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‫اﻟﺠﻤﮭـــــﻮرﯾــــــﺔ اﻟﺠـــﺰاﺋـــﺮﯾـــــــﺔ اﻟـــﺪﯾﻤﻘـــــﺮاطﯿـــــــﺔ اﻟﺸـﻌﺒﯿـــــﺔ‬

‫وزارة اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿـــﻢ اﻟﻌــﺎﻟﻲ واﻟﺒﺤــﺚ اﻟﻌـﻠﻤـــﻲ‬ ‫وزارة اﻟﺒــﺮﯾﺪ وﺗﻜﻨـــﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿـــﺎت اﻹﻋﻼم واﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬

INSTITUT NATIONAL DES TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS ET DES TECHNOLOGIES DE


L’INFORMATION ET DE LA COMMUNICATION ABDELHAFID BOUSSOUF
‫اﻟﻤﻌﮭــــﺪ اﻟﻮطﻨـــﻲ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻت وﺗﻜﻨــــﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿــﺎت اﻹﻋﻼم واﻻﺗﺼﺎل ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺤﻔﯿﻆ ﺑﻮﺻﻮف‬

4G LTE Migration
By:
BOUKIT Mohamed
CHAREF KHODJA Mohammed

Department of Education for Specialization, Post-Graduation and Research


Theme presented
For degree completion of Engineer in Telecommunications and TIC
Option telecommunication system

Supervised by:
 Mr. Djalal. ZIANI KERARETI
 Mr. Amine BARKAT

President:
 Mr. O. KIAD OMAR

Examiners:
 Mr. M. ABDI
 Mr. A. AZIZOU

Promotion : IGE 36
Juin 2016
Résumé
On va parler sur les principaux nouveaux composants et les avantages du système LTE,
une brève idée sur l'architecture, et discuter sur les motivations qui déclenchent le
développement de la technologie LTE. Les différentes étapes de la planification sont présentées
avec une stratégie appropriée de configurations d'équipement et de Hardware en fonction des
solutions Nokia.

L’utilisation du spectre est règlementée pour diviser la bande disponible entre les
différents opérateurs pour éviter les interférences et assurer le maximum de performance. Pour
gagner en temps et en coût, l'opérateur doit utiliser une architecture déjà existante des systèmes
précédents pour décharger les nouveaux sites LTE en utilisant le procédé d’interfonctionnement.

Enfin, une application développée en Delphi pour faire le dimensionnement d'un réseau
FDD est utilisée pour le calcul des sites dans le cas de capacité et de couverture.

Mots-clés : Long Term Evolution, OFDM, Refarming, Planification, Interworking,


dimensionnement

ii
Abstract

Our first chapter gives the main new components and benefits of the LTE system, a brief idea
about the architecture, and discuss about the motivations which triggers the development of
LTE. Different steps of planning in order to deploy the LTE architecture are shown with an
appropriate strategy of equipment and Hardwar configurations depending on the Nokia
solutions.

The use of the spectrum is regulated to divide the band between the different operators to prevent
the interferences and assure the maximum of performance. To gain in time and cost, the operator
must use a deployed architecture of the previous systems to offload the new LTE sites using the
interworking process.

Finally, a student developed Delphi application for FDD networks dimensioning is used to
calculate the number of sites in coverage and capacity scenarios.

Keywords: Long Term Evolution, OFDM, Refarming, Planning, Interworking, dimensioning.

iii
Table of Contents
Résumé ........................................................................................................................................ ii

Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... iii

Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................... iv

List of Tables ............................................................................................................................ vii

List of figures ........................................................................................................................... viii

List of Acronyms ........................................................................................................................ x

Acknowledgment ..................................................................................................................... xiv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1

Chapter 1 : Overview .................................................................................................................. 2

1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 2


1.2 Motivations for the highlight of the fourth generation ............................................... 2
1.3 UE categories .............................................................................................................. 3
1.4 Architecture of LTE .................................................................................................... 4
1.4.1 From UMTS to LTE ............................................................................................... 4
1.4.2 System Architecture Evolution ............................................................................... 4
1.5 Air interface ................................................................................................................ 5
1.5.1 OFDM ..................................................................................................................... 5
1.5.2 LTE physical layer structure ................................................................................... 8
1.5.3 SC-FDMA ............................................................................................................... 9
1.5.4 Reference signals .................................................................................................. 10
1.6 Multiple Antenna Techniques ................................................................................... 12
Chapter 2 : Planning process..................................................................................................... 13

2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 13


2.2 Scenarios and Use cases............................................................................................ 13
2.2.1 Greenfield ............................................................................................................. 13
2.2.2 Existing operators or brownfield deployment....................................................... 13
2.2.3 Propagation Modelling.......................................................................................... 14

iv
2.2.4 Path Loss Based Planning ..................................................................................... 15
2.2.5 Simulation Based Planning ................................................................................... 21
2.2.6 Link Budget and Planning Thresholds .................................................................. 21
2.3 Interference management .......................................................................................... 22
2.4 Detailed planning ...................................................................................................... 23
2.4.1 Frequency Bands and Spectrum Re-farming ........................................................ 23
2.4.2 Site Selection ........................................................................................................ 24
2.4.3 Physical Layer Cell Identity Planning .................................................................. 25
2.4.4 Tracking Area Planning ........................................................................................ 27
2.4.5 PRACH planning: ................................................................................................. 29
2.4.6 MME Area Planning ............................................................................................. 30
2.5 Nokia LTE Solution .................................................................................................. 30
2.5.1 Flexi eNodeB ........................................................................................................ 30
2.5.2 Antenna System Options for LTE Hardware refarming ....................................... 31
2.5.3 eNodeB Configurations ........................................................................................ 32
Chapter 3 : Interworking ........................................................................................................... 34

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 34


3.2 Radio Resource Control (RRC) ................................................................................ 34
3.3 System Information ................................................................................................... 34
3.4 UE transitions states in RRC-IDLE .......................................................................... 35
3.5 Connection Control within LTE ............................................................................... 36
3.5.1 Connection Establishment .................................................................................... 36
3.6 Message sequence for handover within LTE ............................................................ 40
3.7 Inter-RAT Mobility................................................................................................... 40
3.7.1 Mobility to LTE .................................................................................................... 41
3.7.2 Mobility from LTE ............................................................................................... 42
3.8 Measurements ........................................................................................................... 43
3.8.1 Measurement Configuration ................................................................................. 43
3.8.2 Measurement Report Triggering ........................................................................... 44
3.8.3 Measurement Reporting ........................................................................................ 45
3.8.4 Inter-RAT handover to WCDMA and GRAN ...................................................... 46

v
3.9 PLMN Selection........................................................................................................ 47
3.10 Cell selection............................................................................................................. 47
3.11 Cell Reselection ........................................................................................................ 48
3.11.1 Measurement Rules........................................................................................... 49
3.11.2 Frequency & RAT Evaluation and cell ranking ............................................... 50
3.11.3 Cell Access Verification ................................................................................... 51
3.12 Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB) ........................................................................... 51
3.12.1 Reference architecture ...................................................................................... 51
3.12.2 Combined Registration to the LTE network and CS for CSFB ........................ 52
3.12.3 CSFB for a mobile originating call ................................................................... 52
3.12.4 CSFB for a mobile terminating call .................................................................. 54
Chapter 4: Coverage and capacity dimensioning...................................................................... 55

4.1 Coverage ................................................................................................................... 55


4.2 LTE link budget and coverage analysis .................................................................... 56
4.3 Capacity .................................................................................................................... 65
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 66

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ i

vi
List of Tables
Table 1-1 : Different categories defined in the LTE release 8 ................................................... 3
Table 1-2 : The different modes in available bands for the LTE ............................................... 8
Table 1-3 : The number of resource blocks ............................................................................... 9

Table 4-1: Channel Models……………………………………………….…………………..57

Table 4-2 : MCS Selection ....................................................................................................... 57


Table 4-3 : Penetration Loss..................................................................................................... 58
Table 4-4 : Standard deviation ................................................................................................. 59
Table 4-5 : LTE Transmission modes and MIMO scheme ...................................................... 65

vii
List of figures

Figure 1-1 : subscriber number evolution through the different technologies ......................... 2
Figure 1-2 : Data rate evolution ................................................................................................. 2
Figure 1-3 : Evolution of the system architecture from GSM and UMTS to LTE .................... 4
Figure 1-4: Architecture of LTE ................................................................................................ 5
Figure 1-5: Modulation and demodulation for the OFDM ........................................................ 5
Figure 1-6 : The difference between OFDM and OFDMA ....................................................... 6
Figure 1-7: Types of frequency allocation................................................................................. 7
Figure 1-8: Cyclic Prefix Principle ............................................................................................ 7
Figure 1-9 : the main differences between FDD and TDD........................................................ 8
Figure 1-10 : The structure of a single resource blocks ............................................................. 9
Figure 1-11 :Principe of single carrier modulation .................................................................. 10
Figure 1-12 : resource Block for Antenna 1&2 ....................................................................... 11
Figure 1-13: The relative position of uplink control channels ................................................. 11
Figure 2-1 : the 1800 sites for Oran ......................................................................................... 14
Figure 2-2 : Standard propagation model parameters .............................................................. 15
Figure 2-3: reference signal power level ................................................................................. 16
Figure 2-4: reference signal power level histogram ............................................................... 16
Figure 2-5: The best server areas analyses .............................................................................. 17
Figure 2-6: number of servers .................................................................................................. 18
Figure 2-7: Number of servers histogram ................................................................................ 18
Figure 2-8: signal to noise and interference level .................................................................... 19
Figure 2-9: signal to noise and interference level histogram ................................................... 19
Figure 2-10: Number of servers after ACP .............................................................................. 20
Figure 2-11: Situation before applying ARPT decision ........................................................... 23
Figure 2-12: optimi refarming processing ............................................................................... 24
Figure 2-13 : Situation after applying ARPT decision ............................................................. 24
Figure 2-14: Primary and secondary synchronization signals in LTE ..................................... 25
Figure 2-15: six reference signals patterns .............................................................................. 26

viii
Figure 2-16: allocation of PCI using AFP ................................................................................ 27
Figure 2-17 : tracking area configuration ................................................................................ 28
Figure 2-18: tracking area and the overloaded cells ................................................................ 28
Figure 2-19: The tracking area list ........................................................................................... 29
Figure 2-20 : Position of PRACH in uplink frame .................................................................. 29
Figure 2-21: Two main parts for the flexi multimode ............................................................. 31
Figure 2-22: Antenna System Options for LTE ....................................................................... 32
Figure 2-23: Flexi RF Module configuration for a 1+1+1 eNodeB without MIMO ............... 33
Figure 2-24: Flexi RF Module configuration for a 1+1+1 eNodeB with 2+2 MIMO ............. 33
Figure 3-1 : The time-domain scheduling of the MIB and SIB messages ............................... 35
Figure 3-2: state transitions in RRC_IDLE ............................................................................. 36
Figure 3-3: The connection establishment ............................................................................... 37
Figure 3-4: The different available cases for inter-RAT mobility ........................................... 41
Figure 3-5 : Mobility to LTE ................................................................................................... 42
Figure 3-6: Inter-RAT Handover to WCDMA (Event B2)...................................................... 46
Figure 3-7: Inter-RAT Handover to GRAN with eNACC ....................................................... 47
Figure 3-8 : Reference architecture .......................................................................................... 52
Figure 3-9 : CSFB for a mobile originating call ..................................................................... 53
Figure 3-10 : CSFB for a mobile terminating call ................................................................... 54

