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BEKP 3653


DATE : 17 MAY 2019


1 Abstract ii
2 Introduction 1
i. Title
ii. Objectives
iii. Background Study
3 Literature Review 3
4 Fundamental of Porcelain: 4
i. Definition
ii. History of Porcelain
iii. Characteristics
5 Application of Porcelain: 7
i. Dimension
ii. Descriptions
iii. Applications
6 Why Porcelain Is Used As Selected Application: 12
i. Material Used To Make Porcelain
ii. Process To Make Porcelain
iii. Reasons of Used Porcelain As Selected Application
7 Advantages And Disadvantages Of Porcelain 14
i. Advantages
ii. Disadvantages
8 Conclusion 15
9 References 16


This report is discussed about a high voltage system to analyze and explain the
application of an insulator material which is Porcelain. The performance of fundamental of
porcelain, application of porcelain in terms of high voltage equipment, dielectric strength and
dimension, reasons of porcelain is used, and the advantages and disadvantages of porcelain
are observed and analyzed. The observation and analysis are made to determine the resistive
path of porcelain in the insulating material. Insulating material is a material that prevents a
transmission of heating or sounding or even electricity. In high voltage system, electrical
insulating material is defined as the material that cannot allow an electricity to pass through


i. Title
Porcelain acts as an insulator for the High Voltage System.

ii. Objectives
i. To discuss the Porcelain as an insulator for the High Voltage system.
ii. To study the application of porcelain insulator in electrical field.
iii. To obtain the advantages and disadvantages of porcelain on High Voltage as

iii. Background study

In electrical field for beginner such as students, they should be familiar with insulator
and conductor. Conductor use to transmit electric power to the transmission line, most of
conductor for high voltage are made up from the aluminum, while the insulator use to
prevent an unwanted current flows to the grounding (earth).Dealing with the high voltage,
insulator is the most important electrical material to avoid undesirable things happen. The
electrons in insulator do not move freely and the atoms are bounded the electron, that is
why insulator used to protects human from dangerous effect of electricity carrying by
conductor. Electrical insulator very high in resistive to prevent every single current flows
through it, so it placed between the tower body and current carrying (conductors) to prevent
the current flows from conductors to the grounding (earth). Figure below show the
overhead transmission line for the high voltage.

Figure 1: Overhead Transmission Line

During research period, researchers need to focus on the material of insulator that can
prevent current fault. The materials should have specific characteristic, it must strong
enough to carry tension and weight of conductors, consist of high dielectric strength to
endure the voltage stresses from high voltage, free from unwanted impurities and etc. The
most importantly, material must have high resistance to prevent the leakage through earth
(grounding). Porcelain is one of the materials used in electrical insulators. Porcelain is one
the ceramic material.

Figure 2: Porcelain Diagram

Aluminum silicate mixed with plastic kaolin, feldspar and quartz produced a porcelain
insulators. The surface of porcelain is glaze enough to deter water from entering through

Figure 3: Porcelain Figure 4: Porcelain Figure 5: Porcelain

Literature Review

The article that writes by Lee Wallender had mentioned the difference between the
porcelain and ceramics. As for ceramics, it is made from clay that been mix with other
substances such as water and organic material. After that it shaped as needed and decorated
beautifully and lastly heated to suitable temperature. The firing temperature and time taken is
differentiating the ceramics hardness. The ceramics also can be adjusted after been harden and
this make the ceramics have many types. The types of ceramics are pottery, terracotta,
stoneware porcelain bone China, fine China paper clay and many more
The figure might be the same as human being cannot differentiate the difference
between them. The seller and the buyer always fighting for the price of the porcelain as the
porcelain have high value market rather than ceramics. The porcelain and ceramics are made
differentially as they are two different things but with a slight difference between them. The
huge different between them is porcelain is more impassible by water rather than ceramics that
easily pass by water. The porcelain had 0.5 percent water absorption than ceramics. Other than
that, the porcelain also harder than ceramics and cannot be easily be cut. This can provide the
porcelain for heavy usage such as been placed outside the house. The porcelain also been used
in high moisture placed such as toilet and pool. The ceramics cannot place outside the house
as it easy to break.
Other article that we found is from NicolettaBertolissi. It is said that porcelain is make
from various chemical substance such as clay, kaolin and many more. After the substance is
mix together, it’s been fired at high temperature for a long time. The body of porcelain will
vitrify during firing and makes the porcelain’s surface very smooth and very white. The most
difference between porcelain and ceramics is the porcelain is translucent while ceramics is
opaque. Other than that, the porcelain will make sound like a ring bell if been strike.

