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# EXPERIMENT #1

## DETERMINATION OF CLIP CURVE OF BELT DRIVE

I. Aim
- Investigating on the slip phenomenon of belt drive.
- Relative slip coefficient and slip coefficient determination.
- Determining the initial tension of the belt.
- Plotting the clip curve versus load.
II. Technical rules on safety

Students must comply with the technical rules on safety in the laboratory.

## III. Fundamental theory

1. Slip phenomenon

Under the effect of forces, there are some types of slide between belt and pulley such
as: geometrical slip, elastic slip and slippery slip.

A geometrical slip occurs when a belt transmission has not worked yet. The initial
tension F0 between belt and pulley creates the friction force. Therefore, the belt elongates
and slides on the pulley.

According to Jucovski’s experimental results, an elastic slip and a slippery slip are
occurred when the belt drive works. An elastic slip occurs with every weight, which
affects the drive. A slippery slip only occurs when the weight is overload.

When the belt is working, the initial tension increases from F0 to F1 at the tension
side of belt, and decreases from F0 to F2 at the slack side of belt.

Therefore, the entrance of driving pulley contacting with pulley at point A creates the
tension force F1 and the deformed belt λ1 (Fig.1). The exit of driving pulley at contact
point B creates the tension force F2 and the deformed belt λ2. Because F1 > F2, λ1 > λ2.
This means that the belt is shrunken when it contacts with the driving pulley. It leads that
the belt slips on the driving pulley and rotates more slowly than pulley.

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Fig. 1. The elastic slide .

In contrast, the entrance of driven pulley contacting with pulley at point C creates the
tension force F2 and the exit of driven pulley at contact point D creates the tension force
F1. Therefore, the belt has been stretched when it moves from C to D. The belt slips on
the driven pulley and moves faster than the driven pulley.

The slip phenomenon is due to an elastic deformation of the belt under the different
tensions, called “elastic slip”. Because this is the belt’s nature, we can not improve. The
more elastic slip occurs, the bigger tension’s difference is − =

However, the elastic slide doesn’t occur on whole bow AB and CD. It just occurs on
the smaller bow IB and KD, called sliding bow. AI and CK are called static bows. On the
bow AI and CK, when the belt contacts the belt gear, the tension’s change is smaller than
the fiction force between the belt and the belt gear, and the change of elastic deformation
is not significant. At the location I and K, the distortion is obvious and the slip starts.
When Ft increases sliding bow increases. If Ft continues increasing, the sliding bow
occupies the bow, and the slippery slip starts.

The slippery slip just occurs when the tangential force Ft is greater than the friction
force Fs (driving moment T is bigger than friction moment Fs). If the drive is partial
overload, the belt is partial slip. If the drive is overload, the belt is perfect slip. As a
result, the driven pulley will stop and its efficiency equals to zero.
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2. The relative sliding coefficient

## - Driven pulley: = (2)

where: , – the radius of the driving pulley and driven pulley, mm.

## , – the rotation number of driving pulley and driven pulley, rpm.

Because of the elastic slide between belt and pulley, > and this relationship is:

## = =1− =1− (3)

Therefore, = (1 − ) (4)

where is the relative slip coefficient, it depends on the load, = 0.01 ÷ 0.02.

## 3. Clip curve and efficiency

The working ability of the belt drive is featured by the clip curve and efficiency. The
curves are obtained from the experimental results with different material of the belt (Fig.
2). The vertical axis is a relative slip coefficient (%) and efficiency . The horizontal
axis is the load, which is featured by the drag coefficient :

= (5)

The curve described the relationship between and is called the clip curve. When
0≤ ≤ , where is critical tractive coefficient, clip curve is closely a straight line.
In this period, if Ft increases, the slip coefficient increases with the first-order ratio. This
means the drive only occurs the elastic slip. The efficiency of drive increases and reaches
the maximum value when = . If Ft increase, and > , the belt will be partial slip.
Therefore, increases dramatically, the efficiency of drive decreases rapidly. If ≥ ,
the drive occurs the perfect slip.

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Fig. 2. The clip curve and efficiency.