ix
List of Acronyms
3GPP: Third Generation Partnership Project MAC: Medium Access Control
ACK: Acknowledgement (in ARQ protocols) MC: Multi-Carrier
ACP : Automatic Cell Planning MCS: Modulation and Coding Scheme
ARQ: Automatic Repeat-reQuest MIB: Master Information Block
BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel MIMO: Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
BS: Base Station MME: Mobility Management Entity
BSC: Base Station Controller MU-MIMO: Multi-User MIMO
BTS: Base Transceiver Station MUX: Multiplexer or Multiplexing
CCO: Cell Change Order NAS: Non-Access Stratum
CDMA: Code-Division Multiple Access NACC:Optional Network Assisted Cell Change
CP: Cyclic Prefix OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency-Division
CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check Multiplexing
CS: Circuit Switched OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency-Division
CQI: Channel Quality Indicator Multiple Access
DFT: Discrete Fourier Transform PAPR: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
DL: Downlink PCRF Policy and Charging Rules Function
DL-SCH: Downlink Shared Channel PDN: Packet Data Network
RS: Reference Signal P-GW: Packet-Data Network Gateway (also
eNB: eNodeB PDN-GW)
EPC: Evolved Packet Core PHY: Physical layer
EPS: Evolved Packet System PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel
E-UTRA: Evolved UTRA PS: Packet Switched
E-UTRAN: Evolved UTRAN PSS: Primary Synchronization Signal
FDD: Frequency Division Duplex QoS: Quality-of-Service
FDM: Frequency-Division Multiplex RACH: Random Access Channel
FDMA: Frequency-Division Multiple Access RAN: Radio Access Network
GERAN: GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network RAT: Radio Access Technology
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node RB: Resource Block
GP: Guard Period (for TDD operation) RE: Resource Element
GPRS: General Packet Radio Services RF: Radio Frequency
GSM: Global System for Mobile RLC: Radio Link Control
communications RNC: Radio Network Controller
HARQ: Hybrid ARQ RRC: Radio Resource Control
HSS: Home Subscriber Server RS: Reference Symbol
ICIC: Inter-Cell Interference Coordination RSRP: Reference Signal Received Power
IDFT: Inverse DFT RSRQ: Reference Signal Received Quality
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics RX: Receiver
Engineers SAE: System Architecture Evolution
IFFT: Inverse Fast Fourier Transform SF: Spreading Factor
IP: Internet Protocol SFN: System Frame Number
ITU: International Telecommunications Union S-GW: Serving Gateway
ITU-R: International Telecommunications SI: System Information message
Union-Radiocommunications Sector SIB: System Information Block
LTE: Long-Term Evolution SINR: Signal-to-Interference-and-Noise Ratio

x
SIR: Signal-to-Interference Ratio UE: User Equipment,
SNR: Signal-to-Noise Ratio UL: Uplink
SSS: Secondary Synchronization Signal UL-SCH: Uplink Shared Channel
SU-MIMO: Single-User MIMO UM: Unacknowledged Mode
TDD: Time-Division Duplex UMTS: Universal Mobile
TDM: Time-Division Multiplexing Telecommunications System
TDMA: Time-Division Multiple Access UTRAN: Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
TF: Transport Format Network
TTI: Transmission Time Interval X2: The interface between eNodeBs.
TX: Transmitter

xi
‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ھﻮاء ﻟﺮوﺣﻲ وﺑﻠﺴﻤﺎ ﻟﺤﯿﺎﺗﻲ ودفء ﺑﯿﻦ أﺿﻠﻌﻲ ﻏﺮﺳﺖ ﺑﺬرة اﻟﻨﺠﺎح ﺗﻤﻨﺖ رﻋﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ وﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﺪر أﺳﺒﻖ إﻟﻰ روح أﻣـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــﻲ اﻟﻄﺎھﺮة‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺚ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ اﻟﻄﻤﻮح وﻋﻠﻤﻨﻲ اﻟﻮﺻﻮل واﻟﺪي أداﻣﮫ ﷲ‬
‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺗﻨﻲ ﺑﻌﻄﺎﺋﮭﺎ وﻛﺮم ﺟﻮدھﺎ زوﺟﺔ أﺑﻲ‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ارﺗﺸﻘﺖ ﻣﻌﮭﻢ ﻛﺄس اﻟﺴﻌﺎدة واﻟﺸﻘﺎء وﺣﻤﻠﻮا ﻓﻲ ﻋﯿﻮﻧﮭﻢ ذﻛﺮﯾﺎت طﻔﻮﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﻮا ﻧﻌﻢ اﻟﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬إﺧﻮﺗﻲ‬
‫وأﺧﻮاﺗﻲ أﺻﻐﺮھﻢ ﻋﺒــﯿﺮ‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻓﻮاﻧﯿﺲ اﻟﺴﻌﺎدة‪ :‬أﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‪ ،‬راﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮاء‬
‫إﻟﻰ زھﺮات اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ :‬أﺳﯿــﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨـــﺎر‪ ،‬ﻓﺮح‪ ،‬ﺳﺠــــﻰ‪ ،‬ﺟـــﻮري‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎرﻗﻨﺎ ﺑﺠﺴﺪه وروﺣﮫ ﺗﻤﻨﺖ ھﺬه اﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺟﺪﺗﻲ اﻟﻐﺎﻟﯿﺔ – أﺧﻲ رﺿﻮان رﺣﻤﮭﻢ ﷲ‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺬوﻗﺖ ﻣﻌﮫ أﺻﻌﺐ وأﺟﻤﻞ اﻟﻠﺤﻈﺎت ﺻﺪﯾﻘﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺞ ﺑﮭﻢ ذاﻛﺮﺗﻲ وﻻ ﺗﺴﻌﮭﻢ ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺗﻲ رﻓﻘﺎء اﻟﺪرب‪ :‬ﺑﻼل‪ ،‬أﯾﻮب‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‪،‬ﻓﺎرس‪،‬أﻣﯿﻦ‪ ،‬رؤوف‪،‬‬
‫أﺣﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮوان‪ ،‬ﺻﺪام‪ ،‬أﺳﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪...‬‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻗﻠﺐ أﻣﺘﻲ اﻟﺠﺮﯾﺢ ﺷﮭـــــﺪاء ﻏﺰة وﺳـــــﻮرﯾﺎ‬
‫إﻟﯿﻜﻢ ﺟﻤﯿﻌﺎ أﺑﻌﺚ أرق ﺗﺤﯿﺔ وأﻋﺬب ﺳﻤﻔﻮﻧﯿﺔ أرددھﺎ ﻟﻜﻢ‪ ،‬أﺣﺒــــــــﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻗﻠﺐ‬
‫أھﺪي ﻟﮭﻢ ھﺬا اﻟﺒﺤﺚ اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺿﻊ راﺟﯿﺎ ً ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﻟﻰ ﻋﺰ وﺟﻞ أن ﯾﺠﺪ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل واﻟﻨﺠﺎح‬

‫ﺷﺎرف ﺧﻮﺟﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬

‫‪xii‬‬
Dedication

This project is especially dedicated to my parents who have been a source of


encouragement and inspiration.
My mother thought me to complete every work I do even if it is simple, my
father helped me to accept any final result event if it is not perfect.
So many thanks to my brothers Yousef and Abderahman who have been
available every time I needed them and to whom I am greatly indebted. They
were my great references, and without them this theme
might not have been written.
I also dedicate this project to my aunt who deceased suddenly without
having the chance to benefit from her kindness and mercy.
Finally, I am grateful to all my family how gave me the strength
and the self-confidence to continue always improving myself in every life field.

BOUKIT Mohamed

xiii
Acknowledgment

First of all, we thank Allah for achieving our aims in this project. We would like to extend my

gratitude to the many people who helped to bring this research project to be fruitful. First, we

would like to thank Mr ZIANI KERARETI Djalal and Mr BARKAT Amine for providing

us the opportunity of taking part in this project. We are so deeply grateful for their help,

guidance and the efforts they mad to share with us their experiences and knowledge.

We would also like to thank all the experts and employees in the Ooredoo department who

were involved in the validation of this research and conduct them to their goals. Many thanks

for all the institute teachers who assure always for a continuous success of their students.

xiv
1
Introduction

Introduction

Previously, the voice service has dominated the wireless systems and still remains the primary
application. Nowadays, the internet services growth represents the main provider of a vast
array of services and applications.

Mobile communication technologies pass from the first generation which was an analogue
mobile radio system, the second generation and the first digital mobile systems, and finally the
third generation network which is first mobile systems handling broadband data. However,
every one of the previous technologies shows their limits Through time because of the
explosion of terminals and user equipment which Drained the network capacities and mad the
operators investing more than make profits.

To satisfy the increase demand of users in term of data, the operators had to find new solutions
by introducing new technologies with higher performances, we are talking here about the
LTE. In this project we will mention a brief introduction to the LTE architecture, their benefits
and requirements. The project talks also about the main steps for the LTE migration as the
spectrum options and migration strategies.
2
Chapter 1 : Overview

Chapter 1 : Overview
1.1 Introduction
Succeeding the 2G and 3G technologies, the LTE is a very significant technology in the
mobile network domain. It is an extension of existing technologies to improve some features in
order to meet the needs of operators and subscribers.
1.2 Motivations for the highlight of the fourth generation
 Interactions between capacity and data-rate:
The capacity of a cell is defined by the 8
maximum traffic that in a situation of strong 7
charged cell can satisfy during a given period and
6
specific locations, for example it changes
throughout the same day, and differs from the rural 5

areas to dense-urban areas. It is clear that the 4


resources are shared among mobile users that is 3
translated by a rate reduction for each UE. 2

HSPA technology has played a very 1


important role in term of capacity compared to the 0
other releases such as UMTS and GSM, but this is 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016
not the case today, that I the main point which is mobile subscribers population
encouraging us to move to LTE.
As we have seen before, for the bit rate has Figure 1-1 : subscriber number evolution through
a similar variation as the capacity changes. This the different technologies
rate is approached by the capacity divided by the
number active UE’s. As a conclusion, the capacity 200
limits the bit rate in the case of multiple connected
subscribers. 150

The bit rates are the field of competition 100


Down Up
between operators, as a result for this
competitions was to look for higher rates than 50
those offered by HSPA networks, this expectation
0
is confirmed over time, and today is one of LTE HSDPA HSUPA HSPA evo HSPA evo LTE
deployment patterns.[1] step1 step2

Figure 1-2 : Data rate evolution


 Latency and throughput:
Latency is the ability of a system to respond quickly to user requests or services while
maintaining the privacy and security features, it is divided into latency control plan that
represents the time required to establish connection and access to the service, it means the
signaling and control functions, in other words control plan latency is generally estimated from
the time required for the transition from the idle mode to the active mode. The user plane latency
which represents the delay that a packet takes for the transmission in the network once the
connection is established.
The throughput of the network is the transmission rate of success messages over a
communication channel. It is measured in bits per second (bit / s or bps), and sometimes by the
number of data packets per second (P / S or pps) or data packets per time interval. It is calculated
in a single direction of the transmission. Improving latency and throughput is one of the elements
which contributed to the decision to define a new system.[1]

 Spectrum adaptation
As we know, in the UMTS technologies, the operators have no possibility to use bandwidths
under 5 MHz which is the minimum bandwidth that can be used in 3G systems, this limits the
available spectrum. In addition, if there are more than one available 5 MHz bandwidth, the user
equipment can cannot use them simultaneously, which limits the data-rate. These limitations are
perfectly removed in the LTE strategies for channel band scheduling.
 Automating the network
After the base stations deployment, many initial configuration settings are required for
equipment complete performance. These configuration tasks are critical, and can be the main
errors causes which degrade the quality of service offered to users. This problem is no more
exists in the LTE deployment, because these tasks are automated which reduced the network
operating costs.

