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THINGS TO

KN
OW ABOUT
r f a c e
Su t i o n
r e p a r a
P

⊲⊲
edia
Blast M
rs
Recycle s a n d Pots
achin e
Blast M o l C l e aning
n d P o wer To
Hand a ment
E q u i p
Vacuum U nits
s t i n g
Wet-Bla O.
IS H IN G C
O LO G Y PUBL
TECHN
FROM THE JPCL VAULT

Surface Preparation
Article Collection
Two-Part Series
JPCL editors have selected the “best
of the best” surface preparation
articles from its historical archives and
published them in this special two-part
series. A total of 17 articles make up
this two-part series. Here’s a sample:

• Standards Used For Partial Coating


Removal During Maintenance Painting
• Evaluation Of Surface Preparation
Methods To Remediate Chlorides
$35 EACH On Bridges
Additional topic • The Effect Of Surface Preparation On
collections available. Coating Performance
Coating Bridges • Visual Surface Preparation Standards
Coating Chemical & • Surface Preparation: Adventures
Petrochemical Plants In Frustration
Coating Power Plants
• Preparing Concrete Floors for Coatings
Waterjetting
• Preparing Surfaces at Wastewater
Coating Railcars
Plants: An Overview of Substrates,
$35 each Practices, and Standards
Any 4 titles for $100
• Six Key Points You Should Know about
All 7 titles for $150
Concrete Surface Preparation before
Coating Application
See the collection at
store.technologypub.com ... and more.
THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT
Surface Preparation

4 14
Abrasive Blast Media Blast Machines & Pots

18 26
Hand & Power Tool Cleaning Recyclers

30 36
Wet-Blasting Units Vacuum Equipment

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 PUBLISHING INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39


4 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.
THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT

Abrasive
Blast Media

1 Selecting the lowest-cost abrasive doesn’t assure cost savings


because some abrasives blast faster than others and some
abrasives have lower consumption rates than others1.

2 Before an abrasive is selected, hourly consumption rates


should be compared between blast media types1.

3 The harder the abrasive, the faster the blasting and the
greater the surface profile1.

4 There is no single abrasive type that fits every project2.

5 Surface profile is the shape of the surface finish, while class


of blast refers to the cleanliness of the surface finish2.

PHOTO: COURTESY OF PAMELA SIMMONS

1. “Cost Savings and Best Practices in Air Abrasive Blasting” by Greg Baker, BlastOne International, JPCL, May 2018.
2. “On the Media: The Economics of Abrasive Selection” by Brad Gooden, BlastOne USA, PaintSquare Press, Vol. 1 Issue 2 Summer 2018.

SURFACE PREPARATION 5
SPONSORED

Staurolite Abrasives Offer Sustainable


Solution to Garnet Shortage

T
hough many may think of garnet as just a beautiful gemstone,
the mineral is also used extensively for industrial purposes. When
bridges, water tanks, or buildings need to be cleaned and prepped
for weather-proof painting, abrasive (sand) blasting is most com-
monly used. To cut steel, rubber, glass and other materials, abrasive
waterjet cutting is employed. Both techniques use compressed air
or water to propel abrasive particles of sand to clean or cut through
tough surfaces.
For years, sand composed of garnet minerals has been the most
readily available, low-cost choice for these applications, but a shortfall
in the global supply is driving a need for substitute abrasives. India,
Staurolite abrasives China, and Australia are the leaders in a massive $70-billion sand
(above) produced less
dust than garnet (facing
page) in Starblast’s GRADES OF CHEMOURS STAUROLITE ABRASIVES
blast-cleaning trials. Starblast Also used in
General-purpose grit; used in steel
PHOTOS: COURTESY OF
fabrication, bridge maintenance, rust waterjetting
THE CHEMOURS COMPANY Starblast XL
(Military removal; low dust generation improves High durability
Send questions Mil-Spec/QPL blasting visibility, enabling precision and and low
and comments to: approved) consistent results friability (does
minerals@chemours.com not crumble
More aggressive than Starblast and on impact),
Starblast
More information on Starblast XL, used for heavy rust or coating allowing
Ultra
Starblast abrasives: removal recycling and
ChemoursAbrasives.com reuse up to
800-441-9484 (toll-free)
Most aggressive Starblast grit, used for 5 times
Starblast heavy coating removal or when a deeper
Coarse profile is required, such as monument Available in
cutting and etching bags from 50 to
Claims or positions expressed 4,000 pounds
by sponsoring authors do not Fine grit, used mostly for removing flash and in bulk
necessarily reflect the views
Biasill rust prior to painting and for blasting with truckloads or
of Technology Publishing Co.
or its editors.
lesser profile requirements rail cars

