Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

REVIEW UNITS 1 - 10 2BACCALAUREATE YEAR Teacher: MIMOUNI MOHAMED

GATEWAY2 TO ENGLISH

I. VOCABULARY (1): COLLOCATIONS

Definition: Collocations are two words that go together. Generally speaking, they do not have a rule, but they are the
result of habitual use for many years, especially by native speakers. Students are, thus, advised to make readings and
research in order to be able to acquire as many collocations as possible.

Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the right collocations to complete the sentences below:

School year, free access, university graduates, cultural background, university degree, school uniform, educational system,
mixed classes

1. I believe that students should brace themselves and work very hard because the ………………………………….. is very
short and exams come quickly.

2. It is a right for students all to have ………………………..…………….. to school in order to learn and integrate actively in
the society.

3. A lot of ………………..……………. find it difficult to have a job, even after they finish their studies at the faculty and
have degrees.

4. You should understand people’s …………………………………………………. In order to avoid conflicts and


misunderstandings.

5. My parents would be very proud of me when I finish my studies and have my …………………………………….

6. Our high school, Hassan I is a school where there are………………………………………………………, that is both girls and
boys study together in the same class.

7. The school staff do not allow us to get into the classroom if we don’t wear the……………………..

II. Language Functions: 1. MAKING AND RESPONDING TO REQUESTS - 2. EXPRESSING LACK OF


UNDERSTANDING AND ASKING FOR CLARIFICATIONS

DEFINITION:

(1) “Making and responding to requests” is about some expressions that we use in speaking to ask someone for
something, or respond to his or her request in a polite and respectful way.

Expressions of Making a Request Expressions of Responding to a Request


Accepting the request Refusing the request
- Would you mind+verb+ing - Surely yes - Sorry, but…..
- Can/could +Subject+verb (bare infinitive) - Why not - I would like to, but
- Will you/ would you+ verb (bare infinitive). - Of course - I would love to but
- Certainly yes - Sorry to say this, but…
- sure, no problem - I am afraid, I can’t.

1
Exercise:

React to the following situations using the right expressions

You want your brother to reduce the volume of the T.V because you want to revise your lessons for the quiz.

 Make a request:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………..…………..

Your friend Ahmed asked you politely to lend him 50Dhs, because he needs it to buy a gift to his friend for his
birthday.

Ahmed: Could you please lend me 50Dhs, I need it to buy for my friend a gift for his birthday.

 Respond to the request by either accepting or refusing.


……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

DEFINITION:

(2) “Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification” is about some expressions that we use, in speaking,
to say that we do not understand what someone means by something he/she says, so we ask for clarification.

Expressions of Expressing Lack of Understanding Expressions of Asking for Clarification


- I am not sure I get what you mean - Would you be more explicit, please?
- I am sorry, but I don’t understand - Can you elaborate on that, please?
- I’m not following you - Could you clarify that please?
- I am afraid, I don’t quite understand -Can you put it differently, please?
- I am sorry, but I don’t see what you mean. - If you don’t mind, would you repeat that please?

Exercise:

React to the following situation using the right expressions

Your teacher of English at school, while explaining a lesson, uses the term “Stereotype”, but you don’t understand what
it means.

Teacher: “it is a stereotype to think of women not to be as good at driving as men.


 Express lack of understanding:
You……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 Ask for clarification.


YOU:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Teacher: Well, the word “stereotype” stands for a fixed idea or prejudgment about someone or something, usually in a
negative sense.
2
III. GRAMMAR (1): Gerund, Infinitive, or both

DEFINITION: Gerund, infinitive or both is about the forms in which verbs have to be put based on the verb that comes
before. In this case, we are talking about:

1. Gerund: verb + ing – Ex: (Playing, Sleeping, Painting, etc...)


2. Infinitive: To + Verb – Ex: (To play, to sleep, to paint, etc…)
3. Both: with both, we mean that the verb can be put either in gerund, or infinitive – Ex: (to play/ playing, to sleep/
sleeping, to paint/ painting, etc...)

Explanation:

Verbs that can accept both


Verbs before gerund (verb + ing) Verbs before infinitive (To+ verb)
gerund and infinitive

- Imagine - Consider - Decide - Promise - Begin


- Stop - Finish - Begin - Need - Continue
- Like
- Enjoy - Regret - Agree -Hope - Love
- Admit - Detest - Ask - Intend - Try
- Start
- Avoid - Suggest - Expect - Plan
- Prefer
- Dislike - Remember - Manage - Stopped
- Hate
- Stop - Attempt
- Learn

The table above shows verbs that should be followed with gerund, infinitive or that can accept both.

Remark N°1:

(1) Verbs that come after prepositions should be put in the gerund form.

Examples:
- I am keen on reading English books.
- I am fond of playing the guitar.
- I always brush my teeth before sleeping.
- Alice usually watches T.V after doing her homework.
-Hamid took his father’s car without asking for his permission
(2) Some expressions with which we use gerund:

Expressions Examples
Feel like Ex: I feel like listening to music now
Can’t help / couldn’t help Ex: I can’t help hearing my little brother’s noise.
Can’t/couldn’t stand Ex: He can’t stand working alone.
Can’t/ couldn’t resist Ex: She couldn’t stand being away from her family
Get/ be used to Ex: I am used to speaking in English
Look forward to Ex: I am looking forward to seeing you.

3
Remark N°2:

(1) After modal verbs, the verb that follows must always be put in bare-infinitive form

Modal verbs: Can, could, shall, should, may, might, will, would, must.

Examples:
- Nassim can speak French and English very fluently.
- We could go with our friends for the picnic to Bin El Ouidan
- Kate shall talk to her mother and follow us to the market.
- Sally should help her mother on the housework.
- I may play with you the football match if I don’t go with my parents to Souk Sebt.
- The teacher might be angry if we don’t do the homework.
- Omar will study in the faculty of Beni Mellal next year if he gets his baccalaureate degree.
- I would buy a new computer if I have enough money.
- Students must revise this review to prepare themselves for the quiz and the baccalaureate exam likewise.

Exercise:

Put the verbs between brackets in the correct form to form a meaningful sentence

1. My grandfather likes (listen)……………………….………………. To the radio in the morning.


2. Mr Smith has decided (change)…………………………….………………his old car with a brand-new one.
3. I can’t (accept)……………………………….…………….. more friends on my Facebook, it is already full.
4. Nihad is used to (wake up)………………………………………… early in the morning.
5. You need to finish (eat)……………………….…………………your food, please!
6. The kids must not (stay up) …………………….…………………………for too long at night.

IV. WRITING: Linking words

Definition: Linking words are words that we use to connect sentences with each other. They are usually used in a
paragraph or a piece of writing in order to give it a sense of meaning and coherence. Linking words can be used to
express purpose, make a contrast, addition, concession, or so as to show cause and effect.

