Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

SAFE CHEMICAL HANDLING

HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS

1
3 0

Engr. Hazel Anne B. Cledera, ChE

COURSE OBJECTIVES

 Introduce basic rules for safe chemical handling.


 Discuss the health hazards of chemicals.
 Discuss the physical properties of chemicals.
 Discuss general concepts of toxicology.
 Discuss employee protective measures.
 Discuss the hazard rating systems currently in use.
 Discuss chemical warning labels.
 Discuss chemical storage requirements.

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

 Recognize where chemical hazards are present.


 Recognize dangerous situations involving chemicals.
 Understand the information provided on labels.
 Select appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
 Understand the basic concepts of toxicology.
 Understand various use and storage requirements.
 Understand basic rules for safe chemical handling.

1
BASIS FOR THIS COURSE
THE BOTTOM LINE
TRAINING YOU TO BE KNOWLEDGEABLE
OF HOW TO LOWER YOUR LIFETIME
WORKPLACE EXPOSURE AND DOSAGE
TO THE CHEMICALS AND TOXIC MATERIALS
YOU ARE POTENTIALLY EXPOSED TO IN
YOUR DAILY WORKING LIFE!

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS:

 Follow Local Job Procedures.


 Review the Relative Safety Data Sheet.
 If You Have Questions Consult Your Supervisor.

GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY

EVERYTHING IS TOXIC; IT ALL DEPENDS ON THE DOSE

HOW WELL THE BODY ACCEPTS A SUBSTANCE DEPENDS ON:


 THE TYPE OF SUBSTANCE
 THE AMOUNT (DOSE) ABSORBED
 THE PERIOD OF TIME OVER WHICH IT IS ABSORBED
 THE SUSCEPTIBILITY/SENSITIVITY OF THE PERSON EXPOSED

2
GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY

ROUTES OF ENTRY

 INHALATION
 INGESTION
 ABSORPTION

 Working with good general ventilation


can prevent inhalation exposures.
 Wearing appropriate personal
protective clothing and equipment
prevents absorption or skin contact.
 Good hygiene habits, such as regular
washing of hands will prevent
ingestion exposure.

Example:

3
GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY

EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY

 LOCAL EFFECT. DAMAGE TO BODY PARTS THAT ACTUALLY CONTACT


THE HARMFUL SUBSTANCE (ACID ON A HAND).

 SYSTEMIC EFFECT. DAMAGE TO AN AREA OF THE BODY AFTER THE


SUBSTANCE IS ABSORBED (LIVER DAMAGE).

 INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY. SOME PEOPLE ARE NATURALLY


SENSITIVE OR CAN DEVELOP SENSITIVITY TO A SUBSTANCE.

 DOSE. COMBINATION OF CONCENTRATION AND LENGTH OF BODILY


EXPOSURE TO A SPECIFIC MATERIAL.

GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY

EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY

ACUTE EXPOSURE:

 USUALLY MINUTES, HOURS OR SEVERAL DAYS.

CHRONIC EXPOSURE:

 REGULAR EXPOSURE OVER MONTHS, YEARS, OR A LIFETIME.

GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY

DEGREE OF HARM TO BODY DEPENDENT ON:

 CONDITIONS OF USE
 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CHEMICAL
 ROUTES OF EXPOSURE
 DURATION OF THE EXPOSURE
 CONCENTRATION OF THE CONTAMINANT IN AIR
 INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE EXPOSED PERSON
 TOXICITY OF THE CHEMICAL

4
GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY

EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. A MATERIAL THAT FALLS INTO ONE OR MORE
OF THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES.

 IGNITABILITY (FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE)

 REACTIVITY (REACTS WITH ITSELF OR OTHER MATERIALS)

 CORROSIVITY (DETERIORATES ANOTHER SUBSTANCE)

 TOXICITY (IN A NORMAL STATE IS HARMFUL TO LIVING THINGS)

STATES OF MATTER

 SOLID  LIQUID  GAS

CHANGE OF STATE CAN OCCUR DUE TO:

 HEAT
 COLD
 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
 INTERACTION WITH OTHER CHEMICALS

STATES OF MATTER

AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS:

 FUME  VAPOR

 DUST  GAS

 MIST  SMOKE

5
TYPES OF PROCESSES

 OPEN
 CLOSED

TYPES OF PROCESSES

 OPEN  CLOSED
 PLATING  REFINING
 DEGREASING  DISTILLING
 PARTS PAINTING  GAS PRODUCTION

HANDLING GASES

HAZARDS:

 PRESSURE  TOXICITY
 EXPLOSION  CORROSIVITY
 FIRE  REACTIVITY

6
HANDLING GASES
GASES - PRE-OPERATION SAFETY

1. Inspect cylinder for damage before use.


2. Ensure “in use” label is present.
3. Ensure all labels and warnings are readable.
4. Place upright on stable dry surface.
5. Ensure cylinder is restrained above mid-point.
6. Keep heat, flame, and electricity away from cylinder.
7. Operate in accordance with local safety procedures.

