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Gas insulated transmission lines in railway galleries

Conference Paper  in  IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery · July 2003

DOI: 10.1109/PTC.2003.1304686 · Source: IEEE Xplore

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6 authors, including:

R. Benato Roberto Turri

University of Padova University of Padova


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Paper accepted for presentation at 2003 IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference, June 23th-26th, Bologna, Italy

Gas Insulated Transmission Lines

in Railway Galleries
Roberto Benato, Enrico Maria Carlini, Claudio Di Mario
Lorenzo Fellin, Antonio Paolucci, Roberto Turri

This EPRI idea regarding USA, even if with wide territory

Abstract—The paper deals with the possibility of installing a resources, is very well applicable to the planned projects of
double-circuit gas insulated transmission line (GIL) in the pilot railway (or highway) paneuropean galleries.
tunnel of the planned new railway galleries Bolzano-Innsbruck. In this view, the planned alpine tunnels for the new railway
This EHV transmission line could represent a new fundamental
link Bolzano-Innsbruck offer an extremely interesting
step in reconstructing the transnational networks. The high GIL
power ratings together with very low power losses would be a possibility to achieve a "multiservice vector"; the great
strong and highly efficient transmission tie between Italy and compatibility with GIL installations, which are already
Austria particularly useful for the future European Market. The available in the market thanks to new reliable technologies,
steady-state regime of the line and the electro-magnetic field opens up a significant enhancement of transnational energy
impact are analysed. Moreover, the paper discusses the necessary exchanges between Italy and Austria (and Germany as well).
studies to be carried out and the problems that have to be faced.
The rationalisation of fundamental services in the land,
Index Terms—Gas Insulated Lines, Interconnections, such as electricity and transport, represents a higher degree of
Multiconductor Matrix Algorithm, Transnational Networks, consciousness in conciliating environmental issues and
EHV transmission lines. technology.
In this hopeful context, the project of new galleries between
Italy and neighbouring countries represents an absolutely

T HE opportunity to develop common corridors in order to

satisfy the ever-growing exchanges between areas of big
industrialised systems is underlined in [1] that states:
unique opportunity for integrating railway transport and
energy transmission within the same corridor.
Moreover, a scarce transnational network between Italy and
COMMON CORRIDORS Member States gives high hindrances to achieve an effective
For both ecological and economic reasons future paneuropean electric market.
expansion of transmission systems especially near urban areas Sharing the railway gallery and power transmission line
will have to consider sharing their rights-of-way with other within the same corridor satisfies the following requirements:
land users. Independent use of land by single utilities can lead a rationalization of service rights-of-way and a stronger
to inefficient use of natural resources. Development of new electrical tie between Italy and Europe.
rights-of-way in future years will have to consider the location Last but not least, the high environmental compatibility of
of suitable highway networks, gas lines, sewage systems, GIL, primarily its null visual impact, appears to be fully in
nearby utility transmission lines, telephone lines, underground harmony with the Alpine Region landscape where an OHL
transmission systems, and recreational areas. Such installation is today already undesirable. Moreover, the
development will require a coordinated effort by the negligible external magnetic fields are an important feature.
government and industry. A current study in Reference [2]
outlines the approach that the electric utilities may follow to II. THE PROBLEM OF PANEUROPEAN ELECTRIC
encourage full use of their transmission line corridors. INTERCONNECTIONS
As regards the possibilities and the actual needs of
electric energy exchanges between Italy and Europe, paper [3]
This work is supported by European Community in the framework of
clearly indicates how, as regards Italy, "Low-priced energy
TEN-ENERGY Programme (Grant Agreement No
TREN/2002/5.7100/Z/02-006) for studying both technical and can only come from abroad whereas the new interconnection
environmental issues of integrating a 400 kV Gas Insulated transmission perspectives are rather difficult".
Line and Rail transport in tunnel between Italy and Austria entitled In particular, power exchanges between Italy and
"Studies for a new 380 kV transmission line between Italy and Austria Austria are today rather small compared with the power
through the Brenner pass: Integration of Electricity and Rail Transport in
Tunnel". The project leader is GRTN (Italian TSO) and the associated exchanges with the French and Swiss grids (see
beneficiaries are Department of Electrical Engineering of Padova and tab. 1 and fig. 1).
TIRAG (Tyrol TSO). BBT EWIV encourages the study as well. For instance, the electric energy exchanges for the year
R. Benato, L. Fellin, A. Paolucci, R. Turri are with Department of
2001 (like the latest years) [4], depending on the constraints
Electrical Engineering, University of Padova, Italy Via Gradenigo, 6/A
35131 (e-mail: roberto.benato@unipd.it – lorenzo.fellin@unipd.it – for safe operation, are reported in tab. 2 that highlights the
roberto.turri@unipd.it). limited possibilities of the 220 kV OHL link Soverzene-Lienz
E. M. Carlini, C. Di Mario are with GRTN, V.le M. Pilsudski, 92 00197 between Italy and Austria.
Roma. (e-mail: carlini.enricomaria@grtn.it – dimario.claudio@grtn.it).