1.3 UE categories
Different categories are supported by the LTE, it differs from each other in the type of
modulation supported in the Uplink and the Downlink, peak data rates, and the battery life, this
determines necessary the cost of a UE. The table below shows the 5 UE categories defined in
the release 8 [2]:
UE peak data rates modulation Antennas Antennas
categories DL UL DL UL in DL in DL
1 10 5 QPSK, QPSK, 2 1
2 50 25 16 QAM, 16 QAM 2 2
3 100 50 64 QAM 2 2
4 150 50 2 2
5 300 75 QPSK,16 QAM,64 QAM 4 4
Table 1-1 : Different categories defined in the LTE release 8

3
1.4 Architecture of LTE
1.4.1 From UMTS to LTE
Basically, the aim of the 3GPP about the long term evolution of UMTS was to keep 3GPP's
mobile communication systems competitive over timescales of 10 years and beyond, by
delivering the high data rates and low latencies that future users would require. Figure1 shows
the resulting architecture and the way in which that architecture developed from that of
UMTS.[3]

Figure 1-3 : Evolution of the system architecture from GSM and UMTS to LTE

In the new architecture, the evolved packet core (EPC) is a direct replacement for the packet
switched domain of UMTS and GSM.

The new architecture was designed as part of two 3GPP work items, namely system
architecture evolution (SAE), which covered the core network, and long-term evolution
(LTE), which covered the radio access network, air interface and mobile. Officially, the whole
system is known as the evolved packet system (EPS)[3]

1.4.2 System Architecture Evolution


1.4.2.1 High-Level Architecture of LTE

There are three main components, namely the user equipment (UE), the evolved packet core
(EPC) and the evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN) which is
composed of the evolved Node B (eNB). The EPC contains five main parts which are:

 PGW: the EPC's point of contact with the outside world

4
 SGW: serves certain geographical region.
 PCRF: making policy decisions (QoS levels & charging rules)
 MME: controls the elements of the network (signalling)
 HSS: central database that contains information about all the network’s subscribers.

Figure 1-4: Architecture of LTE

1.5 Air interface


LTE uses a variant of OFDM technology, we are speaking about the OFDMA (Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiple Access) for the downlink and SC-FDMA for the uplink.

1.5.1 OFDM
The OFDM is a kind of multi-carrier transmission where the band is divided into a large number
of subcarriers. This can be a hundred of subcarriers transmitted over the same radio link to the
same receiver. The spacing between subcarriers is fixed in LTE and equivalent to 15 kHz in the
frequency domain.[4]

1.5.1.1 Modulation and demodulation principles for the OFDM


Modulation of an OFDM symbol is realized by IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transforms). The
symbol block obtained in the output after the addition of different signals is called OFDM
symbol.[4]

Figure 1-5: Modulation and demodulation for the OFDM

5
The size of the IFFT must be greater than the number of sub-carriers, for example for the 10
MHz band, the number of the sub-carriers is 600, so, both 1024 and 2048 IFFT can be used.

1.5.1.2 OFDM advantages

 Several transmissions in parallel.


 Independence of each subcarrier.
 Best resistivity to multipath and frequency selectivity by setting up a scheduling
system (not to allocate some subcarrier where the conditions are not good for the
transmission).
 Minimization of inter-cell interferences.
 Flexible Multiple Access.

1.5.1.3 OFDMA
The sub-carriers in the OFDMA are shared between multiple users for better using of radio
resources (OFDM allows dynamic resource allocation). The number of sub-carriers is allocated
to a UE according to his need in term of rate and of course according to the number of
simultaneous subscribers. The following figure illustrates the difference between OFDM and
OFDMA:

Figure 1-6 : The difference between OFDM and OFDMA

There are two types of frequency allocation, the first is the case where the transmitter is focused
on a particular sub-band (called a localized allocation). The second type, is the case where the
data of every user is distributed over all the band (distributed allocation).

6
Figure 1-7: Types of frequency allocation

1.5.1.4 Cyclic prefix


The bits that define the CP are taken from the end of the symbol and placed as cyclic prefix in
front of the symbol as shown in the figure:

Figure 1-8: Cyclic Prefix Principle

There are two cyclic prefix options for LTE:

 Normal cyclic prefix: For use in small cells or cells with short multipath delay spread.
 Extended cyclic prefix: For user with large cells or those with long delay profiles.

7
1.5.2 LTE physical layer structure
The transmission is done in two modes, FDD and TDD. The table below shows the different
modes in available bands for the LTE usages [informa telecoms & media]

Band FDD/TDD

700MHz FDD
800MHz FDD
900MHz FDD
1800MHz FDD
2100MHz FDD
2100MHz FDD
2100MHz TDD
2100MHz TDD
Table 1-2 : The different modes in available bands for the LTE

Although the time-domain structure is, in most respects, the same for FDD and TDD, there are
some differences, most notably the presence of a special subframe to provide the necessary
guard time for downlink–uplink switching. The figure below how the main differences between
FDD and TDD.

Figure 1-9 : the main differences between FDD and TDD

1.5.2.1 Resources blocks and resource elements:

The band allocated to an operator is divided into a number of parts called resource blocks (RB)
with 180 KHz, it contains 12 blocks divided in a certain resource elements (RE)) with a size of
15 KHz. the number of resource blocks depends mainly on the band size used as shown in the
following table [5]:

8
Band 1,4 MHz 5 MHz 10MHz 20 MHz

NB RB 6 25 50 100
Table 1-3 : The number of resource blocks

For more comprehension the Figure 1-10 below shows us the structure of a single resource
blocks, typically two successive resource blocks are assigned for one UE, so two RB’s make
one sub-frame.[5]

Figure 1-10 : The structure of a single resource blocks

1.5.3 SC-FDMA

Contrary to the OFDMA, the SC-FDMA (single carrier frequency division multiple access) is
used in the uplink transmission, it is a single carrier modulation. There are many reasons for the
use of SC-FDMA in the uplink instead of using the OFDMA, the main reasons are:
 In the OFDMA, the PARP (Peak-to-Average-Power-Ratio) of the transmission of
OFDMA signals is significantly high, which demand a big amplifiers linearity.
 If constructors want to use high performance amplifiers, the UE’s cost will increases.
 If we ignore the precedent constraints and use the OFDMA technology, the UE power
will be rapidly consummated.
The SC- FDMA is obtained in the same manner as the OFDMA, but here we have just to make
an FFT before using the IFFT. This block in SC-FDMA spreads the information of each bit over
a groupe of sub-carriers and occupies n multiplied per 15 kHz bandwidth. SC-FDMA symbols
have the same duration as the OFDMA symbols duration which is the 66.7µs.[4]

9
Figure 1-11 :Principe of single carrier modulation

1.5.4 Reference signals


They are similar to a pilot signal, it means that this signal I already known by the UE, this alouws
us to estimat the channel conditions. We can ditinguch the RSRP(reference signal received
power) and the RSRQ(reference signal received qualité).

1.5.4.1 Downlink Reference Signals

Cell-specific reference signals (CRS) are transmitted in every downlink sub-frame and in every
resource block in the frequency domain, thus covering the entire cell bandwidth. The cell-
specific reference signals are used by the terminal for channel estimation for coherent
demodulation of any downlink physical channel (except for PDSCH in the case of beam-
forming). Terminal measurements on cell-specific reference signals are used as the basis for
cell-selection and handover decisions.

The symbols 0 and 4 for the FDD frame are fixed for cell specifications reference signal
transmission, but the position in the frequency domaine depnds on the cell identifier. Because
of this time and frequency choices, the UE can estimate the channel in both of them.
the resource elements allocated to reference signals in one antenna cannot be used in the other
antennas, it inculdes the case of MIMO transmission where the antennas must not have the
same use of the resource elements.[6]

10
Figure 1-12 : resource Block for Antenna 1&2

1.5.4.2 Uplink Reference Signals


Reference signals are also transmitted on the LTE uplink. There are two types of reference
signals defined for the LTE uplink:
 Uplink demodulation reference signals (DM-RS): used by the base station for channel
estimation to demodulat the uplink physical channels PUSCH and PUCCH,and they
occupy the same bandwidth as used for data/control transmission.
 Uplink sounding reference signals (SRS): Used for channel quality estimation to
support scheduling in the uplink in the case of channel aware scheduling. sounding
reference signals are transmitted on the uplink to allow for the base station to estimate
the uplink channel state at different frequencies. An SRS is not necessarily transmitted
together with any physical channel.

The figure below shows the relative position of uplink control channels in the frequency domain
in relation to the entire channel bandwidth.
 Multiple UEs can share the same PUCCH resource block.
 PUCCH is never transmitted simultaneously with PUSCH from the same UE.

Figure 1-13: The relative position of uplink control channels

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1.6 Multiple Antenna Techniques
From the beginning, LTE was designed so that the base station and mobile both use
multiple antennas for radio transmission and reception. This chapter covers the three main
multiple antenna techniques, which have different objectives and which are implemented in
different ways. The most familiar is diversity processing, which increases the received signal
power and reduces the amount of fading by using multiple antennas at the transmitter, the
receiver or both. Diversity processing has been used since the early days of mobile
communications, so we will only review it briefly. In spatial multiplexing, the transmitter and
receiver both use multiple antennas so as to increase the data rate. Spatial multiplexing is a
relatively new technique that has only recently been introduced into mobile communications, so
we will cover it in more detail than the others. Finally, beamforming uses multiple antennas at
the base station in order to increase the coverage of the cell. Spatial multiplexing is often
described as the use of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antennas. This name is derived
from the inputs and outputs to the air interface, so that ‘multiple input’ refers to the transmitter
and ‘multiple output’ to the receiver. Unfortunately, the name is a little ambiguous, as it can
either refer to spatial multiplexing alone or include the use of transmit and receive diversity as
well. For this reason, we will generally use the term ‘spatial multiplexing’ instead. For some
reviews of multiple antenna techniques and their use in LTE, see References.[7]

12
13
Chapter 2 : Planning

Chapter 2 : Planning process

2.1 Introduction
Generally, the process is the same in all the wireless network, it consists of dimensioning,
planning tool setup, nominal plan creation and site survey.
After that we can use a Drive test and verifications, this is not mandatory in case of already
existing network with 3G/2G technologies, it is used to provide detailed information regarding
the actual RF coverage provided by the site or by the cluster.
The general planning process for LTE is characterized specially with the coverage and capacity
planning (same as HSPA), the frequency reuse...etc.
The main target in the planning process is to ensure a sufficient SINR, and a best coverage
measured with the RSSI and RSRP. The planning passes by three main steps, the preplanning,
detailed planning and optimization.
The final radio plan defines the site locations and their respective configuration. The
configuration involves eNodeB site height, number of sectors, assigned frequencies and
bandwidth, types of antennas, azimuth and down tilt, equipment type and transmitted RF power.
The final plan can be tested against various KPI requirements mainly coverage criteria and
capacity (or signal quality).
Every planning tool must reach the planned Coverage area, Cell edge minimum throughput for
DL and for UL, the Grade of Expected Service according to the Number of customers and the
Traffic profiles, all of this must take in count the UE and eNodeB Equipment details (Noise
Figure, Link Adaptation details, diversity type, MIMO...).

2.2 Scenarios and Use cases


First of all, the planning process can be in two different manners depending on existence or not
of oldest technologies networks:

2.2.1 Greenfield
In networking, a Greenfield deployment is the installation and configuration of a network where
none existed before, it needs a new RF and core dimensioning, and starting from proper testing
models to a tuned one to achieve finally the performances of these new deployed sites.

2.2.2 Existing operators or brownfield deployment


A brownfield deployment, in contrast, is an upgrade or addition to an existing network and uses
some legacy components. The purpose here is the gradual moving of traffic and spectrum from
other technologies into the LTE layer. The main challenge is that the new network must fit the
existing network, it means it must not affect the performance of this system, for example the
antennas tilt should not be changes as far as possible.
This type of planning will be described in our project by moving from the 2G systems to 4G
technologies (the 1800 sites are shown in the figure below).
Figure 2-1 : the 1800 sites for Oran

2.2.3 Propagation Modelling


Radio Propagation model is intended for knowing cell radius which is a very important factor
during planning phase of network deployment. Cell radius directly depends on Path loss
generated by different propagation scenarios which are modeled using different Propagation
models.
For the LTE migration, the operator may not repeat the RF measurement, but for the new
planned sites the test transmitters must represent the location of the proposed candidates.
Propagation model calibration according to the RF measurements. The measurement data are
converted into a format which the radio network planning tool can import for tuning.

