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TRANSFERENCIA DE CALOR

NOMBRES Y APELLIDOS
UCE/FIQ
EXAMEN 2
FENOMENOS DE TRANSPORTE

P.2 Cuando se concentra un jugo en un evaporador se pierden los aceites esenciales que son tan
importantes para el aroma y sabor del juego concentrado. Para evitar esta situación una Unidad de
Recuperación de Aroma se utiliza para extraer estos aceites utilizando el principio de la evaporación
instantánea o también llamada evaporación flash, los aceites esenciales extraídos que están mezcla-
dos con los vahos de la evaporación flash deben ser separados para lo cual se utiliza una columna
de destilación obteniéndose unos aceites esenciales concentrados que posteriormente serán reingre-
sados al producto terminado.
Se pide al ingeniero de procesos el CÁLCULO Y ESPECIFICACIÓN DEL PRECALENTADOR sabiendo que la
cámara de evaporación flash funciona al vacío y a una presión de 1/4 bara, por otro lado se sabe
que la capacidad de la planta es 8000 l/h

•PH-1 : pre-heater
H-2 ; heater
FE-3 ; flash evapo-
rator chamber
D-4 : distillation
tjcolumn
RB-B : reboiler
C-6,?,8 : condensers
T-9 : distilate tank

H-2

Derechos Reservados
A.DELGADO
TRANSFERENCIA DE CALOR
UCE/FIQ
NUMERO DE LISTA
PRUEBA 2
FENOMENOS DE TRANSPORTE INICIALES APELLIDOS

P.1
FLASH EVAPORATION
Flash (or partial) evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs v/hen a saturated liquid stream undergoes a
reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device. This process is one of
the simplest unit operations. If the throttling valve or device is located at the entry into a pressure vessel
so that the flash evaporation occurs within the vessel, then the vessel is often referred to as a flash drum.

If the saturated liquid is a single-component liquid (for example, liquid propane or liquid ammonia), a part of
the liquid immediately "flashes" into vapor. Both the vapor and the residual liquid are cooled to the saturation
temperature of the liquid at the reduced pressure. This is often referred fo as "auto-refrigeration" and is
the basis of most conventional vapor compression refrigeration systems.

FLASH EVAPORATION OF A SINGLE-COMPONENT LIQUID


The flash evaporation of a single-component liquid is an isenthalpic process and is often referred to as an
adiabatic flash. The following equation, derived from a simple heat balance around the throttling valve or de-
vice, is used to predict how much of a single-component liquid is vaporized.
rrl „ L V,H,, T,. P,

In equilibrium
UTILISING THE NOMENCLATURE USED IN THE DIAGRAM derive F, HF, TF, PF FLASH Tv = TL
the vaporization ratio X = V/F defined through its enthal- Pv = PL
pies
where:

X = v/eight ratio of vaporized / remaining liquid


u means upstream
d means downstream L, HL, TL, PL

L means liquid
V means vapour
Aditionally Here, the v/ords "upstream" and "downstream"
refer to before and after the liquid passes through the
throttling valve or device.
Notes
It is important to say that in order to cause flash evaporation two factors are needed;
1. Upstream pressure must be much higher than downstream pressure in the flash chamber
2, Moreover, the heat given upstream helps as well to cause the phase change in the chamber
downstream.

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A.DELGADO