Explanation with examples:

4
Purpose Contrast Addition Concession Cause and effect

1. In order to+ (verb) 1. But 1. Both.. and +(Gerund/Noun) 1. Although+(Subject) (mostly at the 1. Because
beginning of the sentence). => Rim didn’t go to school
=>You always need to work hard =>She speaks French, but she =>Both reading and
writing are important because she was sick
in order to achieve your dreams. does not know English =>Although Ahmed is rich, he lives
for learning languages in a small house.
2. Consequently
=>In order to achieve your 2. While
=> Both Ahmed and Ali =>Ahmed lives in a small house, =>James squandered all his money
dreams, you always need to work
are good students. although he is rich. in a gambling game; consequently,
hard. => She likes living in the
he turned into a very poor man
city, while her 2. Though+(Subject/Gerund)
2. To + (verb) husband prefers the 2. Too / as well 3. Due to +(Gerund/noun)
countryside. =>Reading is very beneficial, though
=>Due to smoking, people get sick
=>To have a car, you should save =>Albert likes drawing some people think it is a waste of
a lot of money. =>While she likes living in and swimming too time.
=>He divorced his wife, due to
the city, her husband prefers
=> Though reading is very family problems.
=>You should save a lot of money the countryside. => He reads novels and
short stories as well beneficial, some people think it is
to have a car. 4. Thanks to + (Gerund/Noun)
3. on the other hand just a waste of time.
3. So as to +(verb) 3. In addition to 3. Even though+(Subject/gerund/noun) =>Thanks to studying very hard,
=>Laptops are useful; on the Brandi scored the highest mark in
=>Even though I like sports, I seldom
other hand, they can be very =>In addition to the quiz.
=>Students study very hard so as practice it.
expensive. swimming, Albert likes
to get their baccalaureate => Even though listening to Rock
degree. drawing. music is enjoyable, Kate does not like it => Thanks to the development of
language, people learnt how to
4. whereas =>Albert likes drawing
4. In spite of+(Gerund/noun)
=>So as to get their read and write.
baccalaureate degree, students in addition to swimming =>In spite of preparing well, he still
=>Mr. Bob is very rich; didn’t pass the exam successfully.
study very hard. 5. As a result
whereas, his brother is too 4. Not only... but also => We enjoyed our trip, in spite of the
poor.
4. So that(Subject/Gerund/noun) weather which was very hot He was driving while he is drunk;
=>Not only does he have 5. Despite+(Gerund/noun) as a result, he had a terrible
=>Societies read books so that a house, but he also has =>Despite going to the gym, Bill accident.
they improve their intellect a car still looks skinny.
=> Despite the rain, she walked to 6. Therefore
=>She learns vocabulary so that 5. Moreover the station. =>He hadn’t slept well; therefore,
reading would be easier for her
=> She walked to the station despite he felt tired.
=>He speaks French,
the rain 7. Thus
=>People plough their land, so English and Spanish;
6. Yet => They like fish; thus, they always
that rain would grow the crops. moreover, he is very
=>It was raining, yet Sally went out. buy it.
good at mathematics
1. However (middle of the sentence) 8. Hence
and physics
=> I like movies very much; She broke her leg; hence, she
however, I don’t go to the cinema. couldn’t participate in the game.
5
Exercise:

FILL IN EACH GAP WITH AN APPROPRIATE WORD FROM THE LIST

Despite – because of – whereas – due to – that’s why, in order to, too

1. Shelly practised well for her driving test; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . she passed it easily.

2. Mr. Philips is talkative, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . his wife is shy and reserved

3. Rachid has just bought a flower bouquet………………………..……… give it to his mother because today is mother’s day.

4. The football team played the match………………………………… the heavy rain

5. He speaks English and Spanish……………

V. VOCABULARY (2): COMPOUND ADJECTIVES

Definition: compound adjectives are adjectives that are made up of more than one word. Like other
adjectives, compound adjectives are used to describe a person or a thing.

Compound Meanings
Adjectives
Kind-hearted 1. Someone who is very nice and gentle
Brightly-lit 2. A place or a space where there is good and enough light
Old-fashioned 3. Something that is no longer modern or fashionable
Deeply-rooted 4.A feeling, belief, or idea that is old, strong and difficult to change
Good-looking 5. Someone who is neat & physically attractive
Labour-saving 6. An equipment or a thing that is used to save energy and time.
Left-handed 7. A person who uses his left hand, instead of the right one
Short-sighted 8.Somone who has visual problems seeing things clearly
Well-known 9.Someone or something that is very famous
Easy-going 10. A person who is very calm, relaxed and that doesn’t get upset quickly
Brand-new 11. Something that is completely new and that hasn’t been used yet.
Badly-written 12. Of a piece of writing that is not written in a very good way
Part-time 13. Used to describe a job or an activity that is done for only a few hours or days in a week.
Well-paid 14. Of a person who receives a very good income or salary for his job
Five-star 15. A five-star hotel or service is of the best possible quality
Second-hand 16. Something that had already been used by another person

6
Examples:
1. Simon is a kind-hearted person, he likes to play with kids and give them sweets and money
2. Last week, when we went to Agadir, we stayed in a fancy five-star hotel
3. If you decide to buy a computer, I’d prefer it would be a brand-new one so as to avoid technical
issues with it later.
4. In my point of view, many people squander their money buying second-hand objects, as they are
usually of a low quality.
5. My uncle is an easy-going person; he really never gets upset easily.
6. Susan is a beautiful and good-looking girl; I believe she spends a lot of money on her clothes.
7. Some cultural beliefs are deeply-rooted and cannot be easily changed.
8. He stumbled many times while walking to his house; he must be a short-sighted person.

Exercise:

Fill in the blanks with a suitable compound adjective from the table of adjectives above.

1. Most of the students who go to continue their studies abroad try to find ……………………………… jobs to
support their studies and life expenses.
2. My grandfather is a ……………………………………. Person, so he wears classes.
3. My study room is ……………………………………., it is my preferable place where I spend most of my time
reading and revising for my studies.
4. Messi is …………………………………… football player. He is famous for his wonderful way of playing and
the goals he scores.

7
VI. GRAMMAR (2): The Past Perfect tense

Definition: At first, it would be obligatory to give a brief definition of what we mean by a “tense”. Generally
speaking, a tense refers to any of the forms of a verb which show the time at which an action happened.
(Cambridge dictionary). In other words, a tense shows when an action happens, whether the past, present or
the future.

Use of the Past Perfect Tense:

We use the past perfect tense when we have two actions in the past, so the first one is put in the past perfect;
whereas, the second one is put in the simple past tense.

Forms of the Past Perfect Tense:

 Affirmative: Subject+ had + verb ( past participle) + object


Ex: I had written my friend an e-mail.

 Negative: Subject+ had not+ verb (past participle) + object


Ex: I had not written my friend an e-mail.

 Interrogative: Had+ Subject + verb (past participle+ object +?


Ex: Had I written my friend an e-mail?

Timeline:

Past Perfect Simple Past Present Future

Exercise: Put the verbs between brackets either in the simple past tense or the past perfect

1. When I (arrive)…………………. to the house, Mary wasn’t there. She (already/go)……………………………….to school
2. I didn’t recognize my old classmate because he (change)…………………………… so much
3. We were late for the show last night. By the time we(get)………………. to the theater, the movie ( already/start)…………….
4. Yesterday I went on my first plane trip. I was very nervous because I (never/fly)………………..…………………… before
5. The kids (brush)……………………………. Their teeth after they (have)………………….………………… their lunch
6. Susan (have)………………..…………………. Her breakfast quickly and (go)…………..……….……… to her job.
7. Robin (have)…………………………………… a nice car, but I don’t know why he (sell)………………………….…. it
8. I (be/not)……………………………….. invited to the wedding ceremony of my friend, so I (go/not)……………………………..
9. ………………. Nassim (revise)………………….. his lessons before going to school?