Standard propagation model has considerably the best in terms of path loss in all the terrains
such as Urban, Suburban and Rural. SPM in the real case is determined When transmitter and
receiver are not in line of sight NLOS, so it is based on the following formula:

LSPM=K1+K2log(d)+K3log(HTX)+K4DiffLoss+K5log(d)log(HRX)+K6log(HRX)+KclutterFclutter.

Where:
 K1=frequency constant .
 K2 =Distance attenuation constant.
 d =distance between the receiver and transmitter (m).
 HTX = is the height of the Tx antenna in meters
 K3= Correction coefficient of height of mobile station antenna
 K4 =multiplying factor for the diffraction calculation

14
 DiffLoss= loss due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB).
 K5, K6= Correction coefficient of height of base station antenna.
 HRX = is the height of the UE
 Kclutter= correction coefficient of clutter attenuation, the signal strength of a given point is
modified according to the clutter class at this point.
 Fclutter=average of weighted losses due to clutter.

More than one propagation model is tuned depending on the clutter categories and sometimes
changing the model from site to another because of propagation conditions, cell ranges, or the
antenna’s heights.[8]

Figure 2-2 : Standard propagation model parameters

2.2.4 Path Loss Based Planning


The path loss calculations are a necessary in the planning process for the determination of the
areas where the thresholds are exceeded. For network coverage simulation. The inputs required
for the LTE path loss based approach to radio network planning are the three first used in the
simulation based planning plus the Link budget signal strength thresholds. The link budget must
be defined depending on the maximum allowed path loss, so the first step is to select the eNodeB
transmit power, after that the signal strength threshold will be computed by subtracting the link
budget maximum allowed path loss, we should also take in consideration the antenna gain, the
feeder loss and every parameter can effect changes on the path loss calculation.

15
Link budgets differ across clutter types because of the differences in building penetration losses
and slow fading standard deviations.

We had to take a look into the real propagation based on the signal level. The figure shows the
RSRP level till the minimum of -105dB on the cell edge:

Figure 2-3: reference signal power level

Figure 2-4: reference signal power level histogram

16
Unfortunately, this coverage test depending on the reference signal strength does not show any
interesting information about the radio access performance, it is just a simple way for the
operator to know the maximum of coverage that allows the present architecture.

The path loss planning is usually used to determine the best server areas and additionally the
downlink signal to noise and interference ratio. This model does not show the real performance
of LTE system, but it is a quick process which is able to give answers about basic coverage
questions.

The path loss planning should include the best server areas analyses. In our project the best
server areas are shown in the figure:

Figure 2-5: The best server areas analyses

These Best server areas should be contiguous and should not be fragmented to ensure good
dominance for the convenient cell coverage. Best server areas which are non-contiguous
increase the levels of inter cell interferences and causes an additional mobility updates.

The existing system has a very important characteristic which affect negatively the LTE
performance, we are talking about the number of servers, in the GSM network there was a
frequency management in such way to not have a significant interference, but in the LTE all the
cells can be configured to have the same manner of frequency usage, so any locations with 3 or
more servers indicates potential interferences, the existing network has this negative effects as
shown in the figure below:

17
Figure 2-6: number of servers

Figure 2-7: Number of servers histogram

The second reason which obliged us to fix this covered areas is that the LTE network unlike the
CDMA networks does not support any soft handover, which means that the UEs in this areas
will suffer from an increased number of call drops. This means that a UE has to actually be
resynchronized to a different set of frequency subcarriers when it hands over between cells,
removing the possibility for soft handover. Our work here consists of finding solutions for this
problem as will be discussed later.
A SINR calculation can also be used, as same as the 2G system, we can assign the same RF
carrier for all cells and make conclusions about the inter cell interferences, determine the

18
isolation of sites and the best server domination. This is used for the identification of isolated
clusters from the neighboring ones.

Figure 2-8: signal to noise and interference level

Figure 2-9: signal to noise and interference level histogram

As it shown, the quality is poor, because in the most of locations the interferences and the noise
factors are more than 2 times greater than the effective signal level, this is obvious because of
the 4 and 3 server locations.

19
Atoll includes advanced multi-technology Automatic Cell Planning (ACP) modules
implemented as integrated functions available from the standard Atoll user interface. All ACP
data and results are stored in the Atoll project files and databases.
This ACP tool allows several optimized parameters, for example the antenna type, antenna
height, antenna azimuth and tilt, transmit power, and even the candidate site selection. So its
objectives are to optimize the network Coverage, Interference and Capacity, which results
finally a better Service quality.
The problem is that we have not to affect any changes on the site selection, antenna’s high or
antenna’s tilt, if that happens the 2G system’s performance will be degraded. So we will
configure the ACP tool in a way that any of cited parameters will not be changed.
One of the recommendations is to adjust Within 6 dB of the best server calculation is that the %
area with 4 or more servers should be < 2%.

As a result of ACP procedure we had the possibility to reduce the 4, 3, and 2 server locations,
the figure below shows the improvements:

Figure 2-10: Number of servers after ACP

The results of the ACP are significantly optimal, it means no more performance is possible, the
only way is that the operator must have the possibility of doing some changes like the antennas
height or the azimuth changes, however, this is not possible.

20
The next idea is to activate ICIC parameter to improve the SNIR performance (ICIC scheduler
is used to reduce risks of collision between PRB’s from inter sites). This ICIC parameter is
explained in detail in the interference management.

2.2.5 Simulation Based Planning


The majority radio network planning tools make use of Monte Carlo simulations. It is
characterized by a better reflecting of the impact of different services along with eventually non
homogenous traffic density. Monte Carlo simulations are static rather than dynamic (dynamic
simulations are much more time consuming than static simulations, a dynamic simulation
evaluates performance by considering a series of consecutive instants in time).

LTE simulation require parameters used in the calculation of the link budget, and other
parameters like the behavior of Modulation Coding Schemes as part of BLER<->SINR curve.
The LTE traffic profile requires a specification of the services which are used and the geographic
distribution of UE.
MC simulation needs traffic maps, here Traffic maps generated from data usage maps which
have been recorded from an existing 2G/3G network (the distribution of LTE traffic is
approximately the same as the distribution of 2G or 3G traffic) will be used.
After simulation we can see that some of the subscribers are rejected for many reasons. The
main reason is that the cells are congested or the signal level in the user position is very low.
One of the solutions is the deployment of new LTE sites, the modernization of an existing 900
sites, or the utilization of capacity cards to improve the capacity of some cells. Every one of the
previous solution is expensive and do not fulfil the conditions of the first phases of the LTE
migrations. The only way to resolve this problem is to count on the dynamic allocation of the
resources between users or even better to use the interworking technics to assure the continuity
of the system performances. The interworking parameters and technics are explained in the next
chapter.

2.2.6 Link Budget and Planning Thresholds


The performance of a planning design depends on several criteria:
 The expected Covered area which must serve a specified Number of customers, taking
in count the used Services.
 The used Hardwar as UE classes and the eNodeB specifications (Noise Figure, MIMO
configuration …etc.).
 Cell edge minimum throughput for DL and for UL
 Maximum outage of the total number of customer, and other Grade of expected
Service.
The used power budget determines the design criteria for minimum coverage thresholds to select
the network requirements as:
 To DL signal power (RSSI, RSRP and parameters) and minimum SINR on UL and
DL. The criteria might be complemented by the minimum throughput requirements in
the network.

21
 The minimum RSRP and minimum SINR on cell edge determine the throughput
requirements.
 The resulting maximum path loss for the network is given by the weaker link – most
typically by UL.
RSSI versus RSRP and RSRQ measurements
In LTE network, UEs need to measure signal strength of its own and neighbor cells constantly,
during idle, connected mode or handovers in order to keep the signal quality constant.
RSSI - Received Signal Strength Indicator: The carrier RSSI (Receive Strength Signal
Indicator) includes the power from co-channel serving and non-serving cells, adjacent channel
interference, thermal noise, etc.

RSRP - Reference Signal Received Power: RSRP is the linear average of the downlink
reference signals across the channel bandwidth, it provides information about signal strength.
RSRP measurements are used in handover, cell selection and cell re-selections. The reporting
range of RSRP is defined from -140 dBm to -44 dBm.
RSRP (dBm) = RSSI (dBm) -10*log (12*N), where N is the number of RB in frequency domain.

RSRQ - Reference Signal Received Quality: It is a C/I type of measurement and it indicates
the quality of the received reference signal. The RSRQ measurement provides additional
information when RSRP is not sufficient to make a reliable handover or cell reselection decision.
RSRQ = N*RSRP / RSSI it means RSRQ = RSRP / (RSSI per resource block). Where N is
the number of resource blocks over which the RSSI is measured.

SINR-Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio: is used a lot by operators, UEs typically use
SINR to calculate the CQI (Channel Quality Indicator) and report this to the network.

SINR = 1/ ((1/ (12*RSRQ))-x). We can see that the SINR depend on the load rate. Required
SINR depends on the modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS).

2.3 Interference management


Interference management is possible by the ability of LTE of supporting frequency-domain
scheduling. In adjacent cells, neighboring cells may cooperate to avoid scheduling transmissions
for cell-edge users in the same time/frequency resource blocks. Special mechanisms are used to
enhance the system performance, and especially the cell-edge user quality. The main proposed
solutions are to improve the SINR which is the main source of the system quality because:

 The maximum data rate that can be achieved in a given bandwidth is limited
by the available Signal-power-to-interference-power ratio.
 Providing data rates larger than the available bandwidth (high-bandwidth
utilization) is costly in the sense that it requires a disproportionately high
signal-to-interference ratio (the use of spatial multiplexing).

22
2.4 Detailed planning
2.4.1 Frequency Bands and Spectrum Re-farming
The bands which are supposed to be used in the LTE deployment for the moment, for example
for the Algerian areas are previously used by other networks like the second generation
technologies. It is important is to take into account the following criterions:
 Coexistence between operators in the same geographical area. Dividing the spectrum is
done by national regulations (ARPT for example).
 Be careful of the same used bands in the region bordures.
 Take in count the channel bandwidth, it means that the planning should include the
importance of the maximum throughput supported by the chosen band.

The bands shown abouve must be moved from 12.6 MHz to 18 MHz, to mamke sure that the
LTE will get exactly 10 MHz in the available bandwith. The figure below shows the process of
reconfiguring of the 2G systems bandwith:

Figure 2-11: Situation before applying ARPT decision

23
Figure 2-12: optimi refarming processing

 The result after 2000 iteration must corresponds to the following figure:

Figure 2-13 : Situation after applying ARPT decision

2.4.2 Site Selection


Selecting sites position is one of the most critical criterions which determines whether the
network will be well optimized in term of cost or not, it means even the RF and parameter
optimization cannot compensate the worst method of site selection. In the case of a new site
deployment, Site acquisition teams must offer large numbers of sites while radio network
planning teams are obliged to accept all of these new selected sites. So the selection of any site
is decided according to several criterions and a detailed evaluation. A good site location should
have a maximum coverage according to his type without forgetting to limit interferences with
neighboring areas and cells. The first question asked before making decision about the

24
introduction of new sites is whether or not this site should be considered for inclusion within
the LTE radio network plan.

2.4.3 Physical Layer Cell Identity Planning


Physical Cell ID is an identification of a cell at physical layer. It has similar role as Primary
Scrambling Code of UMTS cell. There are 504 unique physical layer cell identities. These
identities are organized in 168 groups of 3. One of the standards is that the cells belonging to
the same eNodeB should be allocated identities from within the same group, it is important also
to exclude some Specific physical layer cell identities from the plan to allow for future network
expansion, and some others are used for borders coordination between operators of different
countries. A specific method is used for the optimum chose of PCI in the same site and between
different neighboring sites.

