient history. Fruit which has merited little or no improvement. Used
for cooking, jellies, preserves.

20. Papaya. A tropical American fruit with some of the appearance of a small melon. If the
sweetmushy flavor is objectionable to you, try adding some lemon juice or even salt
and pepper or sugar. Papayas contain papain, an enzyme similar to pepsin, which is
used to tenderize meat. The papaya is a giant herbaceous plant, 25-30 feet high and
is grown in Florida, Texas, California and of course Hawaii from seed.
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21. Strawberry. An aggregate in which the individual fruits are the achenes which are consumed
along with the pulpy mass of receptacle tissue. Strawberries are being produced in
North Dakota gardens, but are seldom sold in stores because of the high cost of
harvesting. Commercial growers harvest by allowing the consumer to pick (PYO),
then charging only a fraction of the cost that would be due a supermarket. The
varieties grown most in North Dakota, Ogallala and Redcoat, are extra hardy.
Strawberries contain more Vitamin C than oranges.

22. Red Raspberry.


Another fruit being produced commercially in North Dakota. Raspberry fruits are
aggregates of tiny drupes. Most popular variety is the Boyne because it withstands
the winter and is disease resistant. Raspberries are customer picked and bring
about twice the price of strawberries.

23. Sweet Orange.


The most popular of the citrus fruits. Orange juice is fed to babies, often their first
food after milk. It is high in Vitamin C. The most flavorsome varieties are the
Blood (not seen in the USA), the Valencia, the Washington Navel, and the Temple.
Other less flavorsome varieties are called "juice" oranges and their quality or
soluble solids content is markedly lower.

24. Gooseberry. A fruit that is produced in North Dakota gardens but hasn't the popularity of
raspberries and strawberries. Perhaps the most popular variety in the U.S. is
"Pixwell" which originated at NDSU. Pixwell gooseberry fruits hang on long
stems well below the thorny stems.

25. Persimmon. Native species are found in the southern states, generally with several seeds. They
are very astringent and pucker your mouth when green. Kakis or Oriental species
are much improved and considered by the Japanese to be one of their best fruits.
The Khaki should be eaten when at the consistency of custard.

26. Peach. Very popular drupe fruit, seen in North Dakota stores in season but seldom of good
quality because it is picked green for the long distance shipment.

27. Cranberry. A favorite at Thanksgiving and Christmas. They are grown in highly specialized
bogs, areas where water for irrigation and flooding can be controlled and the soil is
acid. Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Washington State.

28. Blueberry.
A more recent introduction to commerce. Blueberries are produced on acid soils.
One of the top berry crops of Michigan but giving way to the Carolinas.

29. Plantain (Musa paradisiaca).


Also known as the Cooking Banana and is not suitable to eat without cooking for
its flesh is firm and not so sweet as the common banana.

30. Avocado. Contains up to 18 % vegetable oil so considered more as a main course food than
as a dessert. Most commonly used as a salad with the addition of salt, pepper, or
lemon juice. The seed is not bony hard and so evaluation of the avocado as a drupe
is not clear. Most texts dodge this issue and do not classify it.

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