8
VII. GRAMMAR (2):The Past Perfect Continuous tense

Use:
(1) We use the past perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action in the past which
continued to exist until another one came and interrupted it.

Example: The passengers had been waiting for the bus until it finally arrived.

(2) We use the past perfect continuous tense to explain why an activity or a feeling happened
in the past.

Example: He had been studying very hard, so he passed the exam successfully. (Activity)

Example: I felt exhausted because I had been helping my grandfather cultivating the land. (Feeling)

Forms of the Past Perfect Continuous Tense:

 Affirmative: Subject+ had + been+ verb +ing + object


Ex: I had been playing a football match.

 Negative: Subject+ had not+ been+ verb +ing + object


Ex: I had not been playing a football match.

 Interrogative: Had+ Subject + been+ verb + ing + object +?


Ex: Had I been playing a football match?

Timeline:

Past Perfect Continuous Simple Past Present Future

Exercise: Put the verbs between brackets in the past perfect continuous tense.

1. Allan (prepare)………………………………….. for the quiz very hard, that’s why he scored a very high mark
2. Mr. Robin (work)………………………..…………………………..as a Doctor before he retired.
3. She (do/not)……………………..…………………………. Her homework when I came home.
4. I (watch)………………………………………………………T.V when I fell asleep
5. The children (play)……………………………..………….. video games when the electricity went off.
6. ………………………… the kids (play)……………………………..……………… football outside when it rained?
9
VOCABULARY (3): Idiomatic Expressions

Definition: Idioms are expressions that are used by native speakers, which convey a meaning that is different
from the literary one. The meanings of idioms are the result of cultural interactions and are used mainly in
informal contexts. Students need to learn as many idioms as possible with their meanings to be able to
understand and use them easily.

Idiomatic expression Meaning Examples


Hardworking students believe that their
1. In the bag 1. Something that is guaranteed
baccalaureate diplomas are in the bag
2. A situation which produces no profit/ My cousin is very good at mathematics, but
2. A dead loss he is a dead loss in physics
a person or thing that is completely useless
Bouchra answered all the questions of the
3. With flying colours 3. With complete or outstanding success
quiz with flying colors
4. Let something slip Mustapha does not know the importance of
4. To miss a chance or an opportunity
the chances he gets, so he always lets them
through your fingers
slip through his fingers
To stop doing something, especially My uncle went cold turkey having stopped
5. Go cold turkey something that it is addictive abruptly and smoking suddenly.
suddenly
The quiz was a piece of cake
6. Be a piece of cake To be very easy

My father has a lot of work, he is always on


7. Be on the go To be very busy and active all the time the go
- Susan had to cram for her exam in the last
To try to learn as much as possible in a
8. To cram few days because she wasted a lot of time
short time
before.
9. To keep one’s To hope for the best/to wish someone good I wish you a good luck in the exam, I will
fingers crossed luck keep my fingers crossed for you
- When little children start screaming, they
10. to get on one’s To irritate someone, to make someone
really get on my nerves.
nerves upset/ to annoy someone a lot.
Rim is good at cooking, but she is green in
To be inexperienced/ To have no
11. To be green preparing Moroccan pancakes.
experience in something
- Nassim felt blue when he knew that his
12. To feel blue To feel sad and depressed mark of the quiz was very bad

- Yesterday night, it was raining cats and


13. Rain cats and dogs To rain heavily dogs, so we couldn’t go out.

Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the right idioms to form meaningful sentences:
1. The weather was hot in the morning, but when the evening came, it turned cold and it suddenly
started……………………………………………………
2. Allan answered all his driving test questions……………………………………………………; he believes that the whole test
was a …………………………………………………..
3. I would admit that I am …………………………………………..writing in English, but I am very good at speaking.
4. My brother……………………………………..when he took all the dirhams that I had left on the desk.
5. My sister will take tomorrow a master entrance exam, I will……………..………………………..for her.
6. This is my last chance to have the baccalaureate degree, so I am not going to ……………………. this 10
opportunity……………………………….
Language Functions: MAKING AND RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS

DEFINITION:

“Making and responding to complaints” is about some expressions that we use in speaking to express
dissatisfaction, or respond to a person’s dissatisfaction and lack of comfort, usually about a service or any other
situation.

Making a complaint Accepting a complaint Refusing a complaint


1. I just don‘t know how to say it, but… 1. Oh, I am sorry about that. 1.Well, I am afraid there is nothing we
can do about it actually
2. I am afraid I have to make a serious 2. I can‘t tell you how sorry I am.
complaint. 2. Well, I am afraid there isn‘t much we
3.Oh, dear. I‘m really sorry. can do about it.
3. Oh, I‘ve got a bit of a problem here,
you see… 4. I'm so sorry, but this will never 3. Well, I think that was not my fault
happen again.
4. I am sorry to say this but... 4. Right, but you know I have no control
5. I'm really sorry, but I promise over the situation.
5. I want to complain about...
not to have the same mistake
6. I am afraid I have a complaint about ... repeated again.

7. I am angry about...

8. I have a complaint to make


concerning……

Exercise:

React to the following situations:

You are staying in your hotel room; however, you cannot sleep because the person on the next room is playing a very
loud disturbing music.

 complain to him:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………..……

Your friend lent you his copybook of English to copy a few lessons, which you missed, on the day of the English
session; you forget to bring him his book, so he complains to you.

Your friend: I am very angry about my copybook which you forgot to bring with you!

 Accept your friend’s complaint


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

11
GRAMMAR (3):Phrasal Verbs
Definition:
Phrasal verbs are verbs in English that are compound & that are made up of two parts, namely the verb and a particle.
The latter are prepositions, which we refer to as particles when we talk about phrasal verbs; these include: up, down, in,
out, about, into, on, over, around...
 The list of phrasal verbs in English is very huge, but it is important that students need to know the most
commonly used ones to be familiar with them.
 Phrasal verbs need to be conjugated, just like any other normal verb in order to fit into a sentence.
List of commonly used phrasal verbs with their meanings and examples:
Phrasal verbs Definitions Examples
Look for To search After their graduation, students start looking for
jobs
Bring about To cause something Drugs usually bring about serious diseases and
health problems
Carry on / go on To continue The athlete could not carry on the competition
until the end, as he felt too tired.
Come across To find something by chance Whenever I read stories in English, I come across
new words.
Fill in To complete something messing You fill in the gap to finish the sentences
Apply for Make a request/a demand I applied for a visa to the USA
Find out To discover something new especially Rim’s mother found out that she lied to her about
by chance her absence from school.
Put on To wear clothes You should put on your jacket when it is cold