Figure 2-14: Primary and secondary synchronization signals in LTE

25
A physical layer cell identity is thus uniquely defined by a number NID1 in the range of 0 to 167
(defines the Secondary Synchronization Signal), representing the physical layer cell identity
group, and a number NID2 in the range of 0 to 2 (defines the Primary Synchronization Signal),
representing the identity within the group.
physical layer cell identity = 3× NID1 + NID2.
Because of the large number of PCI’s, we can say that there are 168 different combinations for
the total of sites, after that a mechanism of PCI reuse should be applied, as a result the overlap
between the cell and their neighbors of the other sites has a low probability.
the physical allocation of resource elements aimed for the reference signal depends on The
Physical Layer Cell Identity, so the PCI in adjacent groups results a different allocation of
resource elements to the reference signal. There are 6 patterns for the reference signals
allocations.[4]

Figure 2-15: six reference signals patterns

PCI planning of a small network can be done manually. However bigger network needs to use
an automated planning method, in both methods a minimum re-use distance concept is a must,
this distance can be estimated according to the Inter-Site Distance (ISD), more the minimum
reuse distance is big more the calculations are long and becomes even impossible to resolve the
PCI reuse problem, we can calculate the minimum reuse distance as below:
S = 168 * Site-area WHERE Site-area = 0.8 * ISD^2
As a result, the reuse distance is r = ISD*SQRT (168*0.8/3.14) = 6.5 * ISD
For big areas where the manual chose of PCI is impossible, and the automatic association needs
a long time of calculation, there are a simple method which divides the area into squares and to
allocate ¼ of available PCIs per each kind of square.
As conclusion we can say that is important to insure that:
 Avoid assigning the same PCI to neighbor cells.
 Avoid assigning the same mod3 (PCI) to neighbor cells.

26
 Avoid assigning the same mod6(PCI) to neighbor cells.
 Avoid assigning the same mod30 (PCI) to neighbor cells.

The strategy we have used is the same as the 3G network strategies, it means the same allocation
of PCI as the scrambling code associations. The first step is to divide the existing PCI which are
504 different code on three groups, the macro cell PCI codes, micro cell PCI codes (Cells with
2 sectors), and densification PCI codes. For the LTE we have nearly the same number of codes,
so our strategy was to use 240 PCI for the planning of our project network. We can do this
manually, but the most appropriate method is to use another tool which is called AFP (Automatic
frequency planning)

Figure 2-16: allocation of PCI using AFP

2.4.4 Tracking Area Planning


Since the location of the terminal typically is not known on a cell level, the paging message is
typically transmitted across multiple cells in the so-called tracking area (the tracking area is
controlled by the MME). If we suppose that the TA are note used, the terminal will transmit a
signaling message to the network to give information about his new location (new serving site)
every time it changes the location, all of this is occurred according to the beacon voice
broadcasted by every cell telling about their identifications (typically every 1 to 5 s), as a
solution TA are required to reduce the number of localization updating. One of the
Recommendation is to have 40 eNodeBs per TA which is a safe side number to avoid any
possibility of MME S1 messaging overload. Here the eNodeBs broadcast the TA identity instead
of broadcasting their real identifications.

27
Figure 2-17 : tracking area configuration

Here the mobiles do not do any location updating till the changing the tracking area, if they are
in the cells containing in the same TA, no signaling messages for the location updating are sent.
UE hold register themselves in a specific TA. As illustrated in the table of SIBs types, the
System Information Block 1 (SIB 1) broadcasts the MCC, MNC, and TAC which define the
corresponding tracking area to which a cell belongs.
This solution is not the real method used in our network, if the tracking area are used in this
way, we can see that the location updating messages are more significant in the tracking areas
borders, which means that the eNodeBs in the border will be overloaded by updating messages.
The Striped cells in the below figure shows the over loaded cells:

Figure 2-18: tracking area and the overloaded cells

The proposed solution in this case is that the UE can be registered within more than a single TA,
in addition every group of UEs has a different list of tracking area (TAL), so updates are not
necessarily required at every boundary, instead of that, our aim was to spread this updates all
over the network. The tracking area procedure is shown in the figure below:

28
Figure 2-19: The tracking area list

2.4.5 PRACH planning:


The first step in the random-access procedure is the transmission of a random-access preamble.
The main purpose of the preamble transmission is to indicate to the base station the presence of
a random access attempt, the basic structure is mentioned in the figure. As shown a random
access preamble includes a CP, a sequence and a guard time.
The eNodeB broadcasts information to all terminals in which time–frequency resource random-
access preamble transmission is allowed. As part of the first step of the random-access
procedure, the terminal selects one preamble to transmit on the PRACH.

Figure 2-20 : Position of PRACH in uplink frame

In each cell, there are 64 preamble sequences available. As long as no other terminal is
performing a random-access attempt using the same sequence at the same time instant, no
collisions will occur. The RACH transport channel is mapped into PRACH.
There are 4 different RA (random access) preamble formats depending on the cell sizes.

29
The 64 preambles are not implicitly communicated to the UEs by the eNodeB but rather, the
UE is informed about the process of how to generate them via parameters broadcast in SIB2.

2.4.6 MME Area Planning


After we determine the number of the eNodeBs, we have to choose an appropriate number of
MMEs, the capability of the Nokia Flexi Network Server MME is about 20 000 eNodeB and a
maximum of 10000000 subscribers. For better planning some margin for traffic growth must be
allowed and do not fully load each MME.
The next important point is to avoid making MME choice strategies where significant inter
MME mobility exists.

2.5 Nokia LTE Solution


2.5.1 Flexi eNodeB
Flexi eNodeB also called Multi-radio BTS is single hardware which supports GSM/EDGE,
WCDMA/HSPA and LTE. If only one of theme is activated we will a dedicated mode, whereas
if more than one is operated, the system will be Concurrent mode, this depends on which SW
package is selected.
Gain more network capacity, more efficiency and more flexibility, with lower costs through an
adaptable radio network that profitably provides personalized services.
This eNodeB is the world’s smallest high-capacity, software-defined multi-technology base
station.[4]

2.5.1.1 Flexi eNodeB benefits


 Same hardware for capacity sharing across radio technologies.
 Three sector, six-pipe RF modules make sites simpler – MIMO capability with fewer
boxes and cables.
 RF and system module re-configured by software.
 Outdoor modules, no cabinet, no cooling, no shelter limitations.

2.5.1.2 Multi-radio BTS modules


There are two main parts for the flexi multimode :

 System Module : called Flexi Multimode System ,supporting WCDMA and LTE There are
3 different variants of system module available – FSME (release 2 HW) and FSMF (release
3 HW, from RL50). The last one have possibility to use baseband extension cards FBBA
and FBBC.
 RF modules: The Flexi 3-sector Radio Module or Remote Radio Heads (RRH) In both
cases the sites might be designed as feederless with RF units close to antenna. Such design
is optimal in sense of minimum noise figure and nimumum losses of RF power as well.

30
Figure 2-21: Two main parts for the flexi multimode

2.5.2 Antenna System Options for LTE Hardware refarming


To implement the LTE in the existent sites, there are three methods, we can suppose the case of
the 1800 band:
 Separate systems: for the two technologies we must use separated antennas.
 Shared Antenna system: with a flexi Multi-Radio combiner, the two systems shared
the same antenna.

31
 Flexi feeder less site:the most used method is to install a duplicetd band
anttenna(supports )

Figure 2-22: Antenna System Options for LTE

2.5.3 eNodeB Configurations


eNodeB configurations are based upon a combination of the Flexi System Module and Flexi RF
Module. The Flexi System Module includes the Transport Module providing support for the X2
and S1 interfaces.
Nokia has three System Modules:
 Flexi System Module FSME is Release 2 (FSMr2) LTE capable module.
 System module FSMF is Release 3 (FSMr3) system module unit with extension card
possibilities.
 Flexi zone (For outdoor/indoor micro-cell environment).

32
Flexi zone
Use Flexi Zone Base Stations allows us to create a zone covered by a cluster of low-power
access points. Investing in Flexi Zone is safe and flexible, you can scale it as needed to satisfy
changing capacity and performance demands all the way up to Ultra Dense Networks.
Benefits
 10x data rate improvement
 Up to 50 percent cost saving compared to cell site splitting or traditional Pico/Micro
 The Flexi zone base station is easy to site within buildings to provide indoor coverage.

Majority of LTE macrocells have 3 sectors and consequently can be configured using a single
Flexi RF module.The single RF module provides 3 transmit powers and 6 receive ports. The 6
receive ports are paired into receive and receive diversity ports for 3 sectors.

Figure 2-23: Flexi RF Module configuration for a 1+1+1 eNodeB without MIMO

Introducing 2+2 MIMO requires 2 transmit paths per sector and so requires a second RF module.
This configuration fully utilises the set of 6 transmit ports but leaves half of the receive ports
unused. The remaining receive ports could be used for additional receive diversity if sufficient
antenna elements are available.

Figure 2-24: Flexi RF Module configuration for a 1+1+1 eNodeB with 2+2 MIMO

33
34
Chapter 3 : Interworking

Chapter 3 : Interworking

3.1 Introduction
The interworking is the less expensive method to assure the continuity of the performance
and to serve the maximum of users by using the existent systems. In this chapter we will
see the different parameters and scenarios for toggling the traffic between technologies and
how the interworking process make the voice service possible.

3.2 Radio Resource Control (RRC)


The RRC protocol supports the transfer of common NAS information (NAS information
which is applicable to all UEs) as well as dedicated NAS information (which is applicable only
to a specific UE). In addition, for UEs in RRC_IDLE, RRC supports notification of incoming
calls (via paging). Dedicated RRC messages are transferred across SRBs, onto Common Control
Channel (CCCH) during connection establishment or a Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) in
RRC_CONNECTED. SI and Paging messages are mapped onto Broadcast Control Channel
(BCCH) and Paging Control Channel (PCCH) respectively.

3.3 System Information


 The Master Information Block (MIB): limited number parameters which are
essential for a UE’s initial access to the network.
 System Information Block Type 1 (SIB1): parameters to determine if a cell is suitable
for cell selection, as well as information about the time-domain scheduling of the other
SIBs.
 System Information Block Type 2 (SIB2): for common and shared channel
information.
 SIB3–SIB8: parameters used to control intra-frequency, inter-frequency and inter-RAT
cell reselection.
The RRC messages are regrouped in three types: the MIB message, the SIB1 message and SI
messages.[9]

The MIB is mapped onto the MIB message. The MIB message is the only RRC message
carried on the Broadcast Channel (BCH) which is mapped in the PBCH (detectability without
prior knowledge of the system bandwidth). All SIBs from 2 to 8 are mapped onto System
Information (SI) messages. The SI messages and the SIB 1 are carried on the DL-SCH which
is carried in the PDSCH. A UE should acquire SIB1 to know how the other SIBs are
scheduled on the concerned cell. A single SI message can contain multiple SIBs with the same
periodicity. There may be multiple SI messages transmitted with the same periodicity. Each SI
message is associated with an SI-window, and different SI messages are broadcast on different
SI-windows that do not overlap.
The time-domain scheduling of the MIB and SIB1 messages is fixed and repeated every 10
ms and 20 ms respectively, however the time-domain scheduling of the SI messages is
dynamically flexible. [9]

Figure 3-1 : The time-domain scheduling of the MIB and SIB messages

After decoding MIB, UE has to decode PDCCH to know the scheduling information for PDSCH
which is carrying System Information.[10]

To find the available resources for PDCCH, UE has to know the PHICH configuration because
the PDCCH, PHICH and PCFICH share the same resources in the sub-frame. The PCFICH
configuration is not necessary to be known because their resources are already fixed and known.
[11]

3.4 UE transitions states in RRC-IDLE

No RRC connection means that the presence of the UE is not known to the network at the cell
level because eNodeBs do not have any context for the UE. The location of the UE in
RRC_IDLE is known to the network at the level of tracking areas. The UE may have three
different camping states depending on the current cell type and the present state of the UE, it
means whether this UE is belonging to a cell or not. The cell types are:

 Suitable cell: Normal services are available to UEs.


