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33xs

An ~ Game Feature
DESIGNER's C0MMENTS You may move a unit any speed up to its top
speed, but never faster, and must take into
Tac 3/20mm isn't exactly the most detailed account all delays and movement restrictions
miniature WWllland wargame around. In fact. it as given below:
is really just a direct steal from TACTICAL You may never move through or onto any
GAME No.3 of the TSG. What I hope it will do other unit friendly or enemy.
is provide that real bridge between board and Certain terrain features will effect the
miniatures, to gat each side of the fence partly movement of a unit:
on the other. Miniature wargamers are gOing to HILL SLOPES: any unit, but infantry. gOing
find having combat factors and a CRT a bit up a hill slope takes three times as long. Thus
strange. while board wargamers are gOing to find for every one inch of slope climbed three
all those tank models and painted figures weird inches of regular cross-country movement are
too. In fact, the lack of hexagons alone is used. There is no delay for moving across the
startling enough. flat tops of hills. or moving downhill.
STREAMS: crossing streams imposes the seme
The rules are neither complex nor com· delay as climbing slopes except infantry too
prehensive, if anything they were designed to be are effected.
Eastfront Armored Combat clear. This game is a 'quickie', fast to set uP. RIVERS: rivers are impasseble. Fords are
with Miniatures (TAC-3 20mm) almost as fast to play. For those tactical considered streams for movement purposes.
historians with the "what if_". it is a tool for FORESTS: only infantry and heavy weapons
Arnold Hendricks endless answers. By now you should have are allowed in forests. · There is no speed
enough organizational information to be able to reduction for forests.
Many gamers hold that there is no basic
difference between board and miniatures type
set ·up various German and Russian formation BUILDINGS: any unit can move through
games, aside from the superficial changes in
using platoons and companies as building buildings. and there is no speed reduction for
scale and the use of models instead of blocks. Pick your terrain and objectives. and moving through it.
counters. To try and determine, one way or have at it. If your imagination fails you, some ROUGH TERRAIN: rocky and badly broken
another, if this is· true the following game has reading into the real compaign and some of the ground normally will prohibit the movement
been developed from the TSG Tactical Game battles should produce enough food for of any vehicles in it. This is up to the
3. The designer, Mr. Hendricks, is basically a thought. For the fun·minded, I personally have individual players since no general rule can be
miniatures gamer with a wide background in a set of "orders" cards each contain ing an order honestly formulated in this department to
board games. He does not consider this game of battle and a mission for one side. I set up a ANY degree.
as one of the "best" miniatures games around, Russian and German deck before each battle, ROADS will allow units to move more
but it should suffice to introduce the and thus players remain in the dark about quickly than normal:
"miniatures" approach to those not familiar enemy forces and objectives INFANTRY. HEAVY WEAPONS, AND
with it We have other miniatures type games HALFTRACKS move 2" On the road for every
in progress. Your response to this one will For those who find Tac 3/2Omm just a nice 1" of cross-country move expended. (Other·
decide what will be done with them. Reply on take-off point for 1944 vintage land miniatures, wise saying, they double their speed.)
your FEEDBACK. note that S&T does indeed have considerably TRUCKS triple their cross-country speed while
more detailed and simulation-oriented rules on roads. Both these categories can combine
T·34 TEST COUNTERS around. I know because I have designed and cross-country· and road movement in any way
tested one set myselfl Naturally, all it takes is a they desire.
For those of our readers who do not have the lot of tittle notices from you to produce them in AFV's have a 17" road bonus. However. to
inclination or the cash and/or the machanical an upcoming issue. receive this bonus they MUST move at least
skill to obtain and assemble the plastic· models half their movement rate on the road. When
usually used in games such as "T·34.... the they finish moving this distance they are free
RULES OF PLAY to move up to 17" more free of charge to their
ever·thoughtful editors of STRATEGY &
TACTICS have included with this issue· a cross-country rate.
reasonable facsimile of some of the units in VOCABULARY All units, regardless of situation (unless
"T·34:·· Readers who are not miniatures'freaks" pinned, see optional rules) may move at least
should use ·these ·paper facsimiles to test Unit: one playing piece (either a stand of 1" if they so desire.
"T·34" 'before investing in a plastic' armored men or a vehicle)
division. AFV: Any vehicle other than a truck or Trucks and Halftracks may each carry one
halftrack infantry or heavy weapon unit each. Tanks can
To assemble the counters. cut them out along Infantry: any infantry unit, including engi· carry only infantry units. Picking up (embark·
the solid black lines. and fold them along the neers and special types of· foot troops ing) and dropping off (disembarking) a unit
dotted black lines so that each counter forms a Heavy Weapons: any unit with an artillery costs 4" of the carrying vehicle's move. This
tent·like structure. Glue or tape them together piece, mortar, anti·tank gun, rocket. etc., etc. vehicle must have 4" of cross-country move·
at the base (see diagram). ment left in order to embark or disembark
PROCEDURE OF PLAY units. Remember that you must move one unit
at a time. and complete the move of one
Usually the Russian plaYllr will move first. before starting another. Thus a unit cannot
Then the German player. After each player move "at both ends of the line" in the same
moves. both players fire all their units they turn. so to speak. Units that were both
wish to at the enemy. The moving player fires embarked and disembarked in the same turn
all his units he desires first, then the other cannot fire, and should have their weapons
player fires his survivors. Thus the procedure pointed away from the enemy to signify this.
for a full turn is: German tanks carrying infantry cannot fire
Russians move. Russians fire, Germans fire; while infantry are aboard. and also should have
Germans move, Germans fire. Russians fire. their weapons pointed away to signify this.
This is a complate turn, which has two While a unit is being carried it is helpless and
"moves" (one for each side) and four without defensive value, if the unit carrying it
"rounds" of firing (two for each side). is destroyed. so is the unit being carried.
GAME SITUATIONS Scale: each turn is 6 minutes of battle, each
inch is about 85 meters. FIRING
Miniatures lend themselves particularly well to
use in tactical level games. Perhaps the main MOVEMENT OF UNITS To fire at the enemy a unit must have the
advantage of miniatures is· the potential of the target visible to it. must have an unobstructed
game situations to be easily· put together by You may move during your "move" as line of fire. and must be within the maximum
the players themselves. And that's what you many of your units as you wish. including all range of the firing unit.
can do with "T·34:' That's what you do in or none. However, you must finish the move In the basic game all units are deemed fully
miniatures. of one unit before starting that of a~ther. visible.
bs
Most weapons have a flat trajectory of fire . 3 (depending upon whether you believe Soviet HIGH TRAJECTORY FIRE
Thus you may not fire through other units, historians or not).
buildings, or terrain features (such as hills, German artillerv (mortars, howitzers,
intervening forests, etc.). To make sure of this, OVER-RUNNING rockets) operating with infantry units main-
sight from the firing unit to the target, if more tained good enough communication pro-
than a quarter of the target is not visible from Any AFV or half track can overrun anyone cedures in flu id situations so that the infantry
one point of view of the firing unit, assume it enemy infantry or heavy weapons unit. The could often call up for artillerv support and
cannot be hit. You must have a CLEAR shot. victim must be on flat, open ground; not on a guide the fire to target although the firing guns
Then measure the range from the firing unit hill slope (but it can be on a hill top), not in could not see the target_ Therefore, any target
to the target, if the distance is greater than the rough terrain, nor in a building or a forest. The able to be fired upon bV German infantry can
maximum range of the firing unit, the target overruning unit may not cross a bridge or also be fired upon bV German artillerv. The
canootbeh~ . stream .and overrun the enemy in the same artillerv firing upon the target do not have to
You are allowed to have several units move. be able to see the target in order to fire. But
combine their firing factors at one target. To overrun a unit, simply move the remember, the target does have to be within
You' are allowed to fire at the same target over-running unit directly onto your victim range of tt>'! infantrv.
more than once provided you use separate and finish your turn touching your victim and In mu ' _.-..,Iaver games, German commanders
units or groups of units, because each unit can going further . You may not finish the turn can use artillery units under their own com -
only fire once per round. upon the victim. No other unit can drive mand onlv: they may never fire at targets
When firing you announce the target for through the space of a dead overrun unit the visible onlv to someone else's command, and
each unit or group of units before checking turn it was overrun, but a unit can be overrun cannot " borrow" artillerv support or guns
line-of-sight and range. If for some reason the more than once (even if killed the first time). from someone else.
target selected cannot be hit, the firing units When a unit is overrun, the "crushing" In single plaver games plavers with a
are assumed to have fired for that round and effect is immediatelv evaluated. The firing passion for complexitv can also recreate this
missed. You then go on to the next unit or value of the overruning unit is tripled, and lack of cross-command artillerv support net-
group of units and select their target- it can be compared to the regular defense value of the works. At the start of the game organize for
the same one! victim. The result is resolved like normal firing, each battalion certain artillerv units, and give
To resolve firing that is legal, total the firing but immediatelv after the overruning unit regimental artillery to a battalion also. The
values of the units shooting. Compare this to finishes its particular move. Anv other unit guns of each battalion operate separatelv, as in
the defensive value of the target (which may passing through the area of the overrun victim tll'e multi-plaver game, under the visual direc-
be doubled in certain circumstances, see must behave as if it was overruning, even if the tion of the infantry of that battalion.
below). This gives you a shooter-defender odds victim was alreadv killed. Thus you cannot Russians are considered to have such a poor
comparison, which you must reduce to its overrun a unit successfullV and open up a hole communications system that no fire of this
simplest form. Divide the defensive value into for other units to move through. nature is allowed .
the firing value, and drop any fractions. German artillerv, because of its high traj-
Compare this number to "1" and you have it MlNEFIELDS ectorv, can fire over any friend IV or enemy
in its simplest form. Two pzKw tanks firing at units, but the target has to be visible to the
a Russian infantry company have odds of When a unit runs into a minefield the directing infantry unit (and within the firing
26-16, which is rounded to 1-1 . opponent (who had them all marked on a range of that infantry unit).