6 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


industry, driven by booming demand. Sand abundant supply. The abrasive is sus-
is needed to make glass, roads, concrete tainably mined in the U.S. by the minerals
and electronics, as well as for shale gas ex- segment of The Chemours Company’s
traction, beach replenishment and construc- Titanium Technologies business, using
tion. To fuel these growing industries, sand reclamation methods that return the land
and gravel are the most extracted materials to near pre-mining condition. The sand is
in the world, being mined at a greater rate mined and pumped over a spiral separator,
than can be naturally replenished. from which only 3 percent of the sand is
Allegations, particularly in India, collected. Unused sand is returned, and the
suggest that beach sand is being illegally land is brought back to grade level. Topsoil
mined, calling international attention to is returned and then the reclaimed area is
the potential devastation of coastal eco- planted with trees. Water used in the mining
systems.1 Certain mining operations that process is recirculated and, therefore, does
use environmentally hazardous extraction not cause a strain on fresh-water aquifers.
methods, can cause coastal erosion, This reclamation process mitigates any envi-
pollution and habitat destruction.2 These ronmental impact of the operation.
harmful techniques, compounded with an According to users, the high density
already-high extraction rate, have led to of the staurolite particles yields high pro-
a global garnet shortage, causing disrup- duction rates at a low sand consumption
tions for companies dependent on the rate. This efficiency reduces labor costs,
material. In many regions, to protect this reduces disposal costs and prevents the
dwindling supply of sand and to preserve need for rework. ☐
the environment, laws now impose fines, 1. Sandhya Ravishankar, “The Madras high court is inching closer
to a final verdict on allegations of large-scale loot, with official
require stricter licenses and enforce collusion, of precious minerals from the coast of Tamil Nadu,”
coastal protection regulations. The Wire, https://thewire.in/environment/countdown-begins-tam-
il-nadus-beach-sand-mining-cartel
A competitive alternative to garnet is
2. Dennis CJ, “Adverse effects of rampant sand mining starting
staurolite, a cost-effective abrasive solution to show in Asia,” Research Matters, https://researchmatters.in/
with decades of proven usage and a stable, news/adverse-effects-rampant-sand-mining-starting-show-asia

SURFACE PREPARATION 7
SPONSORED

Technical Tips for Blasting


with TruAbrasives
From Strategic Materials

NOZZLE SELECTION
Nozzle selection is determined by many
factors: compressor cfm (cubic feet
per minute) rating, abrasive particle
size, desired blast pattern, nozzle type.
It is imperative that the compressor is
able to supply enough air to maintain
90 to 100 psi at the nozzle. The bigger
the nozzle, the higher the cfm required.
Recommended nozzle sizes are #4 to
#8. Nozzle size #4 is best for medium
and fine grades of TruAbrasives media.
PHOTO: COURTESY OF STRATEGIC MATERIALS

METERING VALVE AND BLASTING


The metering valve setting is important; too rich or too lean of a mixture will contribute to
poor cutting performance. Nozzle pressure that is too high may cause rapid breakdown of
particles on impact, which will reduce performance and generate more dust.
Begin by checking nozzle pressure. It should be set to 90 psi at the nozzle. Adjust
the abrasive metering valve for “optimal” flow (cutting) before starting to test (see box, left).
Every blast pot will need to be adjusted because valves all have different levels of
wear on them. If higher pressure is
ADJUSTING THE METERING VALVE needed, increase nozzle to 100 psi,
then adjust abrasive metering valve
1. Fully close the valve.
by quarter turns open to optimal.
2. Begin blasting on target.
Typical recommended blast
3. Open the valve (each valve is different,
distance is 18 to 24 inches for medium
normally to about 3.5 turns) until you start
and fine grades and 3 to 4 feet for
to see abrasive in the blast stream.
coarse and medium-coarse grades.
4. Note cutting speed/effectiveness.
Always start blasting from farther
5. Adjust by quarter turns up or down, based
away and walk toward the target until
on initial setting results.
you see the result you need. ☐
6. Proceed until you achieve optimal
performance and productivity. Learn more at TruAbrasives.com or call
toll-free at 1-866-775-6226.