Fundamental of Porcelain

i. Definition

Porcelain is defined as a very hard ceramic, energized, smooth and translucent and
white ceramic that consists of kaolin and quartz. The materials are used in the process of
making the porcelain is small amount of glass, granite and feldspar minerals are ground up
with white kaolin clay. Water is added to the white powder so it can be sharpened and worked
into shape. This porcelain is fired at a high temperature in the range between 1200°C-1450°C.
Then, the decorative glazes are applied followed by further firing.

ii. History of Porcelain

Porcelain is defined as white clay made up from a combination of ceramic elements.

One of the substances is clay mineral kaolin which contains amounts of metals such as alkali
metal and aluminum. The fact of this porcelain is it deeply white in color and almost translucent
and it also very tough. The porcelain acts like an elastic in texture. When the porcelain is heated
at a very high temperature, it is produced an almost a glass-like appearance.
Porcelain has been around existing about 2000 years ago. The fragments of porcelain
have been found around China in the Eastern Han Dynasty. After the Eastern Han Dynasty, it
was followed by the Tang Dynasty and rise in popularity in the art of tea drinking pot by making
from porcelain. In China, the most famous areas for the production of porcelain were Jiangxi
Province due to its rich supply of kaolin. At this time, Celadon, China is famous the jade green
glaze that was often found on the porcelain.

Figure 2: Example of Jade Green Glaze

Figure 3: Example of Jade Green Glaze

Today, porcelain is used widely even though it is very special and rich history as a result
it can be so fine and delicate and versatile. It also holds a glaze in a very different way and
looks quite ethereal. The porcelain is commonly used for tableware, jewellery, tiles, laboratory
equipment and also for electric insulation.

iii. Characteristics

There are several of characteristics of porcelain. First and foremost, the characteristic
of porcelain is dirt resistance. The porcelain do not retained dirt on its surface. It dirt is easy to
remove by using only an ordinary floor cleaning. It can maintain its smooth surface even before
or after mopping. It no need be polished or rubbed roughly because it is easy to clean. Daily
cleaning procedures can be maintained the shiny of porcelain.

Secondly, stain resistance is one of the characteristics of porcelain. The porcelain is
varies depended on its capacity to resist moisture. Glazed and even some unglazed porcelains
resist most types of strains and can be cleaned easily with some guidance.
Besides, slip resistance is the other characteristic of porcelain. Unglazed porcelains
have greater slip resistance than glazed porcelains and are recommended for areas subjected to
water spills frequently or heavy foot traffic.
Moreover, the characteristic of porcelain is hygiene. The porcelain surfaces do not
retained antigens or allergens and do not absorbed smokes, dirt and bites. It is maintained a
long lasting hygiene and made porcelain suitable used in every environments or areas.
Last but not least, the characteristic of porcelain is colour permanence. Porcelain clay
is burned with colour at a high temperature. The porcelain surfaces is not faded its colour and
even if exposed to sunlight, therefore maintained its colour.