After determining the odds, consult the secret map before the game started) tells him
survival table and roll the die. Depending upon of this fact. The victim must immediatelv stop ARTILLERY OBSERVERS
the odds and die roll, the target may survive or once fullV into the field. During the next firing
be destroyed. Don't forget, if one unit misses, round the owner of the field gets, he may Individual men are used in this rule as
you can always have someone else who hasn't "fire" the minefield just like a normal gun at artillerv observers. These, instead of infantry
fired yet,shoot at it. the trespassing unit. The minefield has a value units. direct the artillerv fire. Artillerv obser-
of 20, and other units are allowed to join in. vers may travel with any unit they so desire,
TERRAIN AND DEFENSIVE VALUES On the next move for the trespassing unit, it and when one unit passes next to the other
can move 3" (or less if its maximum is less). If and touches, the figure of the observer may be
In a building all units inside combine their still in the minefield it must aRain stop and be transferred to the next unit. Observers have no
defense values into one number, which is then attacked once more bV the minefield, if not, it combat or movement power of their own, and
doubled. This is the only effect buildings have may continue. A minefield onlv attacks once share the fate of the unit they are attached to.
in the game. between moves of the trespassing unit, on the Observers can see 20"; in buildings this is
In forests each individual unit is doubled. first firing round immediatelv after the contact increased to 25", and on high hills to 30".
Units may fire into forests or buildings, but is made. A minefield can attack an unlimited German observers are attached at the rate
may not fire through them at targets beyond. amount of t imes, and an unlim ited amount of of 2 per battalion , and 1 extra (the artillery
Units on a hill slope that are fired on from units in any one turn. officer) per regiment of infantry. Separate
ABOVE have their defensive values cut in half. An engineer unit can lav an area of mines artillerv battalions also have observers (1 for
If the firing units are both above and below equal to its own size in 5 turns. It can clear an each). I n the battalion each observer has the
the target on the slope, the target keeps its area equal to its own size in 2 turns. Onlv abilitv to call down all artillery in that
normal defensive value. engineers can lav or clear mines. To do this battalion. Anv regimental or independent guns
they must not fire before or after the move, attached to the battalion he also controls. At
TERRAIN AND FIRING VALUES and may oot move. This is one "turn " of the beginning of the game the German
clearing. If an Engineer unit is destroyed bV commander should make clear secretlv just
Any units that are firing at a range of 3" or fire before its task is completed , the job must who controls what. Regimental and indepen-
less triple their firing value. be started all over again. Engineers shou Id not dent artillery can remain under the control of
Any units that finish their turn in a stream be allowed to lav mines during the game their commanders, or be farmed out to the
AND are firing at 3" or less have their firing because the troops don't usuallv go around battalions.
values only multiplied by 1% (ignore fractions) carrying a dozen or so mines all the time. But Russians are allowed 1 observer for each
instead of 3. in special situations this may be altered. infantry brigade, and 1 observer for each
Any AFV's or Anti-Tank guns firing at any independent artillery battalion.
vehicle will double their firing values when With observers all the other high-trajectory
firing at ranges over 3" but at or under half OPTIONAL RULES rules for both Russians and Germans are in
their maximum range. effect. Note that observers considerablv com-
The following optional rules are designed plicate the whole game, and should not be
RUSSIAN INFANTRY for miniature wargamers who desire a more used by anybody less than an experienced
complex and variable battle. Games using these die-hard artillervman.
Russian infantry always lacked good anti- rules to any degree will take longer, and are
-tank weapons. Therefore, when firing at any best handled with multiple commanders on PINNING FIRE
AFV these units have a firing value of 2 each side. Plavers are encouraged to choose
instead of 5. This new value is still subject to their own rules, but from a realism standpoint Infantry and heavy weapons. being directlv
all terrain and range alterations. Optionally "High Trajectorv Fire" and "Pinning Fire" exposed to fire, wi II often take cover in battle
guard Russian infantry can be given a value of should be the first to be used . situations and advance slowly or not at .all. It is
35xs
assumed in this game that all troops are well SOFT GROUND & MUD UNIT
enough trained to continue to move under fire
to some degree. A poorly trained unit will stop In soft ground or mud all units but infantry CONSTRUCTION-using models
completely when pinned down. and mortars are slowed down. If the mud is
Whenever a "pinned down" result comes up bad enough to slow infantry and mortars, it is All vehicles are generally assumed to be
on the survival table the unit is still living but probably so bad that vehicles and other heavy 2Yz" x 1Yz". The slight variat ion in size from
pinned. Units that this happens to should be so weapons COUldn't get through at all. this norm by 20mm vehicles is not important.
noted (a straight pin stuck in the troop stand is In soft ground or mud new overland The "Minitanks" line of vehicles is suggested as
a handy symbolic note). Pinned infantry units movement speeds are in order, as follows: excellent and cheap scaled models, although
can only move 1" a turn and have no road Heavy Weapons (besides mortars): 0"; they are more and more difficult to find. Some
bonus. Pinned heavy weapon units cannot Trucks: 1"; Halftracks: 12"; AFV's: 20": players may also prefer to glue pieces of
move at all. After the movement turn for a T-34/c; 16": T-34/85, SU-85, pzKw V, J.Pz V; figures realistically into turret hatches and
player is finished all "pinned" markers fr~m 12": JS-II, JS-III, SU-l00, pzKw IV, J.PZ lv, driver's seats."
his troops should be removed. Unless the StuG III; 11": PzKW Via, Hetzer; 8": pzKw All German infantry and heavy unit stands
unit(s) are again pinned they are free to move Vlb, J.Pz VI. should be 2Yz" x 1". The 3 figures (a good
their full rate on their next move. Pinned units norm for representative purposes) should be
are allowed to board trucks or halftracks. but ARMORED CARS arranged so they are facing lengthwise down
not tanks. the stand, and the "front" is a 1" side of the
AFV's can support infantry. thus protecting Armored cars have the same movement rate stand . This is because the 1" side will probably
them from being pinned. To support an and movement rules as trucks. be often facing the enemy in concentrated
infantry unit. the AFV must finish its turn attack dispositions.
adjacent to the infantry. and vice versa. During All Russian infantry and heavy weapon
the firing after the move. the infantry and/or units should have stands 2Yz" x 1Yz". These
heavy weapons cannot be pinned so long as stands should have 5 figures each, facing in the
there survives an AFV touching them. same way as the German stands.
Pinned units are unable to construct or RULES FOR 3/16[ balsa wood makes good stands. Imita-
clear minefields. and cannot dig in (fortify). tion HO s"ale grass glued to the top around the
THE GAME TABLE feet of the men makes a realistic appearance,
DIGGING IN while sides of the stand should be painted a
shade of green close to the color of the grass.
At the start of the game players may CAPACITIES G 1I'man uniforms were Feldgrau (Gray-
sometimes wish to fight a more static battle Green) which was closer to dark green than
situation. In this case they might allow units to It is suggested that individual buildings anything else. Russian uniforms were khaki,
be dug in. In other games more daring players should be allowed to hold any 3 German units although often dirty, which is close to a tan
might allow digging in during the game. Units or any 2 Russian units, but never troops of the color. Details of the figures and guns is up to
digging or dug should have imitation raw dirt. same side. Buildings' in a town should be the individual players. of course.
and perhaps camouflage nets on and about within 3" of each other. Factories, state farms, German vehicles were painted camouflage
them to signify this fact. In the rules below. and other conglomerates of buildings (perhaps colors ind ividually by their crews, and have no
digging ~n and fortification is considered one 3-6 buildings large) should be formed so set color. Russian tanks were mostly forest
and the same. almost all the buildings are within 3" of each green without any visible insignia. The Rus-
At the start of the game units are allowed other so an accurate picture of street fighting sians, fortunately for us, made extensive use of
to be fortified in a hasty or prepared manner. can be formed. U.S. trucks (easy to find items in hobby
During the game units will only be allowed to stores).
make hasty' fortifications. Construction of Using 20mm scale. the rest of the game
hasty fortifications takes 5 turns of work. FORESTS table can be set up using HO scale equipment.
Procedure for infantry building hasty fortifica- Artillery observers are individual men with-
tions is the same as for engineers laying mines I t is also suggested that forests be given out stands.
(see Minefield rules. last paragraph). Only capacities and organized into sections, each
infantry and heavy weapons can make hasty section corresponding to"the capacity of one
fortifications during the game. building. This will simplify forest battles
Prepared 'fortifications are just like having a considerably. Forests in this game are con-
building around you . sidered to be relatively dense stands of trees.
Hasty fortification will double the unit
fortified. but there is no combination of HILLS
defense factors.
Fortification in houses or forests is not The common method of making hills on the
normally allowed "because it takes a very long game table: contours, leads to problems as to
time. However. players may allow this. in what is slope and what is hilltop. Players may
which case units triple. wish to specify this before the game starts or
Fortified units can be considered to be use an alternate system. This writer builds up
worth twice their normal point value. hills of wood and books, and then stretches
Once enemy units occupy the fortifications over the top an imitation grass mat (as usad in
they are automatically destroyed. HO train layouts) which is carefully tacked
down to the table at various key points so that
BLOWING BRIDGES ridges, valleys, slopes, and hill tops are all
easily formed .
After any engineer unit passes over a bridge
it may try to blow it . When a bridge is declared MULTI-COMMANDER GAMES
"blown". roll the die:
1.2.3,4: bridge is completely destroyed It is not recommended that players have pz IV
5: bridge collapses. only infantry and 81 or more than one commander for every two feet
82mm mortars can cross it. and only at 3" per of table space available. Players should also
turn. (These units can be pinned while have at least a brigade (Russian) or. regiment
crossing, of course,) (German) of troops to command in :m
6: charge fails and bridge remains intact. interesting game. With artillery rules command
systems take on a vital role. Communication SG 111-75
If one engineer unit fails to do the job right, between commanders on the same side should
the next to pass over the bridge can try again. either be during enemy moves via secret notes
Remember though, the bridge must be blown (can write one note per enemy move) or by
immediately after the move of that engineer verbal communication that can be clearly
unit. heard by the enemy .
GERMAN SPEED RANGE ATTACK DEFENSE
II