 Acceptable cell: Only limited services can be provided.
 Barred cell: No service is available, access to the cell is not permitted.
 Reserved cell: Normal services are provided to UEs with special access rights.

The three states applicable to UEs in RRC_IDLE are:

 The CampedNormally state: the UE is camped on a suitable cell.


 The CampedOnAnyCell state: which is camped on an acceptable cell.
 The AnyCellSelection state: the UE attempts to find an acceptable cell to camp on.

35
This states are more explained in the figure below:

Figure 3-2: state transitions in RRC_IDLE

3.5 Connection Control within LTE


3.5.1 Connection Establishment
After switching on, the UE tries to camp in a cell by performing the connection establishment
process. The connection establishment passes with the following steps:

36
Figure 3-3: The connection establishment

3.5.1.1 Synchronization and MIB & SIB extraction


The initial step is to go on a synchronization process where UE acquires physical cell id (PCI),
time slot and frame synchronization, which will enable UE to read system information blocks
from a particular network. [12]

3.5.1.2 Random access procedure


After system information reading, the UE dose another step known as Random Access
Procedure in which the network for the first time knows that some UE is trying to get access
and the network provides temporary resources to the UE for initial communication.

37
Basically the Random Access procedure is composed of two main messages:
 RA-Massage1 (Preamble Sequence):
The UE selects one of the 64 available RACH preambles (explained in detail in the previous
chapter). First the UE use RA-RNTI (Random access radio network temporary identity). If UE
does not receive any response from the network, it increases its power in fixed step and sends
RACH preamble again.
 RA-Massage2 (Random Access Response):
A Random Access Response is sent to UE on DL-SCH addressed with the previous RA-RNTI.
This message contains another Temporary identity called C-RNTI for further communication,
and a timing advance command, based on that UE adjusts the terminal transmit timing
(compensate the delay caused by UE distance from the eNodeB).
In this step the eNodeB assigns initial resource to UE to be able to use the UL-SCH (Uplink
shared channel), this is called UGR (Uplink Grant Resource).

3.5.1.3 RRC Connection Establishment


Know, the UE inform the network what exactly it wants (Attach, Service Request, Tracking
area update) using the RRC connection establishment procedure which configures SRB1 for this
UE. The RRC Connection Establishment is done in three steps as shown in the figure below:

38
 RRC Connection Request:

This message is in fact the third Random Access message, so by Using UL-SCH, UE sends
RRC connection request message to eNodeB. Here the UE is identified by his temporary C-
RNTI assigned before. This message contains the reason why UE needs to connect to this
network. If the UE was previously connected in this same network it sends his TMSI,
however, if the UE connects for the first time to this network he sends a random value.

 RRC Connection Setup:


This is the fourth Random Access message. The TMSI or the Random value is used to confirm
that the C-RNTI assigned for a specific UE is unique in the cell and confirm this C-RNTI value.
To do this the network sends this message as an echo, so if more than one UE wants to connect
using the same preamble the network chooses randomly one of the identities of this UEs (TMSI
or Random value) and send it in the RRC Connection Setup message.

A cell can control access attempts by broadcasting AC barring information via SIB2. So a mobile
terminating call may be barred from a cell if the previous RRC connection request from a UE was
rejected by the RRCConnectionReject message.[13]

 RRC Connection Setup Complete:


After receiving the RRC Connection setup message, UE sends RRC Connection setup complete
message, moves to RRC Connected mode and stops the cell reselection process.
A Dedicated-Info-NAS is also transferred, it includes an initial NAS message, which is
delivered to an MME using the S1 Application Protocol (S1-AP). The MME sends the Initial
Context Setup Request message which is linked to both initial activation of AS security and the
establishment of DRBs, SRB2 and the S1-connection.[14]

3.5.1.4 Security configuration


When the E-UTRAN receives a RRC Connection Setup Complete message, it sends the
SecurityModeCommand message to activate both of integrity and ciphering. This message is
integrity protected and indicates which algorithms shall be used. The UE sends
SecurityModeComplete message to be authenticated by the network.[15]

3.5.1.5 RRC Connection reconfiguration


The last step in the establishment of connection is the configuration of the SRB2 and one or more
DRBs. This is obtained by the RRC Connection Reconfiguration. The establishment of SRB2 and
DRBs is possible only after AS security has been activated. This message can be used for different
purposes in addition to the SRB2 and DRBs establishment as the modification or release the
established radio bearers, or for Handover and Configuration of measurements (intra-LTE/inter-
RAT). Finally, the UE returns the RRCConnectionReconfigurationComplete message. [16]

39
3.6 Message sequence for handover within LTE
The E-UTRAN controls mobility by ordering the UE to perform handover to another cell, which
may be on the same frequency (intra-frequency) or a different frequency (inter-frequency). The
message sequence for the procedure for handover within LTE is shown below:

After the UE sends a MeasurementReport message, the source eNodeB requests one or more
target cells to prepare for the handover (handover preparation request).
The RRCConnectionReconfiguration message orders the UE to perform handover. It contains
also the mobility control information like the identity, and the frequency of the target cell, and
the radio resource configuration information which is common to all UEs in the target cell as
the information required to perform random access. Finally, the UE initiates a random access
procedure, using the received Random Access Channel (RACH) configuration to the target cell.

3.7 Inter-RAT Mobility

The mobility between RRC states in the E-UTRAN and states in the UTRAN and the GERAN
is an inter-RAT mobility between 3GPP access systems, so it may be:

 Inter-RAT handover: when the UE is in RRC_CONNECTED on the E-UTRAN,


in CELL_DCH on the UTRAN, or in GSM_CONNECTED/GPRS Packet Transfer
Mode on the GERAN.
 Cell Change Order (CCO) with optional Network Assisted Cell Change
(NACC).
 Inter-RAT cell reselection: when the UE is in the idle mode, inter-RAT cell
reselection is used for mobility between the E-UTRAN and the other 3GPP access
systems.

40
The figure below shows the different available cases for inter-RAT mobility:

Figure 3-4: The different available cases for inter-RAT mobility


Inter-RAT handover is network-controlled mobility, so the source access system decides when
to start handover preparation and handover execution. The inter-RAT measurements
procedure can be used for inter-RAT handovers.

3.7.1 Mobility to LTE


Here the source RAN makes a decision to do an inter-RAT handover to the E-UTRAN. The handoff
preparation will be done then the target eNodeB sends the RRCConnectionReconfiguration message
to the source RAN which forwards this message to the UE. After that the UE accesses the target
eNodeB and sends the RRCConnectionReconfigurationComplete message. The final step is that The
E-UTRAN also establishes SRB1, SRB2 and one or more DRBs.

41
Figure 3-5 : Mobility to LTE

3.7.2 Mobility from LTE


Generally, the procedure for mobility from LTE to another RAT supports both handover and
Cell Change Order (CCO), possibly with Network Assistance (NACC – Network Assisted
Cell Change). The CCO/NACC procedure is applicable only for mobility to GERAN.

The source eNodeB may use inter-RAT measurements to make decisions on inter-RAT
handovers. The access networks and the core networks prepare handover before handover
execution. Here the source eNodeB provides information about the applicable inter-RAT UE
capabilities as well as information about the currently-established bearers.

MobilityFromEUTRACommand message indicates the type of target access system


(GERAN or the UTRAN) and whether this is an inter-RAT handover or cell change order.
When The MobilityFromEUTRACommand message is received, the UE switches from the
E-UTRAN to the target RAN of the target cell indicated in the received message.

If the UE synchronizes successfully with the target cell, the UE sends HandoverComplete
message to inform the target cell about this success. After that, the network switches the data
path of packets from the source eNodeB to the target RAN and releases UE resources from the
source eNodeB.

42
3.8 Measurements
The measurements are performed in three steps:

Measurement configuration

Measurement Report Triggering

Measurement Reporting

3.8.1 Measurement Configuration


The measurement configuration is provided by the eNodeB to a UE in RRC_ CONNECTED in
the RRCConnectionReconfiguration message. The parameters in this message are:

 Measurement objects: the objects on which the UE performs measurements, such a


set of frequencies or a set of cells. It may include a list of cells to be considered (white
or black list).
 Reporting configurations: it includes the reporting criterion and the reporting format.
The reporting criterion is the criterion that triggers the UE to send a measurement
report. The reporting format corresponds to the quantities to be included in a
measurement report.
 Measurement identities: is the link between the one measurement object and one
reporting configuration.
 Quantity configurations: defines the filtering to be used on each measurement.
 Measurement gaps: towards the UE, it defines the periods in which no transmissions
are scheduled in uplink or downlink. Inter-frequency and inter-RATs measurements
are performed during periodic measurement gaps. During the measurement gap, the
UE is allowed to leave its serving cell to perform measurements of other frequencies.
The gap is about 6 ms every 40 ms or every 80 ms, one of the two configurations is
used for both inter-frequency measurements and inter-RAT measurements on the
GERAN, and the UTRAN.

43
3.8.2 Measurement Report Triggering
The UE may measure and report the serving cell, listed cells (cells listed in the measurement
objects) and detected cells on a listed frequency (not listed in the measurement objects but are
detected by the UE on the carrier frequencies indicated by the measurement objects).

The reporting can be either periodically, or based on a configured event (event-triggered


reporting), according to the reporting configuration. The following events are defined as
criteria for measurements within the E-UTRA:

 Event A1: Serving cell becomes better than threshold.


 Event A2: Serving cell becomes worse than threshold.
 Event A3: Neighbor cell becomes better than an offset relative to the serving cell. This
is called better cell handover.
 Event A4: Neighbor cell becomes better than threshold.
 Event A5: Serving cell becomes worse than threshold and neighbor cell becomes better
than another threshold. This is called coverage handover.

For inter-RAT mobility, the following event-triggered reporting criteria are specified:

 Event B1: Neighbor cell becomes better than threshold.


 Event B2: Serving cell becomes worse than one threshold and neighbor cell becomes
better than another threshold.

A complete figure about Intra- and Inter-Frequency Handover Thresholds with random Values
is shown below where the measured values are for the Serving cell (not including neighbor cell
thresholds)

44
LTE thresholds are relative to -140 dBm. Some characteristics can be concluding from the figure
as:
 Threshold3 < Threshold3a
 Threshold3InterFreq < Threshold3aInterFreq
 the RSRP signal is better where the threshold is higher

The UE triggers an event when one or more cells satisfy the condition triggering during a
time interval corresponding to the time-to-trigger parameter it is called timeToTrigger and
periodically with the Event-triggered periodic reporting. The measurement results are
reported in the MeasurementReport message. Some other conditions are configured via the
measurement configuration with several parameters such as one or more thresholds, a
hysteresis, and an offset.[15]

Offset: The role of the offset is to make the serving cell look better than its current measurement
in comparison to the neighbor.

Hysteresis: The role of the hysteresis is to make the measured neighbor look worse than
measured to ensure it is really stronger before the UE decides to send a measurement report to
initiate a handover.[17]

3.8.3 Measurement Reporting


The UE includes the measurement results in the MeasurementReport message to report
measurement results to the eNodeB. The eNodeB can use the measurement results in handover
decisions.

45
3.8.4 Inter-RAT handover to WCDMA and GRAN
3.8.4.1 Inter-RAT Handover to WCDMA (Event B2)
This is triggered by poor LTE radio coverage and sufficient WCDMA cell radio signal quality.