Take off Remove clothes/ leave the ground People take off heavy clothes in the summer.
Take after To resemble or look like somebody Rose takes after her mother
Break down Stop working Paul has a very old car, it always breaks down

Figure out To come to understand something I need to figure out how the machine works.
Apply for to make an official request John has applied for many job offers, but he is
still has not lucky to find one.
Look forward to to feel happy and excited about Alice is looking forward to her visit to London
something that is going to happen next summer.
Turn down To reject and refuse. Mr Bob’s application for a visa has been turned
down by the embassy.
Pick up To select, choose, or get something. Alba went to the shopping center and found a lot
of beautiful skits, and she didn’t know which one
to pick up
Give up to stop doing something that you Addicts find it difficult to give up on drugs
do regularly
Break down To stop working My phone broke down yesterday, so I need to
buy a new one as soon as possible
Figure out To come to understand something Finding out how a car works, would help you
figure out how to fix it if it breaks down
Look after To take care of someone/something Mothers would always look after their children

Come back To return I need to go visit my grandfather who has just


come back from Mecca.
PS: The verb and the particle, in a phrasal verb, can sometimes be separated, in that the object in a sentence comes
between them. Ex: take your clothes off - write notes down 12
Exercise:

Fill in the blanks with a right phrasal verb from the list given.
Look down - Look after - turn down - take after - come back –
Look after - put off – stand for - look forward to - bring about - find out

1. Leila will be late for the party this afternoon because she needs to ………………………….. her little sister. She says she will
join us when her parents ………………………………. from the dentist's.
2. While travelling to Fes, the coach that we were riding …………………………………………..in the middle of the way, so we had
to wait for one hour to have it fixed.
3. The aim of the Family Code in Morocco is to ………………………………. changes in the social conditions of women and children.

4. I ………………………………. seeing you again next summer

5. Have you tried to ………………………………. how much this mobile phone costs?

6. The initials WHO ………………………………. World Health Organization.

VOCABULARY (4): Prefixes and Suffixes

DEFINITION:

Prefixes and suffixes are small words consisting of two or three letters, which come before a word (root) or after it to
change its meaning and also its class, sometimes from a verb into a noun or from a noun into an adjective or a verb
into an adjective. Prefixes and suffixes do not have an apparent rule, but they can generally be acquired with readings
and language interaction.
The table below demonstrates a number of words with prefixes and suffixes that go with them.

Prefixes:
Dis Pre Contra Anti Re Post Out Co Mis
Disagree Preorder Contraband Antisocial Rewrite Postmodern Outdo Cooperate Misbehave
disappear Preoccupy Contraception Antibiotic Recycle Postgraduate Outcome Coordinate Misuse
Disable Prescribe Antianxiety Reuse Postwar Outlet Copilot Misunderstand
Disorder Precaution Antiwar Reinstall outlook Co-manage Misjudge
Dislocate Prejudge Repost
Dissemble Recall
Disadvantage redo
Disappoint
Disapprove
Disconnect
Discomfort
Discover
Suffixes:
-ment -ation -tion able ible Hood Less Ful
Development Communication Reaction Recognizable Accessible Fatherhood Parentless Joyful
Requirement immigration Revolution Readable Visible Motherhood Fatherless Cheerful
Improvement memorization Protection Improvable Responsible Parenthood Motherless Careful
Government Activation Recognition Inevitable Tangible Childhood Jobless Watchful
Engagement Explanation Protectable Manhood Careless Respectful
Involvement Degradation Predictable Womanhood Reckless
Participation Enjoyable
Reachable
Explainable
Likable
Drinkable

13
Exercise: Put the words between brackets in the correct form

1. At the beginning of every school year, students need to renew their (register)………………………………………at school.
2. Sandy has just started recovering from the (operate) ……………………………………… that she had last week on her arm.
3. Children should know that playing with fire is very (danger)………………………………… and (harm)……………….…………….
4. Students in my class are very (friend)…………………………… and nice.
5. A ten thousand dirhams was given to the hospital by an (known)………………………… person.
6. If you want to continue watching encrypted T.V channels, you need to renew your (subscribe)……………………………
7. Playing tennis is a very (enjoy)………………………………………sport.
8. Brain drain is the (emigrate) ………………………………… of skilled people to better geographic economic or
(profession) ………………………………… environments.

Language Functions: Apologising

DEFINITION:

To apologize means to say sorry; that is you express yourself to be guilty for a behaviour or something that you
did and was not right.

Apologizing Responding to apologies


-I am really sorry about this. -That’s OK/all right!
-I am terribly sorry -Never mind!
-I can’t tell you how sorry I am. -That’s no problem!
-I do apologize. -Forget about it.
-Please, accept my sincere apologies -Don’t worry about that.
-I just don’t know what to say. -Oh, never mind. It doesn’t really matter.
-I am really angry with myself for what I did. -Please, don’t blame yourself.

Exercise:
React to the following situations using expressions of apologizing and responding to apologies.

Situation n°1:
Your English class starts at 8h o’clock, but you arrived to school at 8h: 10 minutes. How would you apologize to your
teacher?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Situation n°2:
You lent your cellphone to your sister to make a phone call, but it slipped through her hands, so the screen was
broken. She apologizes to you, so how would you respond to her apology?

Your sister: I am terribly sorry for having broken the phone’s screen. I really did not do it on purpose
You:………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
Tip: for the list
GRAMMAR (4):Passive Voice:
of irregular
Passive voice is one of the grammar structures that we use when we do not know the doer of an action, or when we want to focus verbs, check
on the action itself rather than on the person who does it. The mastery of verbs with all their tenses, principally including verb to be the last pages
is necessary in this lesson. It is also mandatory that students have to know regular and irregular verbs with their different forms. of the
The table below includes a comprehensive list of verb to be in all tenses and the rules that apply to all English verbs. textbook

Verb to be:
Passive Voice Rule:
Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Object + Verb to be (in the tense of the main verb) +
main verb in the past participle + Object.
I am I am being I have been I have been being
Example:
You are You are being You have been You have been being
Active voice
He is He is being He has been He has been being
 I have eaten an apple
She is She is being She has been She has been being
It is It is being It has been It has been being Passive voice
We are We are being We have been We have been being  An apple has been eaten by me
You are You are being You have been You have being been NB: The subject could be either singular or plural, so
They are They are being They have been They have been being verb to be has to be conjugated according to it.
Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
I was I was being I had been I had been being Passive Voice with modals:
You were You were being You had been You had been being Present Modals
He was He was being He had been He had been being Object + modal verb + be(bare infinitive) +
She was She was being She had been She had been being verb(past participle)
It was It was being It had been It had been being Examples:
We were We were being We had been We had been being Active voice
You were You were being You had been You had being been  You must respect your teacher
They were They were being They had been They had been being Passive voice
Simple Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous  your teacher must be respected
I will be I will be being I will have been I will have been being Past Modals
You will be You will be being You will have been You will have been being Object +modal verb+ have been+ verb (past participle)
He will be He will be being He will have been He will have been being Examples:
She will be She will be being She will have been She will have been being Active voice
It will be It will be being It will have been It will have been being  You should have written the lesson
We will be We will be being We will have been We will have been being
You will be You will be being You will have been You will have been being Passive voice
They will be They will be being They will have been They will have been being  The lesson should have been written