Application of Porcelain

A general dielectric strength for porcelain is about 40KV/inch to 200KV/inch. In additions

there are several types in high voltages insulation and different application.

i. Post insulator
a. Dimension

Figure 4: dimension of post type porcelain insulator

b. Description.
By referring to 3M brochure (2009), it designed for 64/110KV and have excellent
performance silicon rubber for long term operational. Besides that, it has a reliable
sealing sleeve. It can be accommodate a variety pollution class and length.
However, the installation of post insulator can be achieved to the maximum of 30
degree only and can be up to 1200𝑚𝑚2 of size conductor

c. Specifications.
Dielectric strength 28kv/mm
Rated voltage class V0/V 64/110Kv
Max. permissible system voltage Vm 126kV
Permissible short-circuit current, Is According to cable
Power frequency AC withstand 192kV,6hours,No breakdown and
voltage test flashover
Lightning impulse 550kV

ii. Suspension insulator

a. Dimension

Figure 5: porcelain suspension insulator system.

Figure 6: dimension of porcelain suspension system by part

b. Description.
Suspension insulator system is developed for handle and replacing the bigger size
of conducting cable of transmission tower. It’s different between strain, the much
higher conducting voltage so the cable will be large and insulation must be high.
That’s why suspension system is the ideal insulation for high voltage transmission.
However, each suspension disc is same with strain insulator generally voltage rating
is 11Kv

c. Specifications
Based on Lapp porcelain and strut insulator catalog 10B (Lapp insulator, 1991), the
table below show the specifications.
Flashover Power Dry, KV 80
voltage Frequency Wet, KV 50
Impulse Positive, KV 125
Negative KV 130
Withstand power frequency Dry, KV 50
Voltage Wet, KV 33
Impulse Positive, KV 70
Negative KV 75
Visible Discharge Voltage, KV 9

iii. Strain insulator
a. Dimension

Figure 7: porcelain strain insulator system.

b. Descriptions.
Types of Insulators Used in Transmission (Overhead) Lines (electrical4u), the
strain type is used to overcome the maximum tensile load of conductor where the
end or sharp corner in transmission line. However, the number of disc insulator is
depending to the rated voltage that attached at the transmission line.
Rated voltage, kV Number of disc insulator
33 3
66 5
132 9
220 15

c. Specifications
The specification is based on one unit open disc and open type insulator
Flashover Power Dry, KV 55
voltage Frequency Wet, KV 37
Impulse Positive, KV 75
Negative KV 80
Withstand power frequency Dry, KV 50
Voltage Wet, KV 33
Impulse Positive, KV 70
Negative KV 75
Visible Discharge Voltage, KV 9

Why Porcelain Is Used As Selected Application

i. Material Used To Make Porcelain

The raw material to make porcelain is clays, silica and flint or feldspar. All components
are in small particle size. To create the different types of porcelain, the craft workers combined
these raw materials in varying proportions until they obtain desired properties. As the
composition of clay is different and depend on where it is extracted and treated, all clays are
vitrifying at extremely high temperatures until it is mixed with others material whose
vitrification is lower. Clay also refractory, where it maintains it shape when it is heated. The
craft also mixed clay with glass to make the ideal porcelain for domestic uses. The main clay
that used is china clay and ball clay which consists of kaolinate. Kaolinate is a hydrous
aluminum silicate which forms from chemical weathering of feldspar or other aluminum
silicate material.
Next is feldspar. Feldspar is a mineral mostly flint and silicate, where flint is a type of
hard quartz that function as fluxes in the porcelain body or mixture. Fluxes will lower the
temperature until liquid glass form during heating process. It reduces the temperature in
between 1835 and 2375 Fahrenheit. At this liquid phase, it’s the body and the grains are bind
Last but not least, the material to make porcelain is silica. Silica is the compound that
combined from oxygen and silicon. These two elements are abundant element in earth crust.
These silica resemblances with the glass and visible in quartz, opal and sand. This silica part
also the most common filler that been used to facilitate forming and firing of the body. This
process also improves the properties of the product. Porcelain also contains alumina. It is the
compound of aluminum and oxygen and has low-alkali containing bodies. As the example is
steatite that’s better known as soapstone.