The elastic slip depends on Ft. If the bigger Ft is, the more significant the slip is. The
drag coefficient is given to estimate the relationship of the slip coefficient and the load,

= , where F0 is the initial tension force of belt (without the load). (for example F0 =

90N).

IV. Experiment

In order to conduct the experiments efficiently and fast, students need to bring some
followings tools as a ruler, protractor, compass, pencil, and calculator.

## 1. General requirement of two experiments

- Read and prepare carefully the theory relating to the experiments.
- Fill in the required part, which students need to complete before class in order
to save time for doing experiments.
- After the experiments, students need to do an experimental report and submit it
to department.
- While students do two experiments, teacher would test student some knowledge
relating to experiment’s content. If students are not qualified, they will not able
to continue to do the experiment, they need to prepare carefully to redo the
second time.
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2. Experimental machine model

Fig. 3. The experimental model: 1. Engine; 2. Axial joint; 3. Belt drive; 4. Crank for
manipulating the belt tension force; 5. Superimposed load; 6. Encoder on the driving
pulley; 7. Encoder on the driven pulley; 8. Manipulating the speed by inverter 9. The
screen displays the number of rotation.

According to theory, when the machine works, velocity in two pulleys is the same. In
fact, because of slip phenomenon on the belt, the velocity in two pulleys is different.

3. Experimental description
- In the experimental model (Fig. 3), start engine 1. At the head of axis adapting a
pulley, we attach two encoder 6, 7 and two digital display devices 9, which can
read the velocity (can be set: m/s or loop/min). In the experiment process, we
can record velocity from the beginning to the stable time of the engine to
examine the sliding coefficient in this period.
- We can examine the slip coefficient, when the engine runs faster, slower, or
stable. Students plot the results from the obtained data.

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- During the time doing experiment, we can measure the initial tension F0. In
addition, we can change a tangential force, affecting the belt drive Ft by using
- During the time measuring the slip coefficient , we can increase the load on
the belt drive by using superimposed load 5. Students observe the slip
coefficient’s change and establish the clip curve =

V. Experiment sequence
1. Determining parameters for the experimental model:

## + Useful tangential force Ft

2. Measure and deal with the measured results of the initial tension of the belt F0
3. Measure and deal with the measured results in order to get the relative coefficient
4. Measure and deal with the measured results to plot the sliding curve, following the
experimental data.

Reference

1. Nguyễn Hữu Lộc. Giáo trình Cơ sở thiết kế máy. NXB Đại học Quốc gia TP Hồ Chí
Minh. 2016.

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EXPERIMENTAL REPORT
HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

EXPERIMENT #1

## DETERMINATION OF CLIP CURVE OF BELT DRIVE

Student’s name:

Group:

Class:

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I. Aim
- Investigating on the slip phenomenon of belt drive.
- Relative slip coefficient and slip coefficient determination.
- Determining the initial tension of the belt.
- Plotting the clip curve versus load.
II. Technical rules on safety

Students must comply with the technical rules on safety in the laboratory.

## III. Conducting and dealing with experimental results

1. Determine parameters for the experimental model:
+ Diameter of the pulley d1, d2
+ The kind of belt
+ Belt contact α1, α2
+ The number of engine’s rotation
+ The initial tension of the belt F0
+ The force acting on the axis
+ Useful tangential force Ft
2. Measure and deal with the measured results of the initial tension of the belt F0
3. Measure and deal with the measured results in order to determine the relative slip
coefficient and drag coefficient.

Filling out the measured results in the Table 1 and calculate the coefficients.

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Table 1. Experimental results of the slip coefficient

## Initial The The Slip Tangential Drag

tension of number of number of coefficient force Ft, N coefficient
belt F0, N rotation n1, rotation n2, =1− =
rpm rpm

Averaged
value ̅ =

4. Establish a graph of clip curve, for example, it has the form as Figure 4 below:

## Fig. 4. The clip curve is established by the experimental data.

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IV. Discussion and conclusions

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V. Review questions
1. Define the types of slip in the belt drive.
2. The method determining the slip coefficient in the belt drive.
3. The relationship between tangential force Ft and the initial tension of the belt F0.
4. Present the formula determining the drag coefficient and the critical drag
coefficient of the kinds of belt drive.

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