Tense grammatical rules (these would help us recognize the tense of the main verb in the active voice):
Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous
Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative
S+V(S.Present)+O S+ to be(s.present)+V+ing+O S+have/has+V(P.P)+O S+have/has+ to be(p.p)+V+ing+O
Negative Negative Negative Negative
S+don’t/doesn’t + V(b.i)+O S+ to be(s.p)+not+V+ing+O S+have/has not+V(P.P)+O S+have/has not+ to be(p.p)+V+ing+O
Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative
Do/Does + S+ V(b.i)+ O+? to be(s.p)+ S+ V+ing+O+? Have/Has+S+V(P.P)+O+? have/has+S+to be(p.p)+V+ing+O+?
Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative
S+V(S.Past)+O S+ to be(s.past)+V+ing+O S+had +V(P.P)+O S+had+ to be(p.p)+V+ing+O
Negative Negative Negative Negative
S+didn’t + V(b.i)+O S+ to be(s.past)+not+V+ing+O S+had not+V(P.P)+O S+had not+ to be(p.p)+V+ing+O
Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative
did + S+ V(b.i)+ O+? to be(s.past)+ S+ V+ing+O+? Had +S+V (P.P)+O+? Had+S+to be(p.p)+V+ing+O+?
Simple Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous
Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative
S+Will+V(b.i)+O S+Will+ to be(b.i)+V+ing+O S+Will+have+V(p.p)+O S+Will+have+ to be(p.p)+V+ing+O
Negative Negative Negative Negative
S+Will not+V(b.i)+O S+Will+ to be(b.i)+V+ing+O S+Will not+ have+V(p.p)+O S+Will not+have+ to be(p.p)+V+ing+O
Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative
Will+ S+V(b.i)+O+? Will+ S+to be(b.i)+V+ing+O+? Will+S+ have+V(p.p)+O+? Will+S+ have+ to be(p.p)+V+ing+O+?

15
Exercise:
Put the following sentences in the passive form:
1. I write poems
 Poems…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………

2. The police arrested the criminal yesterday in the morning.


 The criminal…………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………..

3. They stole five original paintings from the art gallery in Paris
 Five original paintings………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4. Millions of people have watched the football world cup


 The football world cup………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

5. My father gave me that watch as a present.


The watch………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……….

6. You should clean your room regularly


 The room……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

VOCABULARY (5): Advances in Science and Technology

Inventor Interactive whiteboard Digital camera

Washing machine Elevator


Advances in science
E-learning and technology Credit Card

Communication Video projector


E-book Satellite
Factory Escalator Vacuum Cleaner

Words and their meanings:


Inventor: a person who creates new an innovative things

Washing machine: a machine that is designed to clean clothes automatically.

E-learning: refers to learning that takes place remotely where students can learn via their computers and smartphones.

Communication: verbal, non-verbal and written types of interactions used to transmit and receive messages.

E-book: An electronic book that can be found and read on the internet.

Factory: A huge manufacturing place where technological devices and goods are made and prepared for sale.

Escalator: Electronic stairs that move up and down by means of electricity; they are used to help people move without making a big effort.

Vacuum cleaner: An electronic sweeping machine which has a respiratory system that helps clean floors and carpets.

Satellite: a massive astronomic signal transmitter that is used to communicate information.

Video projector: a digital device used to show images and videos from a computer on a big screen.

Credit card: a bankcard that is used to draw money from an ATM machine; make online and transformational payments.

Elevator: the synonym of a lift, it is small room-like which is used in buildings to take people up and down through flats

Digital camera: a camera that is used to take pictures and put them on a computer by means of a USB cable or Bluetooth technology
16
Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the right words from the list above to form complete and meaningful
sentences:

1. Thomas Alva Edison is an American……………………………… who came up with the idea of the light bulb
2. People no longer buy ……………………………………… they only take pictures with their smartphones
3. The director of the company used a ………………………….…. at the meeting to explain to the employees the
new strategy of work
4. Many think that reading ……………………………….. on the internet is not as beneficial as reading hardcopies.
5. We had to go up to the third floor, all the way long through the stairs as the…………………………was not
working.
6. Most women prefer to use ordinary brooms than electronic…………………………………..
7. My mother no longer worries about the laundry, she just turns on the ………………………….……….. and it cleans
all the clothes no matter how dirty they are
8. Teaching and leaning have developed a lot; students can nowadays learn from their home’s
through………………………………
9. Around the city of Fkih Ben Saleh, there is a ………………………………………………..of milk near the high school of
Tighnari.

10. It is believed that most social problems can be solved by means of good…………………………………………..

Language Functions: Asking for and giving opinion.

DEFINITION:

“Asking for opinion & giving opinion are expressions that we use to know about someone’s viewpoint regarding
a certain topic or issue. These expressions, include asking for, giving, agreeing and disagreeing with the opinion.

Disagreeing with the


Asking for opinion Expressing Opinion Agreeing with the opinion
opinion
-Do you think……? -Well, if you ask me…… -You’re right about that. -I’m afraid, I can’t agree
with you.
-What about…….?
-I think…….. -I agree with you
-Don’t you think……? -I do not agree.
-I really feel that……. -I share the same point of
-What do you think about…?
view -I don’t think so
- What’s your opinion about….? - to be honest……
-You're absolutely right -I believe that’s not
-Are you for or against..?
-if you ask me…. right
- What is your viewpoint -That’s true
-to my mind…. -It’s true, but……
concerning…?
- I totally agree I disagree
-I believe that…
- I couldn’t agree
- In my point of view. more with you

-According to me…

- For me…..
17
Exercise:

React to the following situations:

1. Robin: Hello my friend, I have been thinking lately about my higher studies and I am a little bit lost.
What do you think is better, is it the faculty or another institution?

You:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2. How would Robin agree with your opinion?

Robin:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

GRAMMAR (5):The Future Perfect Tense

Use:

We use the future perfect to refer to an action which will be completed at a specific time in the future.

Example: By 2020, the population in Morocco will have increased.

Forms:

Affirmative: Subject+ will + have + verb (past participle) + object.

EX: By the end of this month, I will have revised all my lessons

Negative: Subject+ will not + have + verb (past participle) + object.

Ex: By the end of this month, I will not have revised all my lessons

Interrogative: Will + Subject +have+ verb (past participle) + object +?

Ex: Will I have revised all my lessons by the end of this month?

Timeline

S.Past Present Future perfect Future

1. When you arrive, I (probably /start) ……………………………………………………………..…………. the job.


2. They(have) ……………………………………………………….………………………….dinner by the time we get there
3. By next year they (not sell)…………………………………………..………..………… all their properties
4. I still (read/not) ………………………………………………….. the rest of the book by tomorrow evening, it’s long.
5. My sister(complete/not)……………………………………………………………….. her degree by the end of this semester.
She has two more semesters to go.
6. (Your/arrive) ……………………………..…………in New York by 3PM on Saturday?
18
VOCABULARY (6): Collocations with “Make & Do”.