'·I~i~I~'
UNITS (inches) (inches) FACTOR FACTOR

("." indi~8tes unit-types


given asfpaper models)


Infantry
81mm 'Mor1Br
.. 3"
3"
18"
36"
-.,--
~--
3
6
-,-.,.,.-
~
.,..
8
6
120rhm Mortar 1" 60" 20 1
UNIT COMBAT FACTORS' J
75mm Howitzer 1" .' 36"
--"-
13 .
T-~

,." 2
150mm Howitzer 1" 36" 24 2
.~.
36"
-_-'"1"
·r.
• 75mmGun 1" ~ 12 j.~
~.'t.
1
88mm Gun 1" 60" 20 1
RUSSIAN
UNITS
SPEED
(inches)
RANGE
Cinches)
ATTACK
FACTOR
DEFENSE
FACTOR II· Engineer
-~
3" ~.-
6" ..". j
2
"7'--.0-;" -
, ~
6
• pz IV 22" 36" 13 8
-,.- -
•.
-~~~

• Infantry 3" 12" 5 16 PZV 25" ,"( - 36" 16


t, J I ~
12
~-~ ~-.
-;-
.82mmMorUr 3" 36" 6 8 pz Via 17" 36" 15 12
-- --~- - , .. "- n-"'i7,-
120rilm Mortar 1" 60" 26 5 PzVlb -,-
(.' • .L-
17" 6a' 20 16
"~
-- ---
57mmGun 1" 12" 6 22" 36" 11 12
1"
--~