ii. Process to Make Porcelain

The first step of making porcelain after we selected the material and weighed it is
crushing and purified the raw material. The material will reduced to it desired size which using
the crushing and grinding steps. There are two step of crushing. For the first step, it used the
jaw crushers which use swinging metal jaws. Secondary crushing will reduces the particles to
0.1 inch or less by using the Muller. Next after the crushing process, the craft maker will
combine together the ingredient that needed before subjected to one of four forming process.
For the mixing process, the ingredient will be filter to remove any material that not involved.
The four forming processthat been told are soft plastic forming, pressing, stiff plastic forming
and casting. The choice of process depends on the porcelain that will be produced. After the
porcelain is formed, it will undergo final purification process that is bisque-firing and glazed.
The bisque firing is heating process at low temperature to vaporize volatile contaminants and
minimize the shrinkage during firing process while Glaze is a layer of decorative glass that
applied to porcelain and fired onto its body. The final step is firing that heating the glaze and
takes place in oven or kiln. There are many reactions that take places when firing process that
need to be consider to achieve high quality of porcelain. Once cooling the porcelain is

iii. Reasons of Used Porcelain as Selected Application

The reason why we choose porcelain over ceramics is because porcelain has become
good insulator towards electricity rather than ceramics. The porcelain also good in mechanical
properties and have high corrosion resistance. This is because porcelain made by fusion of
clays and other raw material. It had also high percentage of kaolin and high water absorption.
It’s make the porcelain is hard to broke and cut it rather than ceramics that easy to cut. With
this ability, the porcelain is very expensive and beautiful.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Porcelain

i. Advantages
 In terms of environment, porcelain is one of the eco-friendly insulators as it can be disposed
and is not include in the list of dangerous waste.
 The electrical strength of porcelain is higher than polymer, which is 25+ kV/mm while for
polymer is 20kV/mm.
 The resistance of porcelain is higher for degradationthe surface, it does not
degrade/carbonate during the charges.
 The surface of insulator is highly glazed which is can prevent absorption of water and
suitable for changing in extreme environment temperature (hot/cold).
 The highly glazing surface of porcelain also makes fauna less interested in it.
 Compared to glass insulator, porcelain is more hydrophobic and it less takes the outside
chemical elements.

ii. Disadvantages (limitation)

 During the installation, porcelain may faceproblem to deal with extreme weather, lightning
and vandalism. It may cost expensive damage.
 Porcelain cannot stand the stress and easy break if it over tightens during installation phase.
 Compared to polymer, porcelain has low on resistance to the flashover and punctures.
 Porcelain are brittle, require more careful handling and it is heavier compared to non-
ceramic insulators
 Porcelain materials strong in compression but weaker in tension.


In a conclusion, porcelain is the recommended insulator material in the used of

insulation materials for high voltage systems. Porcelain with it characteristics of durable
features, dirt resistance, strain resistance, slip resistance, hygiene and color permanence that
enabled it to be used as an electrical insulating material. An electrical insulating material is
defined as the material which is not allowed the electricity to pass through them. The charge
of an insulating material do not moved freely, it is provided a high resistive path to the electric
current through the nearly for the electric current to conduct through it. The porcelain is
completely vitrified and is impermeable even before it becomes glazing. This material is has a
lower water absorption rate and has higher durability which can protect the high voltage
systems. Therefore, this is why the porcelain is chosen as an electrical insulator material.


1. https://circuitglobe.com/electrical-insulating-material.html
4. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Porcelain.html
5. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Porcelain.html
6. https://pediaa.com/difference-between-porcelain-and-ceramic/
7. https://www.thespruce.com/porcelain-tile-vs-ceramic-tile-1822583
8. http://www.nicolettabertolissi.com/difference-between-porcelain-and-ceramic/
9. https://www.thesprucecrafts.com/porcelain-history-from-china-to-europe-4067213