Definition:

In English, there are these two verbs which are very much similar in meaning, but that can’t be used
interchangeably with each other, especially because each one is used with a number of nouns that it
collocates with. The table below shows nouns that go with each of the two verbs.

Make Do
-A mess - a suggestion -The housework
-A speech -a comment -A test
-A mistake -Money -Your hair
-A call -A complaint -A job
-The beds -Friends -Someone a favor
-Noise -The shopping
-A wish -Harm
-A promise -The Work

N.B: Like any other verbs, “Make and Do” should also be conjugated with regards to the sentence and its
time indicators.

Exercise:
1. I haven’t been able to …………………………… any new friends lately.
2. Investors …………………..……… good money through business and investments.
3. My mother …………………………………… a promise that she’d buy me a new smartphone if I have my bag
degree this year.
4. I haven’t got any vegetables left in the fridge, I should go ……………………. Some shopping at the market.
5. They left their older sister …………………………….. the housework while they went to school.
6. The only wish that I want to ………………………… now is that I want all homeless people to find a shelter.

GRAMMAR (6):Conditionals (Types II & III)

Definition: conditionals are grammatical structures that are used to talk about a situation where there is cause
and effect; that is an action that happens as the result of another one.

Difference:
The difference between conditional type II and type III is in the time of the speaking; that is the actions and
situations; whether they happen in the past, in this case we talk about conditional type III, so we use it to
express regret. Or a situation that takes place in the present, so in this case we talk about conditional type II,
thus we express an unreal situation in the present.

Examples:
1. I can’t use Whatsapp because I don’t have an internet connection. (conditional type II – verbs in the present)
 If I had an internet connection, I would use Whatsapp.
2. I couldn’t use Whatsapp because I didn’t have an internet connection. (conditional type III – verbs in the past)
 If I had had an internet connection, I could have used Whatsapp.

19
CONDITIONAL TYPE II

USE: We use conditional type 2 to talk about an unreal situation in the present.
 Example:
1. If intellectual people found a job, they would not immigrate to Europe.
2. If I had money, I would buy a car

RULES:
IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If + Subject + verb (simple past) + object Subject + would + verb (bare infinitive) +
Object

- P.S: In conditional type II, verb “to be” in the “if clause” takes “were” form with all subject pronouns including: I, he,
she, and it, since we are talking about an unreal situation.
- N.B: All conditionals accept switching the if close with the main clause. That is, the order can change if the sentence still
makes sense.
Ex: if I had money, I would buy a car  I would buy a car if I had money

CONDITIONAL TYPE III

 Examples:
1. If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam successfully.
2. If he had driven more carefully, he wouldn’t have had the accident

RULE:

IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE

If + Subject + had +verb (past participle) + object Subject + would/ could +have + verb (past
participle)

USE: we use conditional type 3 to express conditions in the past that did not happen. It is usually used to
express regret.
Exercise:
Rewrite the following sentences as suggested:
1. my brother doesn't have enough money to buy a car
if..........................................................................................................................................................................
2. I don't have more time to learn how to play tennis
if..........................................................................................................................................................................

3. They cut the electricity because I didn’t pay the bills


if……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………..….
4. They didn’t play football because the weather was not nice
If………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
5. The criminal was not arrested because the police didn’t come on time.
If…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
VOCABULARY (7): Citizenship

Voting Nationality Justice Elections

Equality Patriotism

Rights
Citizenship Flag

Duties
Volunteerism Democracy
Loyalty national anthem

Words and their meanings:

Nationality: it refers to a person’s belonging to a certain country. Ex: Moroccan, Italian, French..
Justice: The system of laws in a country that treats all people equally.
Elections: An organized process of voting where a person is chosen to hold a political or any other position to
represent the others
Vote: to voice your opinion by means of choosing the right person or thing.
Patriotism: The quality of loving one’s country and being loyal to it.
Flag: a piece of cloth that includes the symbols and colors which represent a country
Democracy: A political system where people choose and elect their government and its rulers by means of
voting for them.
National anthem: A song that represents a specific country.
Loyalty: refers to faithful, loyal and candid citizens who love and work for their country.
Volunteerism: Refers to free work that is done by the members of an association to help the others without
receiving money.
Duties: It refers to the responsibilities of citizens towards their country and other members of the society.
Rights: it refers to the legal, social and ethical principles given to citizens in their country.
The table below states some of the rights and responsibilities of citizens:

Rights Responsibilities /duties


 to have a job
 respect others
 to be respected
 to be concerned for the common good
 have access to leisure activities
 to respect the flag of your country
 to have a say in what happens
 to participate in community activities
 to be free to tell your opinion
 to believe in human dignity and equality
 to have access to health care
 respect the rules and laws
 to be safe
 to respect the environment
 to have access to education
 to pay taxes
 to be free to move

Exercise:
1. During the period of ………………………………………. All political parties organize campaigns in order to have the
maximum number of ………………………………………possible.
2. Before and after any formal speech, of His Majesty Mohammed VI, addressed to his people,
the…………………………………………………is sung.
3. All countries that are characterized with …………………………………………….. guarantee for their citizens their
……………………………………………………
4. Paying taxes is one of the …………………………..…………………of citizens. 21
GRAMMAR (7):Expressing wishes

Definition: “Expressing wishes” is used to express dissatisfaction and disappointment with regards to a
certain situation. These include two types of wishes, present and past. The difference between present
and past wishes is always in tenses. When the verbs, in a sentence, are conjugated in the present, then we
talk about a present wish, thus the rule of the present wish should be applied; yet when the verbs, in a
sentence, are conjugated in the past, then we talk about a past wish, thus the rule of the past wish should
be applied.

1 – PRESENT WISHES:

Rule:

I wish/if only + subject+ verb (simple past) + object.

1. Ex: I don’t have money I wish I had money.


2. Ex: I can’t find a job  if only I could find a job. ( in this case the modal verb changes from present to past, but
the main verb does not change, basically because it is preceded by the modal verb)

Remark:
Verb “to be” always takes the form “were”, instead of “was” with all subject pronouns, since we are talking about an
unreal situation.

Ex: I am poor  if only I were rich

2 - PAST WISHES:

Rule:

I wish / I wished/if only + subject+ verb (past perfect) + object.

1. Ex: I didn’t score a good mark in the quiz  I wish I had scored a good mark in the quiz
2. Ex: I couldn’t go to New York  I wish I could have gone to New York.

Remark:
The modal verb in the past, in past wishes must be changed into a perfect modal. Basically, because there is no past of
the past of the modal verb.
I wish+ modal verb+ have+ verb(past participle)+object
Exercise: Change the following statements into wishes.
1. Robin lost his motorcycle because he didn’t lock it.
Robin wishes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……..

2. Alice was fined because she didn’t wear a helmet while she drives her motorcycle
Alice wishes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………

3. My friend loses his money on cigarettes


My friend wishes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4. Our football team hadn’t played well in the match

If only………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………….