24"
~

9
-- "-"-
3
2
~

!
• StG III
PzJg IV 22" .. 36" ,- 16
........... - - 13
-
;;
• 76mm Gun ~
~-'-
.,.-- ~.~
85mmGun 1" 36" 11 .... " 2 PzJg V 25" 60" 20 14
--- -.....,..-
Engineers 3" 6" 3 8 ! PzJg VI 17' ~ 6a' 20 .' 16
T-34c 30" 24" 9 9 Hetzer 17" 36" 11 12
--j-"- -- r --- - - ... '.
• T·34/85
JS II ---or
27"
21"
36"
sa' --.,-
11
14 <,
10
12
-.:;--
L:

Neshom
Half Track
22'
30"
6a'
12"
-.- 20
2
'1 S
4
---- --~
.. ,
JS III 21" sa' 14 16 Truck 21" 0 0 1
• suss ----, 27' 36"
-,--
9 12
. Armd Car/20 2a' 24" s S
"--- -'- ~.I-

SU 100
• HalfTrack
~
25"
3a'
42"
12"
14
2
14
4
Armd Car/50
Armd Carn5
~
N'
20"
-- 36"
36"
8
10
6
6
.-:..~ ,~

Truck 21" 0 0 1 Rkt Battery 1"

SURVIVAL TABLE

Basic odds: EXPLANATION:

"OA": defender's value is greater than that


of the attacker. If the defender's value is more
Die Roll OA 1·1 2-1 3-1 4-1 5-1 or greater than twice that of the attacker, the attacker
automatically has no effect.
"0": es a result, this signifies that the target
0 0 o o o o is destroyed.
2 5*
-
0 o o o o "5": as 'a result, this signifies that the target
survives.
3 5· 5" o o o "5·": as a result, this signifies that the
4 5 5* o o o target survives, however, using the optional
5
~- r;- 5 ;.* 5· o o "Pinned Down" rule it also means that i'nfan-

6
- L-...
5 5* 5* o
try or heavy weapons units~· as targets are
5 pinned down.

III
X
<0
C")
EASTFRONT ANALYSIS: Part I

OrpaizatioD of Soviet Grood Forees


1 2 3
1939 GERMAN INFANTRY DIVISION 12/42 SOVIET RIF!..E DIVISION
9/39 SOVIET RIFLE DIVISION
.
~ (18,800 men)
II
~(17,2oo men)
.
~(9,619 men)

,,, If I III

m
'10

~ ~ @ '" '"
~
3750 men
(2450) Rcn (550)
0
3250 men (2500) Rcn (625) ~ 0
998 men
~
RCf
" 2474 men
§ ~
(474)
650SMG
206SMG
18MG IS(2
I

Lt. (490) 207 MG


36ATR
~
54ATR
2476G
~
I
1850 Mtr
MG (220)
(550) 2782 Mtr
12122 H
48MT ~
(1
I~I
7120 Mtr
99 HD
~
(650)
(843)
1245 G
476 H
~
21 MT
r;;l (1 .
I~I
148 HD

(850)
(2400)
I;;l
(550)

~
(2300)

9/39 SOVIET RIFLE DIVISION-On 1939 GERMAN INFANTRY DIVI· 12/42 SOVIET RIFLE DIVISION- "authorized" stre
paper it was a contemporary of the '39 SION-An updated version of the highly Compared to the 9/39 division this unit very little "fat" c
German infantry division. In fact, it was successful 1918 German STOSS was: 50% weaker in manpower, had 15% wasted away quicl
more lavishly equipped than its German (assault) DIVISION. Its major drawback fewer infantry, .2200 more SMG's, 17% few days of inter
counterpart, having a light tank battalion was that it was not motorized. But in fewer MG's, 250% more anti-tank rifles, rifle division woult
the German unit lacked. Despite its bulk, situations that did not require tactical 31 % fewer 50mm mortars, 360% more half its "paper stn
it did ,not possess either the structual mobility this unit was, in 1941, unbeat· 82mm mortars, 75% more 120mm mort· ally stripped of i nf
"unity" or the trained personnel to be as able. It possessed a highly efficient and ars, 7% fewer anti·tank guns, 24% fewer then either be u~
effective as the German division. This powerful artillery component . Betwaen 76mm guns, 70% less artillery, 77% pletely wiped out
was shown when this type of division 1941 and 1943 the size of various fewer motor veh icles, 69% fewer horse or pu lied out of '
was severely mauled by the Finns during weapons, particularly anti·tank, in· drawn vehicles, 17% more "guns" and (a process that COl
the 1940 war. creased from 37mm to 75 mm. Also, in 18% less firepower. Man for man, the a few weeks). S
late 1943 more 120mm mortars (direct 12/42 division had 64% more firepower were not kept
copies of the original Russian design) than the 9/39 division. By the end of replacements as v
appeared. This unit had about eight the wllr there were some 400 divisions divisions.
times as many radios as its Soviet of this type. Few were ever at their
equivalent.

6 7 8 9
1941.S0V'ET MOTO·MECHANIZED 1942-45 SOVIET TANK BRIGADE 1942-45 SOVIET 1942-45 SOV I
BRIGADE MOTORIZED RIFLE BRIGADE
I
I I
1<::)H1306 men)
1<::)1\3300 men) C8j(3247 men)

~ 181 ~
10

~
10
" "
~
(290)
(750) 147 men
SMG (403) ATR (44)
, ~
662 men
(199)0
82/120 Mtr
,
0
76 G (224)
,
(1306)
10 30SMG
IS:Zl
50 tanks
o
76 G (280)
21 T -34
39MT
45 G (52)
,
241 SMG
54MG ~
SMG (100)
C8j
Rcn (144)
18ATR , ,
~
10
682 Mtr
~ MG (48) 445G IIT1I 181
~
Rcn (410)
o
(300)
43MT (121 )


MG (48)

(8001 ''''''In\
37xs 38xs 39xs 40xs

4 5
1944 GERMAN INFANTRY DIVISIO.N 1941 SOVIET TANK BRIGADE
II •
1ZI(1,2352 men) ICJI (1700 men)

II 01

~ 1~~(160)
01

• C8J
Rcn (708)
0
76 G (280)
2451 men I
2008 men I I

~
164SMG
332SMG
01
Irr1J @
131 MG
69MG
36105 H
~ 10 tanks
(130) Rcn (160)
1281 Mtr (484) I I
12150 H
8120 Mtr
30MT
01
[:§J ~
36ATL 1rr11 (140) MG (1.10)
441 HD
375 G (620)
675 H 01
1;;1
45MT
242 HD 51
(379)
(450)

~
(1500)