0-7803-7967-5/03/$17.00 ©2003 IEEE

So a cross-border link at 400 kV between Italy and III. DOUBLE CIRCUIT GIL INSTALLED IN PILOT TUNNEL
Austria is absolutely lacking as shown in fig. 1 (even if the The new planned galleries between Italy and Austria
new OHL 400 kV Cordignano-Lienz is foreseen). through the Brenner Pass represent an important step towards
Moreover, it should be noted that the actual tendencies
the lightening of the transports via highway.
of electric market show much greater import needs than those
Fig. 2 shows the future route of the tunnels starting from
actually available.
Fortezza (Italian side) to Innsbruck (Austrian side): the route
length is about 57 km. Two separate tunnels (see fig 3) will
constitute the railway galleries (one for each railway track)
TABLE 1 and a pilot tunnel will precede the main tunneling in order to
TTC (TOTAL TRANSFER CAPACITY) FOR THE YEAR 2001 detect the geologic situation of the rock stratigraphy. Once the
WINTER SUMMER whole work will be over, the pilot tunnel will be used as a
(OCT. – APR.) (MAY–SEP.) BUT AUG. service gallery: this 5-m diameter gallery (see fig. 4) can be
[MW] [MW] efficiently used to install a double-circuit GIL. On the
France 2.500 2.200 contrary, the direct installation inside each proper railway
Switzerland 3.300 2.900 gallery (see in fig. 3 the 9.6 m diameter main railway
Austria 270 250 galleries) of a single-circuit GIL (2.0 × 0.7 m in size) would
Slovenia 430 350 require a new design to foresee a suitably deep area
Total 6.500 5.700 underneath the railway tracks.

[GWh] [GWh]
[GWh] [%]
France 18.285 442 17.843 36,88
Switzerland 23.623 44 23.579 48,73
Austria 1.865 - 1.865 3,85
Slovenia 5.160 62 5.098 10,54
Total 48.933 548 48.385 100 %

In fact the electricity from import available for the

liberalised market is in the range of 21 TWh/year (halving the
total 44 TWh/year due to long-term contracts for the captive
market), against a demand of 80 TWh/year [3].
Some Austrian operators have already been awarded the
electricity supply to Italian customers, but they find great
difficulties in crossing the border.

Fig. 2. The route of the galleries (Brenner Basistunnel EWIV).