5. I don’t like Couscous, but I wish………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22


GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH: Definition: Reported speech is used when we want to report or resay
again what somebody else said.
1- Reporting statements

NB: When the introductory verb is in Adverbs of Time & Place


Today  that day Now  Then
the present, we don’t need to make
Tonight  that night Here  There
any changes with regards to tenses. Yesterday  the day before this  That
Tomorrow  the following day these  Those
Next year  the following year
Last year the year  before/ the previous year
Tomorrow morning the following morning

Direct Speech Reported Speech Tense Change


“I do my exercises” My friend said My friend said that he did his exercises Simple.Present Simple.Past
“I’m washing the dishes” Asma said. Asma said that she was washing the dishes Present.ContinuousPast. Continuous
“we have done our homework” My My classmates said that they had done their Present Perfect Past Perfect
classmates said. homework
“I have been writing my lessons” Ali said Ali said that he had been writing his lessons Present perfect continuous Past perfect
continuous
“ I wrote a letter” Allan stated Allan stated that he had written a letter Simple past Past Perfect
“I was doing the housework” Mum said Mum said that she had been doing the Past Continuous Past Perfect continuous
housework
“Our sisters had cleaned the house” my My brother said that our sisters had cleaned the Past perfect Past Perfect
brother said house.
“Students had been studying for three Rim said that students had been studying for Past perfect continuous Past perfect
years in Hassan 1st high school” Rim said three years in Hassan 1st high school continuous

Direct Speech Reported Speech Modal Change


“I can speak two languages” Ali said Ali said that he could speak two languages Can  Could
“My parents may go to Marrakech tonight” Nassim said that his parents might go to Marrakech that May  Might
Nassim said night
“Your uncle might visit us when he has My father said that my uncle might visit us when Might  Might
time” my father said he had time
“Student must be quite in this exam” The The professor said that students had to be quite in Must  had to
professor said that exam.
“We have to change our business policy” The responsible declared that they had to change Have to Had to
the responsible declared their business policy.
“Students should revise their lessons for The teacher said that students should revise their Should  Should
the exam” the teacher said lessons for the exam
“students will find a job if they graduate The minister declared that students would find a Will  Would
this year” the minister declared job if they graduated that year

Examples Pronouns
change
1.“I played the piano” Ali said  Ali said that he had played the piano
I He / She
2.“I played the piano” Asma said  Asma said that she had played the piano
1. “My mother will visit Lebanon” Ali said  Ali said that his mother would visit Lebanon.
my His / Her
2. “My mother will visit Lebanon” Asma said Asma said that her mother would visit Lebanon
1.“We will go to Italy in the summer” Ali and Asma said Ali and Asma said that they would go
we They
to Italy in the summer
1. “Our team will play against Real Madrid” The football player said  The football player said
our their
that their team would play against Real Madrid.
1. “You spoke very fast” Ali said to me  Ali said to me that I had spoken very fast
you I / we
2. “You spoke very fast”Ali said to us Ali said to us that we had spoken very fast.
1. “I always take my copybooks with me” Omar said.  Omar said that he always took his copybooks with him
me him / her
2. “I always take my copybooks with me” Salwa said.  Salwa said that she always took her copybooks with her

23
GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH (Continuation):

2. Reporting commands, advice, requests


Reporting commands, advice and requests differs from reporting statements, the difference is only in terms of
tenses.

Command:

Examples
1. “Open the window” The father asked his son.  The father asked his son to open the window.
2. “Don’t open the window” The father told his son The father told his son not to open the window.

Advice:

Examples
1. “Try to practice sports” the doctor advised his patient.  The doctor advised his patient to try to
practice sports.
2. “Don’t drive fast” the mother advised her son The mother advised her son not to drive fast.

Requests:
Examples
1. Please send me the email as soon as you arrive to London”. Anna asked John  Anna asked John to
send her the email as soon as he arrives.
2. Please, don’t call me while I am driving” Rim asked her friend.  Rim asked her friend not to call her
while she was driving.

* Suggestions: With suggestions, we use the gerund form of the verb, or that+ subject + verb (Simple Present).
Example: 1.”Let’s go to the cinema” Ali suggested  Ali suggested going to the cinema / Ali suggested that we go to
the cinema
3. Reporting questions
Reporting questions divides into two categories, namely Yes/No questions, that is the questions that we can
answer with either “Yes” or “No”; and Wh questions, that is the questions where we use words like “where,
when, how, who, what…”.
In dealing with the first category, that is Yes/No questions, we need to add “if” to the statement as we report it
and we apply grammatical rules of tenses and adverbs.

Examples: YES/NO QUESTIONS:


“Do you speak English?” The tourist asked.  The tourist wanted to know if I spoke English.
“Did you participate in the competition?” Alia asked me.  Alia asked me if I had participated in the competition.

Examples: WH-QUESTIONS:
“Where did you find the keys? Allan asked.  Allan asked where I had found the keys.
“When do you go to school?” Alia asked.  Alia asked when I went to school.

NB: When we report questions, they change from the interrogative form into affirmative.
24
Exercise:

1. “Did you enjoy the party?” Youssef asked Driss.


Youssef wanted to know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. “Don’t leave the window open at night,” the mother reminded her son.
The mother reminded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. “Have you ever been to the south of Morocco?” Jawad asked his guests.
Jawad wanted to know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. “Will you drive the kids to school?” Mr Lynch asked.


Mr Lynch asked his wife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. "I saw you at the station."


Kim told me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. "I may come a bit late."


Bill told me that . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7. Our team will play a football match next week” The coach told the journalists
The coach said . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ….. . . . . .

8. “Don’t play with fire!” the mother told her son.


The mother warned her son . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25
VOCABULARY (8): Brain Drain

Educated immigration Salary Push factor

Knowledgeable qualified

Intellectual
Brain Drain Well-read

Pull factors
Prosperous
Modernity Income Wage

Brain drain is when highly skilled and intellectual people migrate from their home countries to others in search of better job
and life opportunities. The reasons of such migration divide into two categories, namely Push and Pull Factors. The former
refers to reasons that make people exit their home countries; while the latter refers to reasons that attract migrants go to
other countries.

Push Factors Pull Factors


 Low Wages and Salaries  Higher Wages and income
 Unsatisfactory living conditions  Substantial funds for research advances
 Lack of research and other facilities,
technology, modern facilities
including support staff
 Declining quality of educational system  Political stability
 Social unrest, political conflicts and wars  Better working conditions
 Discrimination in appointments and
 Intellectual freedom
promotions
 Lack of satisfactory working conditions.

Words and their meanings:


Immigration:
Salary: The amount of money that one receives regularly in return for a job
Qualified: Used to refer to a person who has a certain set of skills and competencies
Well-read: It refers to a person who has read a lot of books and learnt from them.
Prosperous: Of a country that is very well developed and that has a good economy.
Wage: the synonym of income and salary, it’s the payment in return for work.
Income: The money that a person gains for his/her work.
Modernity: The state of being developed and prosperous.
Pull factor: something that attracts people to go and live in a certain place
Push factor: something that causes people to want to leave the place where they live and go and live in another
place.
Intellectual: A person who has a lot of knowledge and information thanks to his education.
Knowledgeable: A person who has knowledge and lots of information.
Educated: A person who used to go to school and that leans a lot of information.
Exercise:
Fill in the blanks with words from the list above.
1. Many intellectuals, when given a low…………………they prefer to …………………… and go abroad to find
better opportunities.
2. Countries that are characterized with development and advanced technology have
strong………………………. That make people want to go there.
3. High ……………………….& ………………………make people want to migrate to work abroad in other
countries.
26
Language Functions: Asking for and Giving Advice
DEFINITION:

Asking for and giving advice is about the expressions that we use when we want to ask for advice (help) or give it to
someone else.

