Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

# Q.

## 6 The ELD coordination equations are given as:

( pf1 )(0.008PG1 + 8) = λ
( pf 2 )(0.012 PG 2 + 9) = λ
Since the incremental loss factor of Gen-2 = 0.2, therefore, pf2 = 1.25.
Also, given that, PG1 = PG2 = 500 MW.
Therefore, from the above equations, we have,
λ = 18.75
pf1 = 1.5625

Q.7: The increment cost of generation for each units are as follows:
dC1
= 0.00506 P1 + 3.19 \$ / MWh
dP1
dC 2
= 0.00650 P2 + 5.11 \$ / MWh
dP2
To minimize the cost of generation, the Lagrangian is given by:
F = (0.00253P12 + 3.19 P1 + 850) + (0.00325P22 + 5.11P2 + 1687) + λ (1200 − P1 − P2 )
The KKT conditions can be formulated as:
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 0.00506 P1 + 3.19 − λ = 0
∂P1
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 0.00650 P2 + 5.11 − λ = 0
∂P2
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 1200 − P1 − P2 = 0
∂λ
Solving above equations, we have the optimal solution as:
P1 = 840.83 MW P2 = 359.17 MW, λ =7.45 \$/MWh

Including the transmissions losses, the demand-supply balance is now given as,
P1 + P2 = 1200 + PLoss ( P1 , P2 )
Where, PLoss ( P1, P2 ) = 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 MW .

## To minimize the cost of generation, the Lagrangian is given by:

F = (0.00253P12 + 3.19 P1 + 850) + (0.00325P22 + 5.11P2 + 1687)
+ λ (1200 + PLoss ( P1, P2 ) − P1 − P2 )
The KKT conditions are derived as follows:
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 0.00506 P1 + 3.19 + λ (0.00022 P1 − 1) = 0
∂P1
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 0.0065P2 + 5.11 + λ (0.00012 P2 − 1) = 0
∂P2
∂F
= 0 ⇒ 1200 + 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 − P1 − P2 = 0
∂λ

The incremental loss factors for the two generating units are as follows:
∂PLoss ( P1 , P2 ) ∂PLoss ( P1 , P2 )
= 0.00022 P1 = 0.00012 P2
∂P1 ∂P2

11
The coordination equations can be written by re-arranging the above, as follows:
 
(0.00506 P1 + 3.19) = λ
1

 1 − 0.00022 P1 
 
(0.0065P2 + 5.11) = λ
1

 1 − 0.00012 P2 
1200 + 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 − P1 − P2 = 0

## ( pf1 )(0.00506 P1 + 3.19) = λ

Or, ( pf 2 )(0.0065P2 + 5.11) = λ
1200 + 0.00011P12 + 0.00006 P22 − P1 − P2 = 0

In order to solve the above set of equations we use the iteration method, staring with
the ELD solution without losses, as the initial guess.

## Iteration P1 P2 PLoss Pf1 Pf2 PD + λ P1 P2

MW MW MW PLoss \$/MWh MW MW
MW
1 840.83 359.17 85.51 1.227 1.045 1285.51 8.7648 781.29 504.22
2 781.29 504.22 82.4 1.2076 1.0644 1282.4 8.7573 802.786 479.61
3 802.786 479.61 84.64 1.2145 1.0611 1284.64 8.7783 798.012 486.63
4 798.012 486.63 84.26 1.213 1.062 1284.26 8.775 799.27 484.99
5 799.27 484.99 84.39 1.2134 1.0618 1284.39 8.776 798.97 485.41
6 798.97 485.41 84.36

The solution is seen to have converged well, and the optimal solution is:
P1 = 798.97 MW, P2 = 485.41 MW, λ = 8.776 \$/MWh

Q.8. The increment loss factors of the two generators are as follows:
∂PLoss
= 0.00022 P1 + 0.0045 P2
∂P1
∂PLoss
= 0.00012 P2 + 0.0045 P2
∂P2
From the loss coordination equations, we have,
dC1  ∂P 
+ λ  Loss − 1 = 0
dP1  ∂P1 
0.00643P1 + 3.37 + 30(0.00022 P1 + 0.0045 P2 − 1) = 0
0.01303P1 + 0.135 P2 = 26.63

dC2  ∂P 
+ λ  Loss − 1 = 0
dP2  ∂P2 
0.00364 P2 + 7.19 + 30(0.00012 P1 + 0.0045P2 − 1) = 0
0.135P1 + 0.00724 P2 = 22.81

12
Solving for P1 and P2 we obtain, P1 = 159.21 MW, P2 = 181.89 MW.

Q.9
(a) Total energy demand: 200 MW x 168h = 33,600 MWh
Available hydro energy: EH = 28,000 MWh
Thermal energy required from steam generator: ES = EL – EH = 33,600 – 28,000 MWh
= 5,600 MWh
To minimize the operating cost, the thermal generator should operate at:
100
PS* = = 50MW
0.04
for a duration of
5,600
TS* = = 112h
50
(b) Total volume of water discharged over the week:
{ }
QTOTAL = 300 + 25 ⋅ (150 ) + 0.0075 ⋅ (150 )2 × 112
{ }
+ 300 + 25 ⋅ (200 ) + 0.0075 ⋅ (200 )2 ⋅ (168 − 112 ) acre − ft
= 786,100 acre − ft
(c) If the total water for drawdown is reduced by 5% of 786,100 acre-ft, i.e., by 39,305 acre-
ft, the thermal generator should operate for ∆TS additional hours. Accordingly, the
reduction in water drawdown is accounted for, as follows:

39,305 acre-ft = [Savings in Water Drawdown for PH = 200 MW for ∆TS hours]
– [Increase in Water Drawdown for PH = 150 MW for ∆TS hours]

Thus, we have,
{ } { }
39,305 acre − ft = 300 + 25(200) + 0.0075(200)2 × ∆TS − 300 + 25(150) + 0.0075(150)2 × ∆TS
39,305 = 5600∆TS − 4218.75∆TS
∆TS = 28.46 hours
The thermal unit should operate for additional 28.46 hours; i.e., for a total 140.46 hours.

13
Q..10
The hydro-thermal scheduling problem is formulated as follows:
2
Min Cost= J = L n1C(PSJ )
J=I
Subject to the constraints:
PHJ + Ps1 = PDJ \lj = 1,2

f n q)PHJ=Qror
J=I
1

## The Lagrangian is written as,

F =4C(Ps1)+4C(Ps 2 )+,,i1 (725-PHJ -Psi)+,12 (615-PHz -Psz)
+ y(4q(PHJ)+ 4 q (PHz)- 75,000)
The coordination equations can be formulated from the above as follows:
BF =4 dC(Psi) A = .
j 0 0216Ps1 +36-,11 =0 (l)
B Ps1 dPs1

BF 4 dC(Ps2) Ai . 21
= =0 0 6Ps2 +36-Ai =0 (2)
B Ps2 dP s2

d P
�=-,11 +4y q( HJ) AJ +r(0.06PHJ +100)=0 (3)
BPHJ dPHJ

## _Jl:!':.._ =-,lz +4y dq(PH2 ) -,lz + r(0.06PH2 + 100)= 0 (4)

B PH2 dPH2
BF
-=�+�== (5)
B,11
BF
=PH2 +Ps2 = 615 (6)
BAi

: =4q(PH1)+4q(Pm)-QroTAL =0 (7)

## As stated in the problem, the initial guesses are as follows:

A] =A2 =40\$/ MWh; y=0.35\$/acre-ft