400 kV
220 kV For the constructive characteristics of GIL, a number of
papers have been already published [5÷12]. The conductor
vertical arrangement (see fig. 4) results fully compatible with
the pilot tunnel, which usually hosts MV and LV cables, fibre
optics and mole drain. This kind of installation is like those in
Japan and in Europe.
GIL are made of factory-assembled elements. The
elements (straight unit, angle unit, up to 90°, axial
compensator) may be 20 ÷ 40 m long. Under normal
conditions of the landscape no angle units are needed, because
the elastic bending with a radius ≥ 400 m is sufficient to
Fig. 1. OHL cross-border links (year 2000). follow the contour. In order to avoid excessive unit movement,
it would be better to foresee a service rail (SR) along the route
and some intermediate accesses, which also make the unit The insulating gas pressure is monitored with
installation easier and shorten the installation time. density sensors in fibre-optic;
Continuous monitoring of Partial Discharge (PD)
Main Railway Gallery Main Railway Gallery activity is performed in order to detect arising
∅9.6 m ∅9.6 m faults as early as possible. If the PD activity
increases, the system gives an alarm. A general
arrangement is shown in fig. 5.
Arc Location System (ALS) can be also installed
at both ends of GIL to locate a possible insulation
fault. The principle of operation is the following:
Pilot tunnel
an internal flashover produces high frequency
travelling waves (VFT) which are moving from
the origin towards both ends with the speed of
40-60 m
light; detectors at both ends (see fig. 6) collect
Fig. 3. Sketch of main railway galleries and of the pilot tunnel these signals under registration of the exact time
(Brenner Basistunnel EWIV). of occurrence; knowing the travelling speed of the
signals and their time-difference gives indication
Once the elements are placed, the phases are joined by of the arc location with an accuracy of about ± 10
means of plug-in contacts and the enclosures are joined by m.
means of on-site welding.
The enclosure welds are fundamental for the line reliability: Power supply
shaft 1
shaft 2
shaft 3
shaft 4
shaft 5
shaft 6
shaft n
Power supply

for this aim a special computer controlled orbital welding Uin


machine is used; then every welded part is checked with

ultrasonic tests to reach 100 % control quality. The high
degree of reliability of these procedures comes from
experience on nuclear power plants. Long distance communication line Long distance communication line


Control and diagnosis centre

for L.V. cables fibre optic

10 Fig. 5. Monitoring and diagnostic concept (Siemens AG).

1 4
As shown in fig. 6, the time synchronisation is performed
0.77 [m] 11 by means of GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM) or
2 5 equivalent systems.
0.20 [m] 0.52 [m]

Dcs = 3.5 [m] 12

9 3 Enclosures A B
Aluminum Alloy, te = 10 mm 6
Phases GPS or equivalent synchronisation signal
Aluminum, tp = 10 mm
Insulating Gas FMK FMK
MV cables SF6/N2 (20/80 %) at 7 bar
Internal Internal
SR clock clock

mole PCU PCU

drain I/O I/O
module module

5 [m]
Pr o c e s s b u s

Fig. 4. Sketch of double circuit 400 kV GIL installed in a 5 m diameter

FMK : HF Detector/Transformer Terminal

A. Electronic monitoring and diagnostic Fig. 6. Arrangement of the Failure location system (Siemens AG).
The installation is completed with electronic monitoring
and diagnostic systems even if the manufacturers assure IV. STEADY STATE REGIME AND LOW ENVIRONMENTAL
absence of maintenance for the whole line life.
Some systems can be mentioned: The double circuit GIL installed in a gallery can be suitably
A particle trap can be installed in the unit to render analysed as a multiconductor system composed by 13
harmless metal particles that may be created when conductors: the six phase conductors, the six enclosures and
connecting the units; the concrete reinforcing steel of the gallery.
The enclosures should be systematically bonded together From tab. 4, it may be observed that:
and with the steel reinforcement of the gallery at very short
length intervals; this ensures equipotentiality between the In spite of the high power transfers, voltage drops are very
tunnel wall and the GIL enclosures and constitutes a very low and active losses are fully satisfactory and
good distributed earthing. Moreover, touch voltages inside the noteworthy in global cost evaluation;
gallery are zeroed even during a single-phase fault: this In a wide load range GIL gives an effective power factor
ensures complete safety for operators working for GIL correction at sending-end;
inspection. Capacitive reactive power required at the sending-end
The matrix algorithms that allow investigating this system becomes considerable only at very low loadings.
are derived from a generalization of the single circuit GIL
algorithms described in previous papers [5÷10]. Magnetic field levels [µT]


Height from gallery axis [m]