Asking for advice Giving advice

- You should…….
- What do you advise me to do?
- Maybe, you should ….
- What would you do in this situation?
- I advise you to….
- If you were me, what would you do?
- If I were you I would ….
- What’s your advice for..?
- You’d better……..
- What can I do?
- Why don’t you..?
- What should I do?
- You’d better…
- What do I have to do?
- Perhaps you should…

Exercise:

React to the following situations:

1. Your friend has some family problems; he argued with his father and decided to leave home. How would you
advise him?
You:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Your classmate is not very serious in his studies. What advice would you give him?
You:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. You can’t speak French very well. Ask for a piece of advice from your teacher to help you.
You………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4. Your best friend needs advice to give up on smoking, how would he ask for advice from you?
Your best friend……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

27
Grammar: Relative Pronouns:
Definition:
Relative pronouns are small words that are used to connect two clauses together; they are used to avoid repetition and
redundancy. Relative pronouns can be used for people, things, time, and places

Relative Pronoun Use Example


Who People(subjective case) The man who works in the post office is my father
Which Things I have changed the phone which I bought two years ago
When Time I like to wake up in the morning when it’s still early.
where Place The school where we study is Hassan I
Whose Possession The boy whose father works in the bank is my friend
Whom People (objective case) The girl whom I danced with in the party is my cousin

Exercise:
1. I talked to the girl ………….. car broke down in front of the shop.
2. Mr Richards,………………… is a taxi driver, lives in the Marrakech.
3. This is the girl………… comes from Spain.
4. That's Peter, the boy……………… has just arrived at the airport.
5. Thank you very much for your e-mail…………………….was really very interesting.
6. What did you do with the money…………… your mother gave you?

Language Functions: Expressing Certainty and Uncertainty.

DEFINITION:
Expressing certainty and uncertainty is about expressions that we use to say that we are sure and certain about
something, or we are not sure of something.

Expressions of Certainty Expressions of Uncertainty


- Absolutely………. - Probably………………….
- I am sure that………. - Might/maybe…………….
- Undoubtedly……….. - I am not sure that……..
- I am certain that…….. - Possibly………………
- Definitely……… - Perhaps…………….
- It is evident that……. - I am not quite sure that …..
- I am quite sure that…… - I suppose that………..
- I’m positive………

Examples:
Expressing certainty:
- I am certain that I will get my baccalaureate degree this year.
- Rim is very sure that her mother will buy her some gifts if she get good marks.
- It is evident that Morocco is a beautiful city that a lot of tourists love.
Expressing uncertainty:
- I am not sure that I will choose to study in the faculty.
- Perhaps, when I have my baccalaureate degree, I will study in a private school.
- I suppose that Morocco will organize the world cup in the next years.
28
Exercise
React to the following situations:

1. Do you think that technology and science will bring about more major changes into our lives in the coming years?
- Express certainty: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………

2. Do you think that football is the best sport in the world?


-Express uncertainty……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. People don’t benefit from Facebook, they just waste their time on it.
-Express uncertainty……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Your friend believes that English is not an important language.


Express uncertainty…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. Your friend has invited you to go and see a horror film. You only rarely like such films. You don’t think you’d like to go.
Express uncertainty:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Grammar: Modal Verbs:


Definition:
Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are used with main verbs to help form a certain meaning and express an
idea. With modal verbs, the verb that follows always comes in bare infinitive form (verb without “to”).

Present Modals
Must Can’t Can Can, may, might Should
Obligation Certainty Inability impossibility Ability Possibility advice
You must Allan has a big Alice can’t go to Mr Allan can’t The cats can Rim is crying, she When you
Examples

write your house, he must be school today be poor, he has see in the may/can/might feel sick,
lessons rich because she is sick a big house dark have family you
problems should see
a doctor

Past/Perfect Modals
Must + have + verb (Past participle) Can’t + have + verb (Past participle) Can, may, might+ have + Should+ have + verb
verb (Past participle) (Past participle)
Certainty in the past impossibility Possibility advice
She scored a very good mark in My student can’t have lied to me I tried to call my friend Time is running out,
Examples

the quiz, she must have revised yesterday, he is very sincere. Allan yesterday, but his you should have
for it very well phone was not working, he started the revision
might have changed his long ago.
number

Exercises:
Fill in the blanks with the right modal verbs:
1. Souad always scores very good marks, she ………………………………………… a very hard working student.
2. My friends invited me to go with them to Fes, I .....................................go with them if I am not busy.
3. it’s a hospital. You………………………….……… smoke here.
4. Take an umbrella. It…………………………….rain later.
5. I haven’t seen my friend for a long time; he ………………………..……………………….travelled
6. I felt hungry and didn’t have money with me; I …………….…………………………………..brought with me my purse.

29
VOCABULARY (10): International Organizations:

International organizations is about some famous and organizations that are known all over the world. These
organizations play important roles based on the activities that each one of them performs.

1- UN : The United Nations a- Maintaining worldwide peace and security


2- UNESCO: The UN educational scientific and cultural b- Promoting peace through education and science.
organization
3- UNHCR: The United Nations High Commissioner for c- Caring for refugees
refugees
4- AI : Amnesty International d- Safe guarding human rights from violations.
5- WHO: World Health Organization e- Concerned with international public health
6- UNICEF: The United Nations Children Emergency Fund f- Protecting the rights of children and women around the world
7- FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization g- is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads
international efforts to defeat hunger
8- ICRC: International Committee of the Red Cross H- Providing medical care, notably during wars or armed conflicts.

Language Functions: Responding to good and bad news

DEFINITION:
Responding to good and bad news is about the expressions that we use when we want to give someone a good
news or respond to it. The table below shows expressions of giving good news, and responding to them; and
expressing bad news and responding to them.

Giving good news Responding to good news


I’m really pleased to tell you ………. That sounds great
I’ve got a bit of good news to tell you…. My goodness
I’ve got some good news for you …… that’s superb
I’ve got some wonderful news for you …. Such great news
I’ve Great news for you ……… that’s incredible
I am happy to inform you that…… What wonderful news
What a good news!
Congratulations…..
Giving bad news Responding to bad news
I’m afraid I’ve got some bad news for you …… I’m Sorry to hear that
I’m sorry I’ve got a bit of bad news to tell you … I’m awfully sorry …….
I really don’t know how to say it ,but ……….. I do sympathize with you
I’m sorry to have to say this , but …………… That must be awful
I really feel bad to have to say this ,but ……… that’s too bad
That’s a pity

Exercise:

React to the following situations:


1. Your friend: I have great news for you, you have gotten your baccalaureate degree!
Respond to this news (you):……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Your classmate didn’t get his baccalaureate degree, he has to take the catch up exam:
Respond to this news(you):……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30