Claims or positions expressed by sponsoring authors do not necessarily reflect the views of Technology Publishing Co. or its editors.

8 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


SAY HELLO TO TRU
A TRULY DIFFERENT ABRASIVE

HIGH QUALITY
Carefully sourced and processed,
resulting in a clean abrasive product
with white post-blast finish and
translucent dust.

HIGH PERFORMANCE
When matched with similar grades
of slags or silica sand, comparable or
even superior profile, cut speed, and
consumption rates are delivered.*

HEALTH & SAFETY


Contains less than 1% free silica,
non-reactive and inert.**
And does not require Beryllium
exposure controls, as with slags.**

CERTIFIED ***
CARB Approved, QPL Approved,
Mil-Spec, SSPC AB-1, Class A, and
MIL-A-22262B(SH)

ECO-FRIENDLY
Made from 100% recycled glass and
suitable for use around water.

*As verified by independent laboratory testing


**According to OSHA Federal Beryllium Rule
***At select plants on select grades

CONTACT US FOR MORE INFORMATION

1-866-775-6226
abrasives@strategicmaterials.com
WWW.TRUABRASIVES.COM
Our regional sales managers are NACE Inspector Certified.
©2018 All Rights Reserved. TRUABRASIVES is a trademark of Strategic Materials, Inc.
www.AbrasivesInc.com
info@AbrasivesInc.com
SPONSORED | INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVE

It’s Time to Spread the Truth


About OSHA’s Beryllium Rules

T
he industry was caught off guard issue succinctly: “The rush to force through
last year by a new regulation last-minute regulation like the beryllium
from the Occupational Safety and rules creates a breeding ground for crony
Health Administration (OSHA) capitalism and opportunities to mislead the
governing beryllium in abrasive media public with disingenuous attacks on their
and other products. A coalition of abrasive competitors for economic benefit.”
blasting companies organized the Abrasive The ABMA has commissioned inde-
Blasting Manufacturers Alliance (ABMA) pendent, scientific studies that disprove
to push back, claiming these beryllium rules claims from some manufacturers that their
are costly, ineffective and unnecessary. products are “beryllium-free” or contain
The ABMA has since made substantial “non-detectable levels of beryllium.” As
progress educating industry participants seen in the graph, below, an independent
and regulators about the potential impact chemical analysis of materials used in abra-
of these rules, but some companies sive blasting found that all contain enough
continue to mislead their customers about beryllium to likely trigger new testing levels
the rule and the presence of beryllium set by OSHA’s new beryllium rules.
in various products. These claims — that Conversations about worker safety
some blasting materials, but not others, will in the abrasive blasting industry should
be impacted by the rules — are factually be centered on science, not marketing
inaccurate and disappointing. gimmicks used to undermine competition.
Mark Cowan, former Deputy Assistant The science supports the argument that
Secretary of Labor for Occupational abrasive blasters should be free to choose
Safety and Health (OSHA) described the the best media for their needs, rather than
switch to a lesser
material in response
to fear mongering
and the spread of
false information. ☐

Help the ABMA


advance our industry
by sharing all of the
facts — and none of the
fiction. Learn more at
theabma.com.

SOURCE: EXPONENT

Claims or positions expressed by sponsoring authors do not necessarily reflect the views of Technology Publishing Co. or its editors.

12 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT

Blast Machines
& Pots
1 Benjamin Chew Tilghman is credited with the invention of
sandblasting at around 1870 when he noticed the effect of
windblown sand on windows1.

2 Air and blast hoses should be checked for soft spots, wear,
cracks or air leaks on a daily basis2.

3 Different kinds of media require different designs of blast


pots. If you’re using media other than baking soda or
plastic beads, you can typically use a standard blast pot,
but if you’ll be using baking soda or plastic beads you will
have to have a specially designed blast pot3.