TABLE 3 0.2
3 10
Receiving-end Currents [A] R T
0 S S
Phases Enclosures
R 1 |3150| ∠-14° 7 |3113.8|∠167°
S 2 |3150| ∠-134° 8 |3147.0|∠48°
T 3 |3150| ∠106° 9 |3181.3|∠-73°
T 4 |3150| ∠106° 10 |3181.3|∠-73° -10
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
Distance from gallery axis [m]
S 5 |3150| ∠-134° 11 |3147.0|∠48°
Fig. 7. Magnetic field levels for double circuit GIL.
R 6 |3150| ∠-14° 12 |3113.8|∠167°
Steel Reinforcement of the gallery 13 | 76.5|∠140° A. Proximity effects
In the usual installations the proximity effects are not so
marked but their study becomes rather important when a close
conductor arrangement must be considered e.g. in a tunnel
Tab. 3 shows for rated current Iph= 3150 [A] that enclosure installation.
current phasors have almost the same magnitude and are It also represents a very useful guide to validate some
almost perfectly opposite to corresponding phase current simplifying approaches considering the system simply
phasors and the gallery steel reinforcement current is very modelled by the 13 fundamental conductors.
small: this results in an effective magnetic field shielding The authors have already developed a matrix integral
clearly shown in fig. 7. algorithm to study the proximity effect of single circuit GIL
Hence, a great electromagnetic compatibility with the main [9,10]: the generalization to the double circuit GIL is detailed
railway galleries (see fig. 2) is reached. in [11,12].
The knowledge of the current phasors in each conductor The method is based on an extensive application of matrix
enables to compute the external magnetic field and to analysis of multiconductor systems: each phase and enclosure
determine the optimal phase sequence arrangement, which can be divided into a bundled equivalent conductor of m
minimizes the external field. subconductors (see fig. 8) whose self and mutual longitudinal
The steady-state regime has been studied: tab. 4 reports the impedances can be computed applying the Carson theory,
performance of a typical double circuit GIL for different which accounts for the earth return effects.
loadings. So referring to subconductor voltage and current vectors u
and i in fig. 8, the following matrix equation can be written:

VR=400 kV (at receiving-end)
&S [MW] +j [Mvar] S& [MW] +j [Mvar] cosϕ VS
∆P [%] ∆V [%]
S R [kV]
where Z is the impedance matrix of subconductor system
4302 + j756 4276 + j868 0.98 406 0.60 1.5
3219+j 445 3205+j 651 0.98 404 0.45 1.1 (12m×12m).
2148+j 163 2142+j 435 0.98 402.7 0.30 0.6 Moreover, the solution is achieved by considering a matrix
1071 − j 93 1070 +j 217 0.98 401 0.15 0.2 relation, which takes into account the constraints at the
429 −j 234 428+j 87 0.98 400 0.06 0.0 sending-end [11,12].
L=1 km
This novel transnational line requires a thorough analysis of
the various technical problems, which could arise in the
process of integrating electricity transmission and railway
system in the same corridor.
It is therefore necessary to investigate the following issues.
A. Thermal Behaviour
The thermal behaviour of the double-circuit GIL inside the
pilot gallery deserves a careful consideration.
u It should be noted that IEC 61640 [13] recommends that
the maximum allowable temperature for the enclosure shall
not exceed 70 °C.
Fig. 8. Phase and enclosure bundled conductors for double circuit GIL.
By means of the matrix integral algorithm, the Joule power
A comparison with FE method has been performed either losses W/m in both phases and enclosures can be precisely
for the current distribution or for the heat transfer giving a evaluated taking into account the proximity effect.
really good agreement. So by using the formulae in literature [14]-[16] the phase
and enclosure temperatures can be evaluated.
V. HIGHEST COMPATIBILITY OF GIL WITH TUNNEL Tab. 5 reports the values of total power losses Wtot and the
average values of phase and enclosure temperatures for
In the following some GIL features are highlighted in
different phase currents. It should be noted that all the
order to show the fully compatibility with gallery installation:
situations of Tab. 5 satisfy the IEC 61640 that recommends
the maximum allowable temperature for the enclosure shall
not exceed 70 °C.
The environmental impact (visual and "magnetic")
of a traditional overhead line (single or double
circuit) is already considered undesirable by
Alpine regions. GIL solution zeroes the visual POWER LOSSES FOR DIFFERENT PHASE CURRENTS;
High safety: in case of an insulation failure, a I Wtot θen θph
cable explodes and there is a risk of fire and [A] [W/m] [°] [°]
787.5 29 40.5° 41.3°
damages, to adjacent cables, other nearby 1575 114 41.7° 44.0°
installations and persons. On the contrary, GIL 3150 451 46.2° 54.3°
manufacturers have to guarantee, for internal fault, 3940 705 49.4° 60.9°
a rated short-time withstand current according to
IEC 61640.
High reliability: the GIL technology has proven its Moreover, a deeper study must be undertaken in order to
reliability since 25 years in service without any evaluate the gallery ventilation.
failure up to now. The main reasons are: the So a future work will surely deal with a more detailed study
dielectric stress in the material is very low (GIL: 3 of the thermal behaviour.
÷ 4 kV/mm, cables: 10 ÷ 13 kV/mm), and GIL has B. The Rationalisation of the Whole Italian /Austrian
no special joints, which are critical elements in a Regional Networks
The new link feasibility will be integrated with an overall
No ageing: cables are thermally and electrically
study concerning the rationalisation of both Italian/Austrian
ageing. The higher the temperature and the
regional networks (380 kV and 132 kV).
electrical field, the higher the ageing effect. The
To this aim, planning studies on both sides of the
cable insulation becomes weaker under the
interconnection will be carried out, taking into account the
influence of electrical stress, temperature and
complete re-organisation of the Regional grids.
time, so that the possibility for failures increases
with the service time. Gases are not ageing, C. Power Flow and Short Circuit Studies
neither thermal nor electrical. The adding of a GIL line in the EHV European network
SF6/N2 gas mixtures: these mixtures are long-time constituted almost exclusively by OHL makes necessary to
experienced insulating gases and used worldwide examine deeply the GIL influence on power flows, short
in high voltage technology. circuit levels and voltage stability.
Long-term tests: GILs have passed successfully It should be noted that the interface between GIL-OHL
long duration tests. Some tests allow to simulate doesn't give any problem as regards re-closure cycles so that
50 years of service life under full load conditions. no change is needed in relay schemes.
GIL insulating medium is self-repairing i.e. it restores its dello Stato SpA and BEG Brenner Eisenbahn GmbH) in order
insulating properties after a disruptive discharge. to study and design the High Speed Railway Tunnel.
The GIL operation is like that of OHL: so GIL could be the It seems to be meaningful to conclude with this passage
ideal addition to OHL. The high transmission capability of [17]: "In my opinion not only the alpine places are peculiarly
GIL ensures that it will not be a bottleneck when inserted in an worth-noting and we have to individuate high capacity routes,
existing OH transmission network. completely under-grounded or in gallery, that must be always
used all day and night long, Sundays and Saturdays. The links
to these transits must be made only where they are useful to
single towns. This means that a project must be developed but
VII. COSTS not regarding only alpine regions, more sensible, but also the
At this preliminary stage only a very rough cost assessment whole Europe or the routes of links north-south ed east-west
can be given. along which these high capacity lines pass. Unifying these
The investment cost of a double-circuit GIL is about 4,13 elements can contribute to lessen the realization costs."
M€/km, which for a route length of 57 km gives a total
amount of 235,41 M€. Considering an estimated cost for the
galleries of 3,71 G€, the cost ratio GIL/GALLERY would be
about 6.35%.
This percentage does not seem to be a heavy adding on the
whole cost and is promising in view of a rationalisation of the X. REFERENCES
corridors. [1] Electric Research Council - Electric Power Research Institute:
Transmission Line Reference Book 345 kV and above, Palo Alto,
The use of the pilot gallery gives great money saving for California, 1975.
GIL installation since the digging cost is zeroed. [2] "Shared Transmission Corridors Aid Grid Growth", Electric Light and
A reasonable power exchange can be set to 2000 MW Power, March 1972.
[3] S. Borghi et al.: "L'interconnessione elettrica con l'estero", L'Energia
which gives rise to 17.520 GWh that is 36,2 % of the total
Elettrica, Vol. 77, N° 4/5, October 2000, pp.11 – 20.
Italian energy exchange for the year 2001. [4] GRTN – Gestore Rete Trasmissione Nazionale: Dati d'esercizio 2001.