)r long. Having 1944 'GERMAN INFANTRY DIVI- '44 further changes were made, with the 1941 SOVIET TANK BRIGADE-
n, the divisions SION-The Germans had suffered number of men in the infantry squad Basically, the problem with this unit was
~ombat. After a enormou's personnel losses during their reduced from 10 to 9 and the number of too many tanks and practically no
,bat the 12/42 first two years in Russia, and could no machineguns reduced from 15 to 13, infantry at all. Most units of this type
own to less than longer keep their infantry units up to Following the Russian model, the were destroyed during '41. The "new"
and be practic- strength. Therefore, in late 1943, the number of rear echelon personnel was '42 tank brigade replaced it. The main
The unit would "1944" infantry division was authorizes- cut considerably. The net result was that changes were the addition of an infantry
:il it was com- ~ . Practically every German infantry the total manpower element and the elimination of the "fat"
hen disbanded, division reorganized under the new plan was reduced 27% while the total "fire- support troops. The 76mm gun batta-
: for rebuilding and as a result most divisions were power" increased 25% (based on the lion was also lost.
Iccomplished in "brought up to strength". In addition, original 1939 armament, but this had
Rifle Divisions 16 new infantry divisions were organ- been incfeased because of an increase in
line and fed ized (only 24 had been raised since June the caliber of certain weapons, such as
estern infantry '41 and 15 of these were "static" anti-tank guns and 120mm mortars. The
divisions for the west front). The major actual increase in firepower was prob-
change was a reduction of the number ably closer to 10%). The amount of
of infantry battalions from nine to six artillery stayed the same while the
(each regiment lost one battalion). The amount of infantry decreased 32%. It
number of rifle platoons per company was an emergency measure and it work-
was reduced from four to three. In early ed .

10
NK CORPS 1942-45 SOVIET MECHANIZED CORPS
Al, II'
IOJ(11,900men) ~(17,400men)

101 OIl III


• • 101 II I

@"
101 II

(489)0
120 Mtr
ICDI(476)
SU 122/152 Rcn (220)
rs:zJ ~ 101
(1306)
(489)0 ICDH.476) [gil ~
76 G (546) 120 Mtr SU 122/15Z Rcn (220) 76 G (546)
(3743)
II III II 01 01

~
01 OIl
"
0 C8J rs:zJ 0 ~ C8J ~
Rkt (213) SU 85 (440) Mel (288) 45 G (233) Rkt (213) SU 85 (440) Mcl (2881. 45 G (233)
01 01 01 01

1rr11 lSJ §] ~
(290) (250) (290) (250)

0 Q
1941 SOVIET MOTO-MECHANIZED 1942 SOVIET TANK BRIGADE- 1942 SOVIET MOTORIZED RIFLE 1942 SOVIET
BRIGADE-Basically a component of Actually, in western armies this would BRIGADE-BasicallY nothing more than the Russian e.
the Moto-Mechanized Corps of 1941, be considered a tank battalion with two a reinforced rifle regiment. I n practice it panzerd iv ison.
this unit had too many tanks and too companies of infantry plus small anti- was much more. Because it was a composed of
little infantry and support troops. By tank and anti-aircraft units attached. "mobile unit" it received the best in ("brigade") an
1942 it had disappeared. This combination of tanks and infantry men and equipment. Compared to a ized rifle) bal
(all armad with SMG) was ideal, for the German panzergrenadier regiment it were smaller I
infantry's sole duty was to protect the had : 5% more men, 210% more SMG, artillery. In te
tanks from enemy infantry. The lack of 12% fewer MG's, 16% more mortars the German un
organic infantry in other nation's tank (although only half as many 120's), 20% and an advan
units often caused tanks to be caught fewer "guns" and 41% fewer motor vehicles. But .
without infantry, an event which would vehicles. In other words, it was about
often 'cause more damage to the tanks equal in firepower but inferior in mobF
than to the infantry. lity and flexibility. With the addition of
a 543 man Tank Regiment (41 T-34
tanks) this unit became a MECHAN-
IZED BRIGADE; which made it more
than a match for the panzergrenad ier
regiment.

11 12 13 14
1943-44 GERMAN ARMORED DIVISION 12/42 SOVIET 12/42 SOVIET R
1943-44 GERMAN MOTORIZED
INFANTRY DiVISION
AI
.
Ic:>J (13,700 men)
GUARDS RIFLE REGIMENT

"' ~
.11

~ (13,800 men) ~(2748men)


I
II. .11 II. .I.
~ § •
~
• (65)
.01 '01
IC)J "' 0 II

[!]
~ ~
(2294) (1661) (1649) (70)0
0
(1649) .11 120 Mtr 76H (95) 619 men
(3043) (567) II

~
660 men 145 SMG
01 ~ 182 SMG • •
~ . (2258) Rcn (942) 72MG ~ ~ 69MG
9ATR
A-
Rcn(942) li II 45G (55) ATR (73)
16ATR 650 Mtr
II 01
r5J ~ 650 Mtr • • 982 Mtr
~
(456)
~
(513)
(515)
II
(513)
II
982 Mtr
245G
~ ~
SMG (100)
245 G
27 .HD
R

61 ~ 3MT
· IrT'·l1
If II

ESJ ~ (885) (766) 30HD


~
(873)

1;;1
(764)
0
(f9.00f
(55) (27)

(1900) (120)

1944 GERMAN PANZERGRENADIER 1944 GERMAN PANZER DIVISION- 12/-2 SOVIET GUARDS RIFLE 12/42 SOVIET
DIVISION-The "panzer" connection The chief difference between German REGIMENT-As a means of encourag- The 12/42 rifle
was slight. The unit had 92 AFV, and Russian tank units lay in the ing, reward ing and calling attention to siderable advants!
usually all were assault guns (although superior "balance" of the German unit. superior battlefield performance, the "44 German eq
on paper 40 or so were supposed to be It had a large artillery component, as title "Guards" was awarded to numer- more men, 36%
tanks!. The unit was actually a "motor- well as a full battalion of engineers. The ous units of the Soviet armed forces more SMG, 5n
ized infantry division" although the German unit did not contain such a (over 20% in some branches). With the deficient only in
Germans often used it as they wou Id a multiplicity of units as the Russian Tank title went the privilege to obtain better weapons it had . I
pure panzer unit. Being primarily an Corps, and this aided control of the unit personnel and equ ipment. The 12/42 German's main
infantry u-nit, the panzergrenadier divi- in combat. Like all other German units, Guards rifle regiment shows how the 12/42 Russian r
sion had more staying power than the this one had a greater capacity to material improvement usually took 18% of its firep.
panzer division. For each panzergre- re-build itself while in action through place. Its "regular" counterpart was the artillery, the '.
nadier division on the east fron there the maintenance of a large (1,000+) man 12/42 rifle regiment. Most of the addi- division had 55%
were usually about 3 panzer divisions. replacement battalion. A Russian rifle tional equipment found in a Guards rifle arti IIery. Therefc
The Russian ratio was closest to 1 to 2. division had a 100 man replacement division would be in the rifle regiments. paring the regilT'
The panzer and panzergrenadier divi- unit. Aside from the better and more numer- will naturally cor
sions had identical "support" units, only ous equipment, it was the upgrading of common Russian
their major (infantry and tank) units personnel which probably contributed of its firepower
differed. more to the Guards' units superior this practice cau
performance. take enormous ca
the Russians to I
firepower and,
them out of Russ

charts by Kramer
K CORPS-This was AFV to the German's 150 although the 1942 SOVIET MECHANIZED gories it was superior. For example : 26%
ent of the German Germans also had 20% more infantry CORPS-At first glance it appears to be more manpower, 17% more infantry,
restern terms it was and 12% more men overall. like all the Russian equivalent of the German 152% more AFV and 68% more "guns."
le tank battal io ns other Soviet mobile units, this one panzergrenadier division. But its large But the Russian unit had 19%. less
ee infantry (motor- usually had better men and equipment tank component puts it in the same motorized transport. And this, coupled
IS. Added to these than non-motorized units. The Guards category with most German armored with its lack of overall firepower (due to
of assault guns and Tank Corps were particularly well off, as divisions. Probably the most powerful the lack of any real artillery), did not
)f overall firepower they were equipped with the best and division size unit to be raised by the give it the "depth" of the German unit.
an advantage of 8% newest armored vehicles. Throughout Russians. In terms of firepower it was Still, it was one of the most efficient
of 40% in motor early 1944 they were about the only superior to the German panzergrenad ier units to be produced by the Russians.
oviet unit had 240 units with the T-34/85. division, and in almost all other cate-