Figure 3-6: Inter-RAT Handover to WCDMA (Event B2)

Entering condition:
 RSRP,s < b2threshold1Utra – hysB2thresholdUtra
 utraRSCP/EcNo,n > b2theshold2UtraRscp/EcNo- offsetFreqUtra + hysB2ThresholdUtra

3.8.4.2 Inter-RAT Handover to GRAN with eNACC (Event B2)


This it is not a handover procedure, because the UE goes first into GSM RRC Idle mode and
starts the RRC Connection Setup procedure in GSM. The GSM system information of 2G target
cell is sent to UE which offers a gain of approximately 1s in the process but with significant
service interruption that’s why It is called Network Assisted Cell Change

46
Figure 3-7: Inter-RAT Handover to GRAN with eNACC

Entering Condition:
 RSRP,s < b2threshold1GERAN – hysB2ThresholdGERAN AND
 RxLev,n > b2theshold2RssiGERAN+ hysB2ThresholdGERAN

3.9 PLMN Selection

The UE AS performs a search for available PLMNs. During the search, the UE scans all
frequencies of E-UTRAN bands supported by the UE. The UE is required to synchronize with
the strongest cell on each frequency and read concerned system information to identify the
PLMN of the chosen cell. The UE AS performs cell selection to camp on a suitable cell that
belongs to the selected PLMN. If a suitable cell is found, the UE attempts location registration
(through NAS layer signaling) on the selected PLMN, and the PLMN selection process ends.

3.10 Cell selection

Cell selection is triggered when the UE is not camped on any cell to select a suitable cell
for the selected PLMN. It should be completed as quickly as possible. When cell selection is
triggered, cell selection with stored information is triggered first if stored information is
available of the E-UTRAN frequencies. If cell selection with stored information fails to find a
suitable cell, or if cell selection is triggered when no stored information is available, the UE
performs the initial cell selection process.

If a cell satisfied the cell selection criterion it will be selected by the UE which evaluates the
suitability of this cell. In some operator policies some cells may indicate via their SI that they

47
are barred or reserved. If the UE fails to find any suitable cell, it enters
the AnyCellSelection state. So the cell selection depends on several criterions known as the S-
criterion, so the cell-selection received level and the quality level must be above a given
threshold, so the UE selects a cell if: Srxlev > 0 dB and Squal > 0 dB, where:

 Qrxlevmeas: the measured cell receives level value, also known as the RSRP.
 Qrxlevmin: is the minimum required receive level in the cell.
 Qqualmeas and Qqualmin are the corresponding parameters for the RSRQ.
 Qrxlevminoffset and Qqualminoffset because of the fluctuating radio conditions these
parameters may be configured to prevent Ping-Pong between PLMNs.

The cell selection is also done if the UE leaves RRC_CONNECTED, The UE normally
selects the last serving cell where the UE was served. In other hand, the eNodeB may
include RedirectedCarrierInfo in the RRCConnectionRelease message in order to redirect
the UE to another E-UTRAN or another RAT.

3.11 Cell Reselection

When a UE is camping on a cell (suitable cell), it attempts to reselect a better one (cell
reselection), so it consists to move the UE to the best cell of the selected PLMN and of its
equivalent PLMNs depending on several criteria. Cell reselection is based on priorities for
different frequencies and RATs. The UE should always verifies the cell’s accessibility.

48
3.11.1 Measurement Rules
The measurements the UE is required to perform must be limited for many reasons as for
battery saving, so some rules are defined for the cell reselection. The RSRP (Srxlev) and the
RSRQ (Squal) of the serving cell are used for this rules. The UE performs intra-frequency
measurements only when the quality and the received signal level of the serving cell is
below or equal to a threshold known as SintraSearch (one for RSRP and one for the RSRQ).
The UE measures other frequencies or RATs of lower or equal priority (inter-frequency)
only when the quality and the received signal level of the serving cell is below or equal to a
threshold known as SnonintraSearch (one for RSRP and one for the RSRQ).

 The UE always attempts to measure frequencies and RATs of higher priority.


 The UE stops measuring when the received level and a quality criterions are fulfilled.

Intra-frequency measurements are triggered when either of the following conditions are
satisfied:
 Srxlev ≤ SintraSearchP
 Squal ≤ SintraSearchQ

We note that the Inter-frequency measurements for cell reselection towards a higher priority
layer are always triggered. However, for Inter-frequency measurements to an equal or lower
priority layer are triggered when either of the following conditions are satisfied:
 Srxlev ≤ SnonintraSearchP
 Squal ≤ SnonintraSearchQ

49
3.11.2 Frequency & RAT Evaluation and cell ranking
3.11.2.1 Reselection within equal priority cells

The UE ranks the intra-frequency and inter-frequency cells having equal priority which
fulfil the S-criterion using a criterion known as the R-criterion. The R-criterion generates
rankings Rs and Rn for the serving cell and neighbor cells respectively.

 Qmeas: is the measured cell received signal (RSRP).


 Qhyst,s: is a parameter controlling the degree of hysteresis for the ranking.
 Qoff s,n: is an offset applicable between serving and neighboring cells on frequencies
of equal priority.

Know, the calculated R values determines whether the UE executes the reselection to the
neighbor cell or not. If the neighboring cell is better ranked than the serving cell for
Rn>Rs the UE reselects the neighboring cell which is the highest-ranked cell during the
time-to-trigger. Ranking the serving and neighboring intra-frequency cells is always based
upon RSRP rather than RSRQ.

3.11.2.2 Reselection across non-equal priority cells

The reselection to a cell on a higher priority frequency is done if the S-criterion of the target
cell exceeds a high threshold named ThreshX-High for a certain duration Treselection (to avoid
the Ping-Pong).

 Srxlev> ThreshX-High

The reselection to a cell on a lower priority (no cell on a higher-priority frequency is available)
frequency is done if the S-criterion of the serving cell is below a low threshold (ThreshServing-
Low), in the same time the S-criterion of the target cell on a lower priority frequency/RAT
exceeds a low threshold (ThreshX-Low) during the time interval Treselection.

 Srxlev (serving)< ThreshServing-Low


 Srxlev (target)> ThreshX-Low

50
Another possibility of inter-RAT reselection can be added; this is being triggered using the same
thresholds as inter-frequency cell reselection. So as we have seen the measurements for higher
priority layers are always triggered, however the measurements for lower priority layers are
triggered based upon SnonintraSearchP, and SnonintraSearchQ.
The main difference is that the RSCP and the Ec/Io of the target cell are calculated instead of
the RSRP and the RSRQ for the 3G systems, and the RSSI instead of RSRP and RSRQ for
2G systems.

3.11.3 Cell Access Verification


Every time the UE performs a cell reselection, he needs to perform access verification. This
is done by reading the system information of the reselected. The UE camps on the reselected
cell successfully if this highest-ranked cell is confirmed as suitable.

3.12 Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB)


Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) enable a voice service by reusing an existing CS network.
So when a voice service is initiated, the UE performs radio switching from LTE to 2G or 3G
CS networks. In this moment a CS voice call can be established. We can say that the UEs must
support both the LTE network and CS networks (GERAN & UTRAN).

First, the UE sends a NAS message called an extended service request to the MME to
trigger the CSFB. Secondly, the MME requests the eNodeB to trigger an inter-RAT mobility
procedure (it includes redirection, handover, and CCO). After receiving the redirection
information, the UE releases the RRC connection with E-UTRAN, and performs cell selection
to camp on a cell on the indicated RAT/frequency.

The Handover here is to move to another RAT by sending a


MobilityFromEUTRACommand message (includes the radio resource configuration to be
used in the target cell) as a handover command by the eNodeB. The UE uses the RRC included
in the handover command to access the target cell. The Cell Change Order is applicable only
for CSFB to GERAN. The UE receives the CCO information in the
MobilityFromEUTRACommand.

3.12.1 Reference architecture


The MME and the MSC are interconnected via the SGs interface, this allows for signaling
exchange and the delivery of CS paging (paging that originated from a CS network) to the
LTE network are performed.

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Figure 3-8 : Reference architecture

3.12.2 Combined Registration to the LTE network and CS for CSFB


For CSFB to 2G/3G CS networks, the UE must be registered to the LTE network and the
2G/3G CS network. This is done with a combined registration procedure (instead of two
registration procedures independently to each concerned network). This can be for both
Attach procedure and the Location Area Update procedure in the NAS layer. The mapping
between TA and location or routing area is managed in the MME, this enables the MME to
trigger CSFB towards the proper cell of the CS network.

3.12.3 CSFB for a mobile originating call


This is done in several steps. The figure below shows this steps for a mobile originating call
with CSFB procedures:

52
Figure 3-9 : CSFB for a mobile originating call
First, in our case the UE cannot use IMS services in LTE, and the UE is attached to both
LTE and CS networks, it sends an extended service request to the MME to trigger the CSFB
procedure for a mobile originating call. Second, The MME asks the eNodeB to execute the
related inter-RAT mobility procedure from E-UTRAN to CS networks using the S1AP
message (CSFB indicator and the Location Area Identity where the UE is registered).

Third, the eNodeB which receives the S1AP message executes an inter-RAT mobility. We
have many options, whether PS handover, redirection, or CCO as we have seen before. The
eNodeB sends the mobility command for depending on the mobility type. It means
the MobilityFromEUTRACommand message for handover or CCO,
and RRCConnectionRelease message with redirection information for redirection.

Forth, for the handoff command, the UE synchronizes and accesses the target using the radio
resource configuration included in the handover command. For CCO or redirection, the UE
selects a suitable cell on the RAT/frequency indicated in the command and attempts to access
the cell. Fifth, the UE updates its location to the CS network. If the new cell belongs to a
location area that is different from the cell the UE has most recently registered to. Sixth, the
UE confirms the CS voice call setup procedure by Connection Management service request
message. Seventh, in the case of the PS handover, some other steps are required to execute
this process.

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3.12.4 CSFB for a mobile terminating call
Here a paging procedure is obligator for the mobile terminating call. In this case the CSFB
procedure is initiated by the MSC server receiving an incoming voice call.

Figure 3-10 : CSFB for a mobile terminating call

First, a paging request is sent to the MME using the SGs interface by the MSC which has
received an incoming voice call for a specified user. The MME that serves the UE resends the
paging request to this UE. Second, to stop the retransmission of the paging request from the
MSC, the UE establishes the RRC connection after receiving the Paging message and sends the
extended service request for CSFB to the MME, this service request message will be resent via
the SGs to the MSC which stops after that the retransmission of paging.

Third, the MME sends an S1AP message including a CSFB Indicator and LAI allocated to
the UE to request the serving eNodeB to perform an inter-RAT mobility for the appropriate
UE. The next steps are the same as we have seen in the mobile originating call. However, the
UE sends in this case a paging response instead of CM service request message to confirm
the CSFB procedure. If the MSC receives this message it establishes the voice call service.

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55
Chapter 4 : Coverage and capacity dimensioning

Chapter 4: Coverage and capacity dimensioning

4.1 Coverage
This is Adelphi developed application for site count in coverage and capacity scenarios, the used
propagation model here is the cost 231, and it is specially destined for the FDD networks:

The application simplifies the calculation by giving a simple graphical interface, where a field
in the bottom of the window shows a sufficient explanation about all shown parameters. Another
window in the right shows all the used parameters in this application which are not shown in
these fields:
4.2 LTE link budget and coverage analysis
The first value to calculate is the maximum allowable path loss (MAPL) between the
transmitter and receiver in downlink and uplink. The minimum SINR requirements in both the
UL and DL are achieved with the MAPL and maximum transmit power. So the cell radius of
an eNodeB can be obtained according to the MAPL under a tuned propagation model.
The propagation model parameters changes significantly depending on the existing terrains,
which are the dense urban, urban, suburban, and rural. Every terrain type has his proper cell
radius.
The Link Budget considers many factors, such as building penetration loss, feeder loss,
antenna gain, and the interference margin of radio links, to calculate all gains and losses that
affect the final cell coverage. The cell radius is finally used to estimate the total number of
sites.