Moreover, as shown in [7, 8], the economic convenience of [5] R. Benato, L. Fellin, A. Paolucci: "Elettrodotti e innovazione:
GIL compared to other transmission technologies is clearly prestazioni e campi esterni degli elettrodotti blindati", in Proc.
"ELETTRODOTTI e TERRITORIO", 22 November 2000, Padova, pp.
highlighted when power losses and territory constraints are 6.1-6.9.
accounted for. In fact, the resistive losses are significantly [6] R. Benato, L. Fellin, A. Paolucci: "Elettrodotti blindati: una alternativa
lower compared to cables and overhead lines, and the per la trasmissione", L’Energia Elettrica, Vol. 77, N°. 4/5, July-October
2000, pp.60-63.
dielectric losses are negligible. This reduces the transmission [7] R. Benato, L. Fellin, A. Lorenzoni, A. Paolucci: "Elettrodotti blindati nel
costs significantly. territorio: connessioni dei nuovi impianti di generazione alla RTN", AEI,
Vol. 88, N°. 3, March 2001, pp. 28-37.
[8] R. Benato, L. Fellin, A. Lorenzoni, A. Paolucci: "Sistemi di trasmissione
nel territorio", AEI, Vol. 88, N°. 11, December 2001, pp. 28 – 35.
[9] R. Benato, F. Dughiero, M. Forzan, A. Paolucci: "Proximity Effect and
VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Magnetic Field Calculation in GIL and in Isolated Phase Bus Ducts",
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 38, No 2, March 2002, pp. 781–
The authors gratefully acknowledge the TEN-study 784.
Scientific Committee (prof. Lorenzo Fellin-University of [10] R. Benato, L. Fellin, A. Paolucci: "Condutture a fasi blindate: calcolo
degli effetti di prossimità e del campo magnetico esterno", Rendiconti
Padova, dr. Antonio Serrani-GRTN, dipl.ing. Franz Hairer- Riunione Annuale AEI, Padova, ottobre 2001, Vol. n° 1, pp. 345–350.
TIRAG) to have allowed the publication. [11] R. Benato, F. Dughiero: "Solution of Coupled Electromagnetic and
Moreover, the authors gratefully acknowledge BBT EEIG Thermal Problems in Gas Insulated Transmission Lines", IEEE CEFC
chiefly dott. Carlo Comin and dipl.-Ing. Hans Lindenberger to 2002, Perugia, Italy, giugno 16-19 2002, P9-14, pag. 282.
[12] R. Benato, F. Dughiero: "Solution of Coupled Electromagnetic and
support the study. Thermal Problems in Gas Insulated Transmission Lines", IEEE
Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 39, No 3, May 2003, pp. – .
[13] IEC report 61640: "Rigid high-voltage, gas-insulated transmission lines
for rated voltage of 72,5 kV and above", First edition, 1998-07.
[14] D. Minaguchi, M. Ginno, K. Itaka, H. Furukawa, K. Ninomiya, T.
IX. CONCLUSION Hayashi, "Heat transfer characteristics of gas insulated transmission
lines", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-1, No. 1, January
A fruitful dialogue between all the involved partners i.e. 1986, pp. 2-9.
BBT EEIG, TRENITALIA S.p.a., GRTN (Italian TSO), [15] K. Itaka, T. Akari, T. Hara, "Heat transfer characteristics of gas spacer
TIRAG/TIWAG (Tyrol TSO/Tyrol Grid Owner) is highly cables", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-97,
No. 5, September/October 1978, pp. 1579-1585.
desirable. [16] B.O. Pedersen, H.C. Doepken, P.C. Bolin, "Development of a
In fact an important contribution to the success of the compressed-gas-insulated transmission line", IEEE Trans. on Power
project will be given by the tight connection that the Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS90, No.6, November/December 1971,
Consortium GRTN-TIRAG-UniPD will ensure with BBT [17] Press Conference: Zukunftsweisende Übertragung von elektrischer
EEIG, the European Group of Economic Interest established Energie in umweltsensiblen Gebieten, Kristallwelten in Wattens/Tirol,
by the Italian and Austrian Railways Companies (FS Ferrovie 13/06/2001.
XI. BIOGRAPHIES Lorenzo Fellin was born in Trento, Italy, in
1940. He received the Dr.Ing. Degree in electrical
Roberto Benato was born in Venezia, Italy, in engineering from University of Padova in 1967. He
1970. He received the Dr.Ing. Degree in electrical joined the Electrical Engineering Dept. of the
engineering from the University of Padova in 1995 University of Padova in 1968 where, since 1986, he
and Ph.D. in Power Systems Analysis in 1999. In is Full Professor of Electric Power Installations. He
2002 he was appointed as Assistant Professor in the was actively involved in the design and construction
Power System Group at the Department of Electrical of a large laboratory for thermonuclear fusion
Engineering at Padova University. His main fields of research (the RFX experiment built-up in Padova
research are multiconductor analysis, EHV-HV with Euratom-ENEA-CNR support). His fields of
transmission lines and advanced matricial techniques interest also include design of industrial electric
for the static and dynamic power system analysis. installations and electric lighting design. He is a member of IEEE and of the
His fields of interest also include design of electric Italian Electrical and Electronic Association (AEI). He also is one of the
power plants and computer applications in power system engineering. He is a chairmen of the Italian association of artificial lighting (AIDI). (Department
member of AEI and CIGRÉ. (Department of Electrical Engineering, of Electrical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/A, 35131
University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/A, 35131 Padova, Italy, Phone: Padova, Italy, Phone: +39498277511, Fax: +39498277599, E-mail:
+39498277532, Fax: +39498277599, E-mail: roberto.benato@unipd.it) lorenzo.fellin@unipd.it)
Enrico Maria Carlini was born in Rome, Italy, Antonio Paolucci was born in Padova, Italy, in
in 1968. He received the Dr. Ing. Degree in electrical 1924. He received the Dr.Ing. degree in electrical
engineering from the University of Rome in 1991. engineering from the University of Padova in 1950.
He has worked in ENEL since 1993 to 2000 in field He joined the Department of Electrical Engineering
of generation and transmission of electric energy. of the University of Padova in 1952 where he was
Since 2000 he is working in GRTN (Italian Assistant and later Associate Professor. Since 1973
Independent Transmission System Operator) - Grid he is Full Professor of Power Systems Analysis. His
Division. fields of interest also include design of industry
His field of interests includes HV equipment and electric power plants and large laboratory research
PST (Phase Shifting Transformer). He is a member power plants. He is a member of AEI.
of CEI and CIGRE’ JWG B3-C2 “Maintanance and Reliability” and JTF B3 (Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Padova, Via
“Dynamic loading of transmission equipment”. (GRTN – Viale M.llo Gradenigo 6/A, 35131 Padova, Italy, Phone: +39498277516, Fax:
Pilsudski 92, 00197 Rome, Italy, Phone:+390681654322 Fax +39498277599)
+390681654182, Email:carlini.enricomaria@grtn.it)

