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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF

THREE BLADED GIROMILL WIND


TURBINE

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by


P.Thirumal Reddy,
BE 4/4,
Sem-1,
Mechanical Engineering,
2451-14-736-052.

Carrying out the project work under my supervision


N.Yogi Manash Reddy

Signature:-
N.Yogi Manash Reddy
(PROJECT GUIDE)
Assistant Professor

● ABSTRACT:-
This project deals with the design and fabrication
of three blade Giromill wind turbine. The Giromill wind turbine is
a type of vertical axis wind turbine which is used to produce
power. The turbine consists of three straight blades which is
technically an airfoil which is connected to the rotating main
shaft. In this project the components required for this wind
turbine like airfoil, main shaft and bearing are designed
properly. The power calculation with respect to the velocity of
wind is included. The components are fabricated with
appropriate materials and assembled. Finally this project was
tested and implemented successfully.

Introduction:-
The first electricity-generating wind turbine was invented in 1888 in
Cleveland, Ohio by Charles F. Brush. The turbine's diameter was 17 meters
(50 feet), it had 144 rotor blades made of cedar wood, and it generated
about 12 kilowatts (kW) of power.
● A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy
into electrical power. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide
range of vertical and horizontal axis types.
● Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the
wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The
rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to
create electricity.
● History of U.S. Wind Energy. Since early recorded history, people
have utilized wind energy. It propelled boats along the Nile River
as early as 5,000 B.C., and helped Persians pump water and grind
grain between 500 and 900 B.C.
● Rotor and rotor blades - The rotor along with the rotor blades
converts wind energy into rotary mechanical movement. Presently,
the three-blade horizontal axis rotor is the most popular. The rotor
blades are mainly made of reinforced carbon-fibre plastics or glass
fibre.
● This is because when one blade is in the horizontal position, its
resistance to the yaw force is counterbalanced by the two other
blades. So, a three-bladed turbine represents the best combination
of high rotational speed and minimum stress.
● A wind turbine is composed of several composite parts; but the
blades, made of fibre-reinforced epoxy or unsaturated polyester,
represent the largest use of material.
● Other turbine parts made of polyester include the nacelle (housing
for the gearbox, generator, and other components) and the hub.
The majority of current commercialized wind turbine blades are
made from fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs), which are composites
consisting of a polymer matrix and fibres.
● The B75 turbine blade itself is 75 meters long, while the entire rotor
assembly measures 154 meters in diameter. As it spins, the blades
cover an area of 18,600 square meters—that's roughly two and a
half soccer fields—at a brisk 80 meters per second, or 180 MPH at
the tips. 8 kph (2 m/s) minimum is required to start rotating most
small wind turbines. 12.6 kph (3.5 m/s) is the typical cut-in speed,
when a small turbine starts generating power. 36–54 kph (10–15
m/s) produces maximum generation power.
● At 90 kph (25 m/s) maximum, the turbine is stopped or braked (cut-
out speed). Using these measurements, the entire top part of the
turbine (the rotors and nacelle) can be rotated by a yaw motor,
mounted between the nacelle and the tower, so it faces directly
into the oncoming wind and captures the maximum amount of
energy. Wind turbines convert around 45% of the wind passing
through the blades into electricity (and almost 50% at peak
efficiency).

● Over time, coal power stations operate at around 85% of full
capacity (known as the capacity factor). Wind energy is a form of
solar energy. Wind energy (or wind power) describes the process
by which wind is used to generate electricity. Wind turbines convert
the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. Mechanical
power can also be utilized directly for specific tasks such as
pumping water.
Advantages and disadvantages:-
● Wind is a renewable energy resource and there are no fuel costs.
No harmful polluting gases are produced. On the other hand, wind
farms are noisy and may spoil the view for people living near them.
According to Betz's law, no turbine can capture more than 16/27
(59.3%) of the kinetic energy in wind.
● The factor 16/27 (0.593) is known as Betz's coefficient. Practical
utility-scale wind turbines achieve at peak 75% to 80% of the Betz
limit.
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:- The experimental setup consists of
wind tunnel, laboratory model wind turbine, nozzle system. Wind tunnel
produces wind at a speed of 8.5 m/sec. A rotating disc type anemometer
is used to determine air velocity. A non-contacting type tachometer is
used to measure speed of driver and driven pulleys. Instruments that are
used in the study are calibrated. In present study 3 bladed laboratory
model VAWT is used.
RESULT:- Experiments were conducted at different blade angles at 00
, 450 , 900 in the quarter segment of a circle it is found that installation
of nozzle to the wind turbine has enhanced the wind velocity and the
results are tabulated in Table 1 and Table 2.
CONCLUSION:-
● The project has been completed successfully.
● The project work was developed after conducting number of
experiments before finalizing the design Work.
● In general the entire developments of the project work was
educative and we could gain a lot of experience by way of doing
the project practically.
● We could understand the practical constraints of developing such
systems about which we have studied by way of lectures in the
theory classes.
● It was satisfying to see so many theoretical aspects work before
us in real life practice of which we have heard through lectures and
of which we have studied in the books.
● Since the vertical axis wind turbines are having low efficiency than
horizontal axis wind turbines it is not commonly used in our country.
● But these kinds of wind turbines are highly suitable for small scale
domestic purposes at low costs when compared to HAWT.
● Due to increasing demand for renewable energy it is hoped that
these kinds of VAWT plays an important role in every home by
assisting the energy needs.

References:-
Paul. G. Migliore, John. R. Fritschen (1982), „Darrieus Wind turbine
Airfoil Configurations‟, Solar Energy Research Institute, Colorado,
SERI/TR – 11045 – 1, UC Category: 60.
Robert E. Sheldahl, Paul C. Klimas, Louis V. Feltz (1980)
„Aerodynamic Performance of a 5-Metre- Diameter Darrieus Turbine
With Extruded Aluminum NACA-0015 Blades‟, Sandia Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185. Vijayaraghavan. G.K, Dr. Govinda Rajan. L,
Dr. Prabhakaran. G. “Design of Machine Elements”,
A.R.S.Publications.Investigation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine‟, FME
Transactions, VOL. 41