15 16 17
REGIMENT 12/42-S0VIET RIFLE BATTALION 1944 GERMAN INFANTRY REGIMENT 1944 GERMAN
INFANTRY BATTALION

~(619men) I2:5J (2008 men)


" I
4men)
~(708men)

c!J ~ (61)m
I

N/1 ~
" I

m(184)
I I I
tr 76 H (74)
143 men
82Mtr 45G (17)
708 men
127 SMG
75/1500H
~ o
~ 18!
I

3) 45 G (55)
38SMG
20MG
MG (58)
&21
ATR (23)
55MG
691Mtr
~(187)
75G/ATL
142 men
28SMG
15MG
205 men
29SMG
9MG
(65)

250Mtr
4120Mtr
c8J
1 HD
~ 8MT I;;J 15 HD 681Mtr
4120Mtr
(10) 92 HD (198)
7) SMG (100) 7MT
31 HD
'':;;1 (12)
(20)

o
(120)

E REGIMENT- 12/42 RIFLE BATTALION-On paper, 1944 GERMAN INFANTRY REGI- 1944 GERMAN INFANTRY BAT·
ent had a con- the Soviet battalion was about equal to MENT-The chief differences between TAllON-The only advantage the old
'irepower over its the German "44 battalion in firepower, the '39 infantry regiment and the '44 '39 infantry battalion had over the
n. It had 25% although it had some 90 fewer men. version were a reduction of 45% in the Soviet rifle battalion was its greater
9 infantry, 58% What gave the Germans an edge was. infantry and a reduction of 38% in total manpower (850 to 619), In number of
'e MG and was their numerous divisional artillery, manpower. The firepower of the new weapons it was almost identical, and the
,mber of artillery which was accustomed to working regiment, however, was 6% greater than same applied to firepower. Were it not
is was where the closelv with the divisional infantry thl! '39 unit. This was accomplished for the more effective German divisional
ltage was. The battalions. This was not the case with through the introduction of 120mm artillery, the Germans would have been
ivision had only the numerous non·divisional artillery mortars and by not reducing the "heavy losing men at the same rate as the
n the divisional which often worked with Soviet rifle weapons" (75mm and 150mm infantry Russians. This was something the
erman infantry battalions. What this points up is that guns) belonging to the regiment, despite Germans could not afford. By 1943 the
; firepower in its the infantry does most of the dying and the fact that the regiment now had only effectiveness of the German artillery was
""hen just com- the artillery most of the killing. Thus, two (17% smaller) infantry battalions becoming less and less. When the in-
the Russian one despite the efficient organization of the where there were once three. One fantry division was reorganized four
, ahead. It was a 12/42 Soviet rifle battalion, these units important weapon was reduced the 120mm mortars were added to the
ice to put most were still smashed with depressing 75mm anti-tank gun. German tank pro- infantry battalion (they were equal, in
ront." Although regularity by the more efficient German duction was increasing so quickly that an emergency, to a battery of four
1e regiments to artillery. It was common for rifle bat- there were not enough of these weapons 105mm howitzers). This festored the
s, it also allowed talions to be reduced to a few dozen (which were used on illmost all tanks) advantage the Germans were beginning
the Germans in men after a few weeks action. for the infantry divisions. Three were to lose. For a few months.
lally, to throw still allocated to each regiment, plus 36
88mm rocket launchers.
18 19 20 21
1942-45 SOVIET' MOTOR IZED 1942-45 SOVIET MOTORIZED 1942-45 SOVIET ROCKET 1942-45 SOVIE
RIFLE BATTALION ANTI-TANK BRIGADE LAUNCHER (M-13) BRIGADE ANTI-TANK RI

a
~(662men)
a
~ (1850 men) 0(2698 men) IS:
I I
I
o
, '" o I

~(143)
82Mtr (43)
@
45G (17) ~
546 men
@
MG(16)
l8J
Rcn(17)
~
808 men
(121)
~ 64 men
104SMG
.~
MG (58)
50SMG
12MG 6 ~ 21 MG
637G
6SMG
2MG
ATR (23) 2476G Topo(21) (35) 476G

r.8I
Rcn (10)
I8J
SMG (23)
101 MT
o
(123)
24132 RL
110 MT 8MT

~'
(15)

42-45 SOVIET MOTORIZED RIFLE 1942-45 SOVIET ANTI-TANK BRI- 1942-45 ROCKET LAUNCHER 1942-45 SC
BATTALION-This was more than a GADE-These units first provad their (132mm) BRIGADE-The customary REGIMENT-T
"motorized" version of the 12/42 rifle worth on a large scale during the Battle use of Soviet artillery was a large scale destroyed the (
battalion. It had about 40 extra men of Kursk (July 1943) when they shat- bombardment of enemy positions with the east. Based
and 43 vehicles. It had 33% fewar 82mm tered division after division of German many guns firing as large a number of Russians calcul
mortars, 35% fewer machineguns and no tank troops. Properly' deployed, an shells as possible in the shortest possible 45mm or six (
50mm mortars. It did have 66% more anti-tank brigade would usually destroy time. This was the lesson learned during needed to des'
SMG and twice as many anti-tank rifles or disable half the AFV In a full strength World War I and was about where the Based on this
and 45mm guns. Compared to its Germen armored division before being Soviet artillery was at. Naturally, gun was expec
German equivalent, the '44 motorized destroyed itself. These brigades were rockets fit perfectly into this type of tanks out actiol
infantry battalion, the Russian unit was usually used in this fashion, to deliber- operation'. Each launcher fired all ten of Heavier Germar
completely outlcassed. The German unit ately sacrifice themselves in order to its rockets at the seme time. Thus one cut the 76mm
had the strength of the old '39 infantry weaken the attacking German armor. 132mm launcher could fire in a few about half. B
battalion (868) and the armament of the The Russian tank forces would then seconds the same weight of shell as a producing mor
newer "44 battalion. In addition it had, counterattack and drive the Germans 122mm howitzer would fire in ten Germans ware
man for man, 150% more vehicles. Yat back. The attrition among these brigades minutes. Because the rockets had only Soviets produc
the Soviet motorized rifle battalion was much higher than among any other about half the range of regular artillery tank guns (som
served its purpose. It motorized the type of artillery brigede. Up until late they had to emplace closer to the front. well as 16,500
Soviet infantry, someth:,lg the Germans 1944 there were never more than 20 or The prominent back-blast of the rockets replaced by tho
thought the Russians would never be 30 of them available at anyone time. By when they fired also gave away the sians employac
able to do successfully. the end of the war they were being used units' positions. For these reasons the betteries of 4
rocket units were usually only used for their fire on 01
as regular artillery. The Germans had
run out of tanks before the Russians ran large offensives and/or when the Rus- regiments were
out of 76mm guns. sians had sufficient ground forces at the in anti-tank bri{
front to provide proper security for the
rocket brigades and divisions.