Here a tuned version of the COST231-Hata model is used to estimate the path loss. The cell
radius for each clutter is determined based on the smallest cell radius from the UL and DL.
The link for the LTE system is uplink limited (MAPL of UL < MAPL of DL).

 MAPL calculation for uplink and downlink:


DlMaxAllowablePatLoss=EirpTransAnt-DlRecSens+RxAntGainUe+RxUeAdGain-
RxBodyLoss.
UlMaxAllowablePatLoss=EirpTransAntUe-UlRecSens+RxAntGain-
RxAntFedLoss+RxAntAdGain.
Where:
 EirpTransAnt: EIRP of the eNodeB antenna. It depends on the power and the
gain of the eNodeB transmitting antenna, feeder losses, the TMA insertion losses and the
power increase because of the use of the MIMO technologies (Most of the suppliers currently
supports 2×60 watt for MIMO 2×2 operation and even 2×80 watt).
EirpTransAnt=TxPowPerAnt+TxAntGain-TxAntFedLoss-TmaInsLoss+TxPowInc.
EirpTransAntUe=TxPowPerAntUe+TxAntGainUe-TxBodyLoss.

 DlRecSens: Receiver Sensitivity (UE). The receiver sensitivity is the signal


threshold at which the RF signal can be detected with a certain quality. It takes in count the
Noise Power per Subcarrier, the antenna noise figure, Number of Received Subcarriers, and
required SINR in the cell edge. It is calculated as following:
DlRecSens=NoisPowPerSubCar+AntNoiseFig+DlNumOfRecSubCar+DlReqSinrCellE
dge.
UlRecSens=NoisPowPerSubCar+UeNoiseFig+UlNumOfRecSubCar+UlReqSinrCellE
dge.

MaxAllPathLoss is equal to the smallest one between the DlMaxAllowablePatLoss and


UlMaxAllowablePatLoss

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The final MAPL is calculated by subtracting the penetration loss AvPenLoss and the
standard deviation:
FinalMaxAllPathLoss=MaxAllPathLoss- AvPenLoss- StdDev.
 Cell Edge User Throughput:
This is the target throughput requirement to be achieved at the cell edge in DL and UL. In other
side it determines the service that can be provided at the cell edge. It depends on the operator
strategy and the business requirement. This parameter has a big influence on the MAPL
changes.
 Channel Models:
The channel model is used to calculate the required reference SINR for BLER equal to 10
percent in downlink and uplink. This dimensioning app uses a pedestrian channel model where
different required reference SINR depends on the number of PRBs per user. This model
represents a specific Doppler spread. This application uses the following models:

Model Maximum Doppler frequency (Hz)


Enhanced Pedestrian 5 Hz 5
Extended typical urban 70 Hz 70
Table 0-1: Channel Models

 MCS Selection:
Selected MCS must guarantees a certain required cell edge throughput whatever the channel
conditions are. Each MCS corresponds to a QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM modulation, and each
MCS index is assigned a TBS index. The TBS depends on the number of scheduled RBs and
reflects the amount of user data bits sent during one TTI. The table below shows a small example
about the relation between the transport block size and the corresponding number of PRBs:
ITBS Number of RBs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 16 32 56 88 120 152 176 208 224 256
1 24 56 88 144 176 208 224 256 328 344
2 32 72 144 176 208 256 296 328 376 424
3 40 104 176 208 256 328 392 440 504 568
4 56 120 208 256 328 408 488 552 632 696
5 72 144 224 328 424 504 600 680 776 872
6 88 176 256 392 504 600 712 808 936 1032
7 104 224 328 472 584 712 840 968 1096 1224
8 120 256 392 536 680 808 968 1096 1256 1384
9 136 296 456 616 776 936 1096 1256 1416 1544
Table 4-2 : MCS Selection

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 Penetration Loss:
The penetration loss indicates signal attenuation due to obstruction by a building or others. It
depends on the type of the clutter and the nature of the buildings in the target coverage area:

Clutter type Penetration loss range (dB) Typical values in the LB (dB)
Dense urban 19–25 20
Urban 15–18 15
Suburban 10–14 10
Rural 5–8 5
Table 4-3 : Penetration Loss

 Body Loss
Body loss due to the signal blocking and absorption by the user’s body when the terminal
antenna is too close. So the body loss depends on the position of the terminal and the user. We
can say that in the situation of data usage the body lose is absolutely equal to 0. The second case
where the user uses a voice service the body lose is about 3 dB.

 Interference Margin
A margin can be token in count due the possibility of noise rise according to the load level and
the channel conditions variations. When the system capacity increases, the interference margin
also increases and accordingly the cell radius will be decreased.
 Site area, cell range and site coverage count:
The number of site is the ratio between the deployment area and the site area which is simply:
Site-Area =Factor*Cell-Range*Cell-Range.
Where the factor depends on the site layout (3-sector antenna or Omni antenna). The cell range
is directly calculated with the maximum MAPL, the intercept and the slope configuration:
(FinalMaxAllPathLoss - (IntrPoint+ ClutCor) / Slope)
CellRange= 10

The propagation model is divided into two parameters the intercept and the slope

58
The slope is a factor indicating how severe the loss becomes as a function of distance from the
base station, the operating band and the eNodeB antenna height.
Slope= (47.88+13.9*(ln (OpBand)/ln (10))-13.82*(ln (EnbHeight)/ln (10)))/ (ln (50)/ln (10))
We can say that the intercept point is just the difference between the propagation model lose
and the slope factor. It is another value which depends on the Ue antenna height, if the operating
Band is under 1500 then:
IntrPoint=69.55+26.16*(ln (OpBand)/ln (10))-13.82*(ln (EnbHeight)/ln (10))-msHeightCor.
Else:
IntrPoint=46.3+33.9*(ln (OpBand)/ln (10))-13.82*(ln (EnbHeight)/ln (10))-msHeightCor.
Where msHeightCor depends on the Ue antenna height.
Finally, the FinalMaxAllPathLoss is the maximum MAPL but take also in count the average
penetration loss and the standard deviation as we have seen before.
 Standard deviation:
Shadow fading indicates the fading brought by obstruction due to a building or a natural feature.
Shadow fading changes slowly, and is thus called slow fading. The major concern for shadow
fading is those caused by location changes.[18]
To minimize the effect of shadow fading and ensure a certain edge coverage probability, certain
allowances must be made we call this the standard deviation factor. It depends on the clutter
type as shown below:

Clutter type standard deviation(dB)


Dense urban 14
Urban 9
Suburban 8
Rural 7

Table 4-4 : Standard deviation

Know we will see the different steps to calculate the number of sites for coverage scenarios,
first the general parameters must be configured by choosing the 1800 operating band and the
RF module with 40 watt of transmitting power. The operating band is set to 10 MHz as shown
in the figure below:

59
The operators use the TMA to be sure that the feeder losses are at the maximum eliminated, but
in the opposite some insertion losses of the TMA will be added:

60
The application offers some default values of the antenna gain in emission and reception, but
the user can ad some other gain values in the RXANTADGAIN faild:

The user equipment classes are also defined to determine the transmitting power. The service
type is the parameter which allows us to know if the body losses are included or not depending
on the position of the UE.

61
The dimensioning tool must take in count the system overhead as losses in term of data rate.
The overheads considered in the tool are the RACH density and the PDCCH. The number of
PRBS is automatically chosen depending on the operating band.

62
The downlink and the uplink edge user throughput are defined depending on the policy of the
operator, the corresponding MCS must fit the chosen throughput as shown in the

The maximum allowable path lose is shown above in the next figure, the deployment area is set
at suburban and the eNodeB height is manually set at 30 miters:

63
We have taken as an example the Senia-Oran area which has a deployment area of 49 km2, as a
result we have to use at the minimum 24 site.

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4.3 Capacity
 LTE Transmission modes and MIMO scheme:
LTE Transmission mode MIMO Scheme
Mode-3 open loop
Mode-4 closed loop
Table 0-5 : LTE Transmission modes and MIMO scheme

In the closed-loop mode, the transmitter is required to have knowledge of the channel, however
the MIMO techniques that only require the receiver to have knowledge of the channel are called
open loop. We note that both of this modes supports transmit diversity and spatial
multiplexing.[19]
 The penetration rate and the cell capacity:
The tool takes in count the penetration rate of the User Equipment. The cell capacity is another
critical parameter which determines the how many users can the cells at the maximum supports.
The figure below shows the number of sites depending on the cell capacity taking in count the
number of population equal to 100.000:

Finally, we must choose the biggest one between the site coverage number and the site capacity
number, in this case we have to deploy at the minimum 39 sites.

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66
Conclusion

Conclusion
This project was a great opportunity to have a sufficient information about the LTE system, its
architecture, requirements, functions, and performances. We had a great chance to be present
in the initial phases of the spectrum organization and network preparation for this new
generation network.
Through this project, we had understood that the main challenge is to fit the existing network
as far as possible, and the engineers must do their efforts to assure the minimum investments
for the maximum of profits.
The operator is forced to use the existing 2G systems and bands to perform his planning
process without affecting the previous network by his new planned changes. After many
simulations and predictions, we have recognized that network may in some situations not to
serve all the active users, and cannot assure the voice services, that’s why the operator needs
to move to the interworking methods to profit from the existing technologies as the GERAN
and the UTRAN.
Choosing the appropriate locations and number for new sites deployment in the non-covered
areas is the most important phase. The engineer can estimate this areas and numbers but to be
sure to have an exact result we have in the end of the project developed an application to
determine the appropriate number.
Finally, the network must be optimized to be sure that the network is almost used with its
height performances. This is only possible after the final deployment of the network and
analyzing the real cases of network trouble shots and gaps.

66
REFERENCES
[1] David Astély, “LTE: The Evolution of Mobile Broadband,” IEEE, Apr. 2009.
[2] Y. Bouguen, E. Hardouin, F.-X. Wolff, G. Pujolle, and A. Maloberti, LTE et les réseaux
4G. Paris: Eyrolles, 2012.
[3] C. I. Cox, An introduction to LTE: LTE, LTE-advanced, SAE, VoLTE and 4G mobile
communications, 2. ed. Chichester: Wiley, 2014.
[4] N. Dr. Tomas, “LTE FDD Radio Network Planning Guidelines NSN.” 2015.
[5] “Comprendre la 4G,” FUN-MOOC. [Online]. Available: //www.fun-
mooc.fr/courses/MinesTelecom/04010S02/session02/about. [Accessed: 01-Jun-2016].
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[8] A. Elnashar, M. A. El-saidny, and M. R. Sherif, Design, deployment and performance of
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[9] S. Sesia, I. Toufik, and M. Baker, Eds., LTE - the UMTS long term evolution: from
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[10] “How LTE Stuff Works?: RNTIs in LTE.” [Online]. Available:
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Apr-2016].
[13] “3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE): RRC Connection Establishment in LTE.” [Online].
Available: http://4g-lte-world.blogspot.com/2015/01/rrc-connection-establishment-in-
lte.html. [Accessed: 27-Apr-2016].
[14] “3GPP LTE MAC Layer - LTE-Attach-Messaging.pdf.” .
[15] S. Yi, Radio protocols for LTE and LTE-advanced. Singapore; Hoboken: John Wiley &
Sons Singapore ; John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
[16] “LTE Acronyms - lteencyclopedia.” [Online]. Available:
https://sites.google.com/site/lteencyclopedia/lte-acronyms. [Accessed: 30-Apr-2016].
[17] “Handover Parameters (Part 1 of 3) - Lauro - Expert Opinion - LTE University.”
[Online]. Available:
http://lteuniversity.com/get_trained/expert_opinion1/b/lauroortigoza/archive/2012/02/22/
handover-parameters-part-1-of-3.aspx. [Accessed: 01-May-2016].
[18] “Slow Fading Margin in LTE with example of standard deviations in slow fading |
TELETOPIX.ORG. .
[19] J. R. Hampton, Introduction to MIMO communications. 2013.

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