4 If your blast pot is not relieving the pressure built up pretty


quickly after you release the deadman safety handle, check
the exhaust air valve, the air inlet valve, the abrasive trap
screen, exhauster and umbrella3. It could mean a blockage
in the deadman handle and/or remote control hoses or a
faulty remote control valve4.

5 Abrasive surges from the nozzle can mean that the abrasive
metering valve is opened too fully or the choke valve is not
fully open4.

PHOTO: COURTESY OF MARCO

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Chew_Tilghman.
2. https://www.blastone.com/us/resources-training/tips-of-the-trade/scheduling-maintenance-for-blasting-pots.
3. Pittsburgh Spray Equipment Company.
4. Hodge Clemco Ltd.

SURFACE PREPARATION 15
SPONSORED

Surface preparation is our passion. Our vision is to


provide productive equipment that contributes to a
smarter, safer workplace. Here are …

Tips for Better Surface Prep


From Schmidt Blasting Systems
SAFETY IS NUMBER ONE
Consider the safety features and design of an abrasive blasting system when selecting
a manufacturer. Fail-safe (normally closed) control systems, qualified deadman controls
and safety-enhanced blast pots can and do make a difference.

PRESSURE DROP MATTERS


Pressure drop (the difference between the compressor and pressure delivered at the
nozzle) has a huge impact on productivity. For every 10 psi reduction in blast nozzle
pressure, 15 percent of production is lost.
• Choose equipment designed to minimize pressure drop. Schmidt blast units exhibit
pressure drops less than 1.5 psi — in many cases, less than 1 psi.
• Check the entire system — from compressor to the blast nozzle — for air leaks
and restrictions.
• Use the shortest hose of adequate size.

MORE ABRASIVE IS NOT BETTER


Abrasive media hitting the surface is how surface preparation works. Using the correct
amount of abrasive will produce the highest level of productivity. When too much
abrasive is used, particles move more slowly and collide with each other instead of
hitting the targeted work area. More abrasive is used to do less work, decreasing
productivity.

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF MEDIA VALVE TECHNOLOGY


Metering valves have changed a lot since the flat-sand (pancake) valve. The newer
technology will contribute to higher productivity, lower abrasive and disposal costs, less
maintenance and less jobsite cleanup, helping recoup an investment quickly.

ADD VERSATILITY
New blasting systems have incredible versatility. Some can blast either dry or wet, some
use a wide range of media, and some feature adjustable blast pressure. These systems
allow a contractor to take on more types of jobs, increasing income. ☐
Claims or positions expressed by sponsoring authors do not necessarily reflect the views of Technology Publishing Co. or its editors.

16 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


THE TIME FOR
COMPROMISING IS

OVER

Need
Needversatility
versatility without compromise?
without compromise?
AmphiBlast™ is
AmphiBlast is the
the answer.
answer.
TM

• Operates at a wide range of blasting pressures, allowing for


more projects and workload types
• Operates with any abrasive suitable for a dry blast system
(including coarse abrasives)
• Precise and easy to use flow control allows for ultra low
water consumption. Internal tests show water use is less
than one pint (1/2 liter) per minute
• Water treatment products can be added to the water tank
as desired
• Multiple outlet capability for even greater value per nozzle
and the ability to wet blast and dry blast simultaneously
from the same system

www.SchmidtAbrasiveBlasting.com
800-231-2085
THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT

Hand &
Power Tool
Cleaning
1 Tools that leave directional striations (bias) on the surface
can result in inaccurate measurements of surface profile
parameters when portable stylus roughness instruments
are used1.

2 The SSPC-SP 11, “Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal”


standard was written as an alternative to dry abrasive
blast-cleaning for projects where a thoroughly cleaned
surface was required but abrasive blast-cleaning
equipment could not be used due to configuration of the
area or because of site-specific restrictions2.

3 SSPC-SP 11 produces a roughened, clean surface


resembling SSPC-SP 5 “White Metal Blast Cleaning,” but
permits trace amounts of material to remain in the pits
of a pitted surface2.