24 25 26
1942-45 SOVIET ANTI-AIRCRAFT 1942-45 SOVIET CAVALRY CORPS 1942-45 SOVIET C
ARTILLERY DIVISION a..
II

~(2oo0men)
12:] (18,700 men) rZ
L
I I . 10 101 II
I
01 I

~ 0 0 [!]
~
(450
10 101

~85G 1;;1 Rcn (300 120Mtr(450) 132RL(225) 1201


~37G (100) 4645 men
1616 SMG
(550)
10 01 01 I 01
1144 men
465SMG
397 men 620 men
110SMG 229MG IS;] Irrll ~ ~ 49MG
102 SMG (250) (290) SU-B5 (279) 45G(243) 32ATR
16MG 112 ATR
16MG 1282Mtr
1685G 36 82Mtr 011 011
1637G r--to r-"ft'"'I
41xs 42xs 43xs 44xs

22 23
ITORIZED 1942-45 SOVIET SELF-PROPELLED 1942-45 SOVIET ARTI LLERY DIVISION
lENT ARTILLERY REGIMENT
II

[!](9700men)
U; men) I~I (440/476 men)

• • • • .
c8l ~ Rcn~ 181 [!]Mtr [!]Lt [!]How. [!J Med. Gun 0(300)
Rcn(17) (30/34) SMG (79) 1705 men 2063 men 2242 men 2128 men Fire Control
35/40 men 135SMG 255SMG 362SMG 308SMG
~
I

~
(21)
3O/35SMG
5SU/JSU ATR (61)
IS:2I (15)
lSJ 57MG
108ATR
39MG
72ATR
45MG
72ATR
27MG
36ATR {255)

o
(160)
76,85,
100,122,152
(75/87)
o 108120Mtr
303MT
72 76G
420MT
48122H
24152H
544MT
12122 G
24152GH
371 MT 0
(800)
NOTE: There were two basic types
of regiments, light and heavy. Their
respective strengths are given
separated like so-light/heavy.
Light units were SU 76 & 85,
heavy ones were SU 100 and up.

T ANTI-TANK 1942-45 SOVIET SELF -PROPELLED 1942-45 SOVIET MOTORIZED being allocated by the Soviet GHQ
s the unit that ARTILLERY REGIMENT-This was ARTILLERY DIVISION-During ("Stavka") to the Fronts in accordance
m "pallzerblitz" in another unit that was only found in 1941-42 only 20% of all Soviet artillery with the overall strategy in force at the
heir experience the larger motorized units, although by mid was "non-divisional" (outside of the time. The Fronts would then allocate
that 12 rou nds 9f '44 there were two brigades of self- rifle and motorized divisions). By early the artillery to their armies. Each army .
mm gun fire were propelled artillery. By far the l110st '44 some 65% of the artillery was would normally have one artillery
one medium tank. numerous type was the SU-85. It had concentrated in non-divisional units. A division (or a few brigades) attached.
lation each 76mm replaced the SU-76 (an open top year later nearly 75% of the artillery was The Artillery Corps (first formed in
;) put 2-3 medium weapon built on a light tank chassis) in organized into artillery divisions and early '43) would control the masses of
Ire being destroyed. 1943. This was followed during the next brigades. Only four artillery divisions artillery used for "breakthrough"
.s (Panther & Tiger) year by the SU-122, JSU and SU 152 were organized when the war started. By operations. Each corps would control as
's effectiveness by and SU-l00. Their main function was to late' 42 there were 26. A year later there meny as 20-25 artillery brigades in the
he Russians were piece heavier (armor protected) guns on were 80 (plus 73 separate brigades) and form of divisions and separate brigades.
nm guns than the the battlefield than were provided by after another year (late '44) there were The brigades shown in the artillery
(s. In 1944 the then current tanks. There was also the 94 ertillery divisions and 149 separate division also appearad as separate
3,800 76mm anti- economic factor which the Germans also brigades. The earlier divisions had only brigades, particularly the 120mm mortar
; more than '43) as took advantage of, this type of weapon 168 guns. By the end of the war many brigade. The fire control battalion was
n guns (then being could be built for 80% of the cost of a had an extra brigade attached to give the primarily a target IJcquisition unit and,
1m gun). The Rus- comparable tank. As with thei~ tank division 356 guns. Most had 288. Up in conjunction with the signal battalion,
ir 76mm guns in units, the SP gun units had protective until 1943 over half of the Soviet actually "controlled" the fire of the
. all concentrating SMG infantry attached. "artillery" consisted of 120mm mortars. division. The use of the division was
get at a time. The There were 27 brigades of these, a year rather rigid, as can be seen from the very
.t always employed later there were 82. During 1944 a organization of the division (the Ger-
heavier l60mm mortar began to appear, mens formed one' artillery division, the
as well as separate brigades of heav ier 7th, but used it in a much more fluid
(mainly 203mm) artillery. During late manner) . The organization of Soviet
'42 the first four rocket (132mm) artillery units was very standard ized.
divisions were organized. These, along Light gun (76mm) and rocket (132mm)
with mortars, cont inued to form the regiments had 24 pieces each while all
bulk of the Soviet artillery up until the other types had 36 pieces. A brigade
end of the war. Almost all of these large then consisted of 2 or 3 regiments plus
artillery units were held in "reserve," support units.

27 28 29
LRY DIVISION 1942-45 SOVIET MOTORIZED 1942-45 SOVIET 1942-45 SOVIET
SU8MACHINEGUN BATTALION RECONNAISSANCE BATTALION MOTORCYCLE BATTALION
Omen) II

C8J SMG (403 men) II

~(220men)
II

C8J (288 men)


!
0 " I I I I .... I ...
~ ~
I
[!] IS:2I
:;G Rcn (110)
82 MTR (61) 45G (37)
r§I ~ [!] C8J
~
78 men
46SMG
... ... 75 men
25SMG
(20)
.. 73men
32SMG
.82Mtr(36) Mrtz(61 )
e.
37G(80) 6MG ~ C8J 11 Mg IfTll 24MG §] 1"'1
ATR (16) MG (22) 5HT (111 21 Mel
I~I
" rI 5MT r-1
FT(22) r I (7)
637G
1245G
76G(4961 I 37G(3971 4/tlH
3MT
2476G&H 115 HD
100MT 1;;1
404HD (1200)