Claudio Di Mario was born in Rome, Italy, in Roberto Turri was born in Padova, Italy, in
1970. He received the Dr.Ing. Degree in electrical 1958. He received the Dr.Ing. degree in electrical
engineering from University of Rome “La engineering from the University of Padova in 1984
Sapienza”; in 2003 he is MBA Master candidate at and the Ph.D. (University of Wales) in 1987. He has
University of Rome “Tor Vergata”. In 1998-2000 worked in the Physics Department of the University
he has worked in Siemens AG Germany (Berlin and College of Swansea (U.K.). In 1990 he was
Erlangen) in PTD Dep. (GIS and AIS Substation). appointed as Researcher in the Power System Group
Since 2001 he is working in GRTN (Italian at the Electrical Engineering Department of Padova
Independent Transmission System Operator) – Grid University and Associate Professor from 2002. His
Division. main fields of research are high voltage engineering
His field of interest also include HV Hybrid and computer applications in power system
switchgear and PST (Phase Shifting Transformer). He is a member of CIGRE’ engineering. (Department of Electric Engineering, University of Padova, Via
WG B3-01 “Multifunctional Substation”. (GRTN – Viale M.llo Pilsudski 92, Gradenigo 6/A, 35131 Padova, Italy, Phone: +39498277565, Fax:
00197 Rome, Italy, Phone:+390681654323 Fax +390681654182, +39498277599, E-mail: roberto.turri@unipd.it)

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