HANDLING GASES
GASES - POST-OPERATION SAFETY

1. Ensure “empty” or like label present.


2. Remove from operation following procedures.
3. Ensure valve closed completely and cap cylinder.
4. Never roll, transport cylinders using hand truck.

5. Never underestimate hazards associated with compressed gases.

STORING GASES
GASES - STORAGE REQUIREMENTS

 Store only in designated areas.


 Store and use on a first-in, first-out basis.
 Never store without proper labeling.
 Identify all empty cylinders.
 Store like gases with like gases.
 Separate empty cylinders from full ones.
 Store within proper temperature ranges.

7
STORING GASES
GASES - STORAGE REQUIREMENTS

 Store outside when possible.


 Protect from weather and direct sunlight.
 Ensure storage areas meets guidelines.
 Never store where temperature can rise to 130f.
 Place caps on stored cylinders.
 Store valve end up in a secure area.
 Inspect and properly tag defective cylinders.

STORING GASES
THE BOTTOM LINE

 Follow all safety guidelines.


 Review current storage requirements.
 Know - compressed gas association rules.
 Know - NFPA rules.
 Know – OSH Standards.
 Know - the local policy.
 Never underestimate compressed gases!

HANDLING IGNITABLE LIQUIDS

TYPES AND DEFINITIONS:


 Flashpoint - minimum ignition temp. for ignitable vapor
 Flammable - flashpoint below 100 deg. (F.)
 Combustible - flashpoint at or above 100 deg. (F.)
 Pyrophoric - can ignite spontaneously
 Flammable range - vapor/air ratio that will burn
 Volatility - tendency to change to vapor state

8
HANDLING IGNITABLE LIQUIDS

CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY!

SOLVENT OXIDIZER

STORING IGNITABLE LIQUIDS

STORING FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS:


 LEVELS OF STORAGE:
 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE FACILITY
 IN-PLANT STORAGE CABINETS
 DRUMS/BARRELS
 PORTABLE CONTAINERS

FLAMMABLE
LIQUIDS

STORING IGNITABLE LIQUIDS

 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE FACILITY


 Dedicated fire suppression system
 Make-up air
 Exhaust ventilation
 Explosion-proof lighting and heating
 Floor drains
 2-Hour fire rating on structure
 Proper signage and safety procedures

FLAMMABLE
LIQUIDS

9
STORING IGNITABLE LIQUIDS

 DRUMS AND BARRELS


 Should be moved to storage ASAP
 Make best use of just-in-time system
 Bonding wires must be used
 Local fire codes must be considered
 Bonding - container to container
 Grounding - container to structural ground
 No ignition sources within 25 feet

FLAMMABLE
LIQUIDS

STORING IGNITABLE LIQUIDS

 PORTABLE CONTAINERS
 Bond from drum to container during transfer
 Store in safety cabinets when not in use
 Check for leak-tightness
 Check for serviceable vent mechanism
 Do not remove flame arrester screens
 Do not overfill (high temps will cause overflow)
 Follow warnings and safety procedures

FLAMMABLE
LIQUIDS

STORING IGNITABLE LIQUIDS

 PORTABLE CONTAINERS
 Bond from drum to container during transfer
 Store in safety cabinets when not in use
 Check for leak-tightness
 Check for serviceable vent mechanism
 Do not remove flame arrester screens
 Do not overfill (high temps will cause overflow)
 Follow warnings and safety procedures

FLAMMABLE
LIQUIDS

10
STORING IGNITABLE LIQUIDS

 GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


 Remove electrical equipment
 Use spark resistant tools
 Use safe techniques to move containers
 Use proper dispensing faucets
 Follow warnings and use labels
 Properly dispose of empty containers
 Follow proper inspection procedures

FLAMMABLE
LIQUIDS

HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

 ACIDS  BASES  OXIDIZERS

AFFECT OTHER MATERIALS BY CONTACT:

 Acids and bases affect material by contact


 Acids and bases affect each other
 Oxidizers increase hazard during fires

HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

OXIDIZER

A material such as a chlorate, permanganate, or


inorganic peroxide that will give off oxygen readily to
stimulate the combustion of organic material.

OXIDIZER

11
HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

 OXIDIZERS
 Provide oxygen for combustion
 React violently with flammables and combustibles
 Must be kept separate from all other classes of materials

OXIDIZER

HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

CORROSIVE

A liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or


irreversible damage To skin tissue at the point of
contact, Or that has a severe corrosion rate on
steel.

CORROSIVE
MATERIALS

HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

OSHA DEFINITION

CORROSIVE ACID
A chemical that causes visible
destruction of, or irreversible
alterations in living tissue by
chemical action at the site of
contact.

12
HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

ACIDS AND BASES


- pH. THE pH OF A LIQUID IS THE NUMERICAL MEASURE
OF ITS RELATIVE ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY. THE RANGE
IS FROM 0 - 14 WITH A NEUTRAL LEVEL EXPRESSED AS
A pH OF 7.0.

 ABOVE 7.0 THE LIQUID IS MORE ALKALINE OR BASIC.


 BELOW 7.0 THE LIQUID IS MORE ACIDIC.

HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

ACIDS AND BASES


ACID BASE

COMMON ACIDS (pH 0-6) COMMON BASES (pH 8-14)

 HYDROCHLORIC ACID  SODIUM HYDROXIDE (LYE)


 HYDROFLUORIC ACID  SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE (BLEACH)
 NITRIC ACID  AQUEOUS AMMONIA
 PHOSPHORIC ACID  POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (POTASH)
 CHROMIC ACID  AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE

HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY!

LOW pH ACID BASE HIGH pH

13
STORING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS

 STORAGE
 Inspect before placing in storage
 Separate acids from bases
 Separate acids & bases from other materials
 Use drip pans under containers
 Use personal protective equipment (PPE)
 Use correct dilutions sequences
 Use approved storage containers

CORROSIVE
MATERIALS

HANDLING HIGHLY TOXIC LIQUIDS

 HANDLING
 Can be extremely toxic to humans
 Preplanning is critical when using these materials
 Know the adverse health effects
 Restrict access to these materials
 Carefully review storage requirements
 Ensure sufficient training levels achieved
 Use adequate personal protective equipment
 Use approved storage containers

HIGHLY TOXIC
MATERIALS

HANDLING HIGHLY TOXIC LIQUIDS

PREPLAN FOR SAFE USE OF THESE MATERIALS

14
STORING HIGHLY TOXIC LIQUIDS

 STORAGE
 Inspect containers before placing in storage
 Separate from incompatibles
 Use personal protective equipment (PPE)
 Use approved storage containers

HIGHLY TOXIC
MATERIALS

HANDLING REACTIVE LIQUIDS

 HANDLING
 Know the adverse health effects
 Know the reactive nature of the material
 Separate from incompatibles
 Restrict access to these materials
 Carefully review storage requirements
 Ensure sufficient training levels achieved
 Use adequate personal protective equipment
 Use approved storage containers

REACTIVE
MATERIALS

HANDLING REACTIVE LIQUIDS

CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY!

MAGNESIUM WATER

15
STORING REACTIVE LIQUIDS

 STORAGE
 Inspect before placing in storage
 Separate from incompatibles
 Use personal protective equipment (PPE)
 Use approved storage containers

REACTIVE
MATERIALS

HANDLING SOLID MATERIALS

 HANDLING - PORTABLE CONTAINERS


 DRUMS/BARRELS
 TOTES
 BAGS

 HANDLING - BULK STORAGE


 TANKS
 HOPPERS
 SILOS

HIGHLY TOXIC
MATERIALS

HANDLING SOLID MATERIALS

 TRANSFER
 Manual method
 Mechanical method
 Follow safety procedures
 Avoid suspending particles
 Use dust control techniques

 HAZARDS
 Dust primary hazard
RESPIRATORY
HAZARD

16
HANDLING SOLID MATERIALS

 PARTICLE SIZE TIME TO FALL 1 FOOT *


0.25  590.0 MINUTES
1.00  54.0 MINUTES
5.00  2.5 MINUTES
 = MICRON
* = SHAPE IS A FACTOR
RESPIRATORY
HAZARD

STORING SOLID MATERIALS

 STORAGE
 Inspect container before placing in storage
 Separate from incompatibles
 Use mechanical devices to lift heavy bags
 Use personal protective equipment (PPE)
 Protect from contamination in storage
 Use exhaust ventilation
 Empty bags have residual product inside
 Use approved storage containers

Chemical Handling

17
EMPTY CONTAINER MANAGEMENT

 HANDLING AND DISPOSAL


 Inspect container for product residuals
 Do not use empty containers as trash cans
 Check with environmental management
 Triple rinse reusable containers
 Remember - residual product is hazardous too
 Follow local procedures
 Check with supervisor if policy is unclear

CHEMICAL SPILL

Procedures on Minor Chemical Spill

1. Contain the spill.

Make a dike around the


outside edges of the
spill. Use absorbent
materials such as spill
pillows or even towel.

18
Procedures on Minor Chemical Spill

2. Clean up the spill.


Lay absorbent pads around
the spilled area. Clean area
using absorbent pads.

3. Dispose the contaminated


material.
- Place used absorbent
pads/spill residue into a
containment bag.
- Tie up the containment bag.
- Write and label the spilled
content.

1. Alert persons in the area that a spill


has occurred.
2. Evacuate the Area.
3. Call for help.
- Emergency Hotline: ????
4. Wait for the response team.

19
Housekeeping:
A chemical splash (Muriatic Acid or PH reducer
- used to clean and clear the water in the pool)
accidentally hit his right eye while pouring the
chemical directly to the water.

Container of Muriatic Acid, without label Redness in the right eye

A. Assume that any unfamiliar chemical is


hazardous and treat it as such.
B. Never use any substance that is not properly
labeled. It may not be what you think it is!
C. Know all the hazards of the chemicals and
follow all chemical safety instructions with
which you work by looking at the GHS label on
the container and reading the SDS.
D. Never underestimate the potential hazard of
any chemical or combination of chemicals.

Thank you.

20