1942-45 SOVIET MOTORIZED ANTI- 1942-45 SOVIET CAVALRY CORPS- throughs over difficult ground (most
AI RCRAFT DIVISION-Basically, Although the cavalry corps was closer to notably during the 1944 Summer
nothing more than an artillery brigade. the rifle corps than the mechanized offensive through the swampy southern
By the end of '43 there were 47 corps in terms of "rigid" organization, it flank). The cavalry corps would often
available. By that time the German air soon came to be the primary parent unit contain more tank and artillery regi-
force had ceasad to be much of a threat. for the cavalry division. By 1944 a new ments. Its organization as shown here
These units are not ' counted as "artil- type of unit was also developed, the was only "average," although the devia-
lery" divisions. Often used for anti-tank "cavalry-mechanized group" which tion either way was usually not more
work. consisted of one cavalry and one than 5,000 men. Ten were available by
mechanized corps. It was used during 1944.
major offensives for exploiting break-

30 31
1941-45 SOVIET RIFLE BRIGADE 194245 SOVIET INFANTRY ARMY


cg:] (4-SOOO men)

" " 01 01
...
~ (20,000-40,000 man)
I

~
700-750 meR
IT]
76G(2OO)
01
IT]
120Mtr (200)
cg:]
SMG (300)
cg:]
Rcn(40)
I
01 I
24O-SMG
~ 18I IfTll C§l
80MG
16ATR
ATR(230) MG(200) (100)
1;;1
(801 . (1016)~
OIl 01

650Mtr
982Mtr (400)
~
Sometimes 2 122/152H
IT]
132RL(213)
245G OIl
or 4+ divisions "
36HD ~ rsJ
76G(SOO)

"
1001
II

~
(290)

194145 SOVIET RIFLE BRIGADE- similar forl)1ations). During the war 1942-45 SOVIET INFANTRY ARMY- sectors of the fro
This type of unit had always existed in some 354 rifle brigades were formed. By In 1941 the Soviet armies were organ- only be strippec
the Soviet army, but usually only for June '43 some 120 had been knocked ized much like their western counter- footing (their st
special assignments not requiring a full out of action. At this point many that perts. But the shock of the initial 30-50%), On the
division. When the war broke out and had proven themselves in action were German invasion forced them to throw taking part in the
new divisions could not be formed gradually upgradad (with additional rifle most of their imported western offensive wou Id
quickly enough (even for the Russians, battalions and suppporting units) until organizational theories out. The rifle divisions (all at
it took about six months to form and they became rifle divisions. By the end corps was abolished and the divisions- extra allotment 0
train a division that would not fall &part of 1943 there were only 55 brigades 'were controlled directly by the army ars. The really Ie
in its first combat), the rifle brigade was left. Six months later only 17 remained commander. The support units atteched artillery (such as t
the blist available stopgap. Early rifle and by the end of '44 only 11. The vast to organizational theories out. The rifle containing 1000+
brigades would contain only two or majority were up-graded to divisional corps was abolished and the divisions used in the openir
three rifle battalions and a handful of status. The organization given here is the were controlled directly by the army As the attack
supporting units. Many of these brigadas "average" for 1943, the year in which commander. The support units attached artillary corps w
were quickly destroyed (particularly the the brigades were most numerous. to "army" often had less combat power (otherwise they
hastily formed "workers brigades" and than a German infantry corps. But roads) while the ;
during 1943 the armies grew in strength. artillery divisions
By late '43 they had, on the average, the up. During 1944
strength shown above. But this strength of the army gre
could vary considerably. In ver quiet battalions were ;
sectors of the front the army would not as well as a flac
only be stripped of most very quiet Combat engineer~
"'I
t.-J
(330)

2-45 SOVIET MOTORIZED SUB- 1942-45 SOVIET RECONNAISANCI: 1942-45 SOVIET MOTORCYCLE BAT-
MACHINEGUN BATTALION-The Rus- BATTALION-Unlike the Germans, the iALION-This unit was little more than
sians .quickly realized the vulnerablility Russians never organized special recon a motorized infantry unit with a large
of tanks alone against enemy infantry. units of the size and combat power of number of motorcycles. The Russians
Their solution was probably the most the German "Panzeraufklarungsabtei- went in for machinaguns mounted on
efficient one enacted by anyone during lung". Reconnaissance as the Germans sidecars and the like. This unit was only
the war. They attached a "half" bat- carried it out was a highly specialized found in the tank and mechanized
talion of submachinegun armed infantry undertaking and, naturally enough, the corps. It was used primarily for recon-
to each tank brigade (65 tanks). The Russians simply could not spare the naissance.
SMG was primarily a "close-combat" capable manpower tor it. Thus the
weapon and was thus well suited for Russian recon unit was little more than
protecting the tanks from adjacent a reinforced "scout" unit. When the
infantry. This unit was only found in Russians chose to "fight" for informa-
tile tank brigade. tion as the Germans often did, they
wou Id attach a tank brigade to the
reconna isance battalion.

32
1942-45 SOVIET TANK ARMY
1111 Ill.
~ (60,000-120,000 men) [c::>1 (40-65,000 men)

• ." ," ... • •


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II •

[f'h '" •
~ ~
10-2200) Trk(400)
cgj
Rpl(l500). (800) (11,900)
~
(17,400)
~
(1800)
[£]
132RL
( 1900)[1'T'I1
Brdg Cnst
~
(1100)

6 I~~
I
" '" • II,
,"
&ZI ~
~ ~ ~
(1800) Rcn(290) Cmbt(2400) Cnstn(250)
"
(476) (1700-2200) (SOO) HV~~%
"
181 C8J " (4OO11~1 [rrll (450)
;ty(600) Penal(SOO) RR Mnt T(300) 0
o
(9-12,000)
(5-6,000)

e army would not army by the front commander in a 1943-45 SOVIET TANK ARMY-The Occasionally there would be two mecha-
most strength" proprotion of one battalion per rifle first units of this type (as shown above) nized corps in a tank army, or a
h would be cut division. This, of course, proportion of' were formed in 1943 (Spring/Summer), different combination of support units.
Ir hand, an army one battalion per rifle division. This, of During late '42 there were also some Mechanized corps were often held in
, effort of a major course: motor transport became avail- "tank armies" but these were mainly GHQ reserve as special exploitation
10 or more rifle . able more truck battalions were added. collections of tank brigades and rifle forces or else paired with cavalry corps
;trangth) plus an Four truck battalions (1200 trucks) divisions. The tank army was about into cavalry-mechanized groups. The
illery and engine- would fully motorize a rifle diVisions, equal in strength to a German "Panzer- Russians never had more than eight or
:oncentrations of only 900 would be needed if the korps" (full strength). By 1944 there nine units (tank armies or "cav/mech
till ery corps, each division's horses division, only 900 were 6 tank armies. Each usually had groups") comparable to the German
;) would only be would be needed if the division's horses two tank corps and one mechaniZed panzerkorps (of which, even in 1944,
lses of th e attack. (100 trucks) could fully motorize a rifle corps, plus attached units as shown the Germans had 10 to 181. But the
ro forward the battalion. During late '43 the rifle corps above. During this period there were 26 ones they did possess out-"blitzed" the
remain in place was gradually re-introduced, along with tank corps and 11 mechanized corps. Germans during 1943-45.
d just clog the a shere of the army's support units (as
with its attached shown in the chart above). By the end
brigades moved of the war the Soviet Infantry Army was
engineer strength no longer merely the equal of a western
lore construction corps. It was about equal to two western
led permanently, corps. But the, by late corps. It was
lrower battalion. about equal to two western corps. But
~ assigned to the then, by la~e front.
46xs 46xs

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