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Q.

6 The ELD coordination equations are given as:


( pf1 )(0.008PG1 + 8) = λ
( pf 2 )(0.012 PG 2 + 9) = λ
Since the incremental loss factor of Gen-2 = 0.2, therefore, pf2 = 1.25.
Also, given that, PG1 = PG2 = 500 MW.
Therefore, from the above equations, we have,
λ = 18.75
pf1 = 1.5625

Q.7: The increment cost of generation for each units are as follows:
dC1
= 0.00506 P1 + 3.19 $ / MWh
dP1
dC 2
= 0.00650 P2 + 5.11 $ / MWh
dP2
To minimize the cost of generation, the Lagrangian is given by:
F = (0.00253P12 + 3.19 P1 + 850) + (0.00325P22 + 5.11P2 + 1687) + λ (1200 − P1 − P2 )
The KKT conditions can be formulated as:
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 0.00506 P1 + 3.19 − λ = 0
∂P1
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 0.00650 P2 + 5.11 − λ = 0
∂P2
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 1200 − P1 − P2 = 0
∂λ
Solving above equations, we have the optimal solution as:
P1 = 840.83 MW P2 = 359.17 MW, λ =7.45 $/MWh

Including the transmissions losses, the demand-supply balance is now given as,
P1 + P2 = 1200 + PLoss ( P1 , P2 )
Where, PLoss ( P1, P2 ) = 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 MW .

To minimize the cost of generation, the Lagrangian is given by:


F = (0.00253P12 + 3.19 P1 + 850) + (0.00325P22 + 5.11P2 + 1687)
+ λ (1200 + PLoss ( P1, P2 ) − P1 − P2 )
The KKT conditions are derived as follows:
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 0.00506 P1 + 3.19 + λ (0.00022 P1 − 1) = 0
∂P1
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 0.0065P2 + 5.11 + λ (0.00012 P2 − 1) = 0
∂P2
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 1200 + 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 − P1 − P2 = 0
∂λ

The incremental loss factors for the two generating units are as follows:
∂PLoss ( P1 , P2 ) ∂PLoss ( P1 , P2 )
= 0.00022 P1 = 0.00012 P2
∂P1 ∂P2

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The coordination equations can be written by re-arranging the above, as follows:
 
(0.00506 P1 + 3.19) = λ
1

 1 − 0.00022 P1 
 
(0.0065P2 + 5.11) = λ
1

 1 − 0.00012 P2 
1200 + 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 − P1 − P2 = 0

( pf1 )(0.00506 P1 + 3.19) = λ


Or, ( pf 2 )(0.0065P2 + 5.11) = λ
1200 + 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 − P1 − P2 = 0

In order to solve the above set of equations we use the iteration method, staring with
the ELD solution without losses, as the initial guess.

Iteration P1 P2 PLoss Pf1 Pf2 PD + λ P1 P2


MW MW MW PLoss $/MWh MW MW
MW
1 840.83 359.17 85.51 1.227 1.045 1285.51 8.7648 781.29 504.22
2 781.29 504.22 82.4 1.2076 1.0644 1282.4 8.7573 802.786 479.61
3 802.786 479.61 84.64 1.2145 1.0611 1284.64 8.7783 798.012 486.63
4 798.012 486.63 84.26 1.213 1.062 1284.26 8.775 799.27 484.99
5 799.27 484.99 84.39 1.2134 1.0618 1284.39 8.776 798.97 485.41
6 798.97 485.41 84.36

The solution is seen to have converged well, and the optimal solution is:
P1 = 798.97 MW, P2 = 485.41 MW, λ = 8.776 $/MWh

Q.8. The increment loss factors of the two generators are as follows:
∂PLoss
= 0.00022 P1 + 0.0045 P2
∂P1
∂PLoss
= 0.00012 P2 + 0.0045 P2
∂P2
From the loss coordination equations, we have,
dC1  ∂P 
+ λ  Loss − 1 = 0
dP1  ∂P1 
0.00643P1 + 3.37 + 30(0.00022 P1 + 0.0045 P2 − 1) = 0
0.01303P1 + 0.135 P2 = 26.63

dC2  ∂P 
+ λ  Loss − 1 = 0
dP2  ∂P2 
0.00364 P2 + 7.19 + 30(0.00012 P1 + 0.0045P2 − 1) = 0
0.135P1 + 0.00724 P2 = 22.81

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Solving for P1 and P2 we obtain, P1 = 159.21 MW, P2 = 181.89 MW.

Q.9
(a) Total energy demand: 200 MW x 168h = 33,600 MWh
Available hydro energy: EH = 28,000 MWh
Thermal energy required from steam generator: ES = EL – EH = 33,600 – 28,000 MWh
= 5,600 MWh
To minimize the operating cost, the thermal generator should operate at:
100
PS* = = 50MW
0.04
for a duration of
5,600
TS* = = 112h
50
(b) Total volume of water discharged over the week:
{ }
QTOTAL = 300 + 25 ⋅ (150 ) + 0.0075 ⋅ (150 )2 × 112
{ }
+ 300 + 25 ⋅ (200 ) + 0.0075 ⋅ (200 )2 ⋅ (168 − 112 ) acre − ft
= 786,100 acre − ft
(c) If the total water for drawdown is reduced by 5% of 786,100 acre-ft, i.e., by 39,305 acre-
ft, the thermal generator should operate for ∆TS additional hours. Accordingly, the
reduction in water drawdown is accounted for, as follows:

39,305 acre-ft = [Savings in Water Drawdown for PH = 200 MW for ∆TS hours]
– [Increase in Water Drawdown for PH = 150 MW for ∆TS hours]

Thus, we have,
{ } { }
39,305 acre − ft = 300 + 25(200) + 0.0075(200)2 × ∆TS − 300 + 25(150) + 0.0075(150)2 × ∆TS
39,305 = 5600∆TS − 4218.75∆TS
∆TS = 28.46 hours
The thermal unit should operate for additional 28.46 hours; i.e., for a total 140.46 hours.

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Q..10
The hydro-thermal scheduling problem is formulated as follows:
2
Min Cost= J = L n1C(PSJ )
J=I
Subject to the constraints:
PHJ + Ps1 = PDJ \lj = 1,2

f n q)PHJ=Qror
J=I
1

The Lagrangian is written as,


F =4C(Ps1)+4C(Ps 2 )+,,i1 (725-PHJ -Psi)+,12 (615-PHz -Psz)
+ y(4q(PHJ)+ 4 q (PHz)- 75,000)
The coordination equations can be formulated from the above as follows:
BF =4 dC(Psi) A = .
j 0 0216Ps1 +36-,11 =0 (l)
B Ps1 dPs1

BF 4 dC(Ps2) Ai . 21
= =0 0 6Ps2 +36-Ai =0 (2)
B Ps2 dP s2

d P
�=-,11 +4y q( HJ) AJ +r(0.06PHJ +100)=0 (3)
BPHJ dPHJ

_Jl:!':.._ =-,lz +4y dq(PH2 ) -,lz + r(0.06PH2 + 100)= 0 (4)


B PH2 dPH2
BF
-=�+�== (5)
B,11
BF
=PH2 +Ps2 = 615 (6)
BAi

: =4q(PH1)+4q(Pm)-QroTAL =0 (7)

As stated in the problem, the initial guesses are as follows:


A] =A2 =40$/ MWh; y=0.35$/acre-ft