4 If a project specification says to power tool clean to SSPC-


SP 11, you are required to use Method B of ASTM D4417 to
measure the surface profile2.

5 Method B of ASTM D4417 requires the use of a depth


micrometer (a fine probe) to obtain and average 10 readings
to determine the surface profile3.

PHOTO: COURTESY OF NOVATEK CORPORATION

1. “Power-Tool-Cleaned Surfaces: New Insights into Surface Profile Measurement” by Jody Wenzel, DeFelsko Corporation, JPCL, May 2018.
2. SSPC-SP 11, sspc.org.
3. ASTM D4417, Method B, astm.org.

SURFACE PREPARATION 19
SPONSORED

Trusted Methods for Managing Dust

T
oday, more than ever, dust control is becoming a major factor in surface prepa-
ration and repair projects. With the recent implementation of OSHA’s Respirable
Crystalline Silica Standard for Construction, combined with previously existing
standards for lead and other contaminants, virtually all projects require some type
of dust control. Two proven methodologies are “point-of-generation containment” and
dust collection systems. Point-of-generation containment systems capture the dust being
created at the source, utilizing dust shrouds paired with matched vacuum systems. Dust
collectors are dependent on the movement of large air volumes to capture airborne dust.
A key criterion for planning any project is identification of the best dust-control methodo-
logy for your applications.
Using a vacuum-shrouded, power-tool cleaning system with point-of-generation con-
tainment is an excellent dust-control method when removing hazardous materials such as
lead-based paints, PCBs and light radiological contamination. These systems, paired with
precisely matched high-efficiency particulate
air (HEPA) vacuums, are proven to drastically
reduce both environmental and operator
exposures. Abatement projects, primarily on
steel structures, can be performed safely and
effectively without the need of complex con-
tainments and protection programs associat-
ed with open-blast operations. The primary
tools used for these projects are shrouded
needle scalers, rotary peening tools, grinders
and piston scalers. Each tool serves a specif-
ic role — from detail work to high-production
tools for flat surface areas.
Using compact HEPA dust collectors
The Novatek F2100 with Duct-to-Go
is another effective means of dust control.
These portable units move large volumes of air, creating a virtual vacuum envelope to cap-
ture dust and contaminants as they are produced. HEPA dust collectors — typically utilized
in concrete grinding and cutting applications — are simply set in place next to the opera-
tor. Unlike vacuums, these units draw in airborne dust, filter out the dust particles, and then
exhaust clean, filtered air. These units also allow the operator to view his work area while
utilizing dust controls.
Both shrouded, power-tool cleaning systems and portable dust-collection systems
are simple, proven and effective methods of dust control in today’s complex regulatory
environments. To explore specific options, visit novatekco.com. ☐

Claims or positions expressed by sponsoring authors do not necessarily reflect the views of Technology Publishing Co. or its editors.

20 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


Surface Preparation/
Dust Control Specialist
Portable Air Filtration
HEPA Vacuums
Bulk Collection
Systems

Hand Held
Scarifiers
Roto-Peen
Tools
Dustless Needle
Scalers Shrouded
Grinders Vacuum
Blasting

Novatek’s products • Lead Abatement • Ventilation


are specifically • Surface Preparation • Concrete Surface Prep
engineered for: • Asbestos Abatement • Concrete Dust Control
• Marine Maintenance • HEPA Vacuums

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Sales@Novatekco.com
www.Novatekco.com
...PURE PERFORMANCE BUILT IN USA
FROM GLOBAL MATERIALS

Be Sure To Visit Our Website!


SPONSORED

Surface Prep Basics


Tools for Use on Concrete & Steel
Surface preparation is the process of treating the surface of concrete or steel —
mechanically or chemically — prior to application of coatings. Below is a brief
introduction to a variety of surface-preparation tools and the results they achieve.

SCABBLING: CONCRETE
Scabbling involves mechanically hammer-
ing pistons into concrete or stone, leaving
a rough surface for further treatment.
Scabblers — most often air-powered —
can also be used to reduce high areas on
concrete surfaces. The choice of whether
to use a hand-held or walk-behind scab-
bler depends on the size and location
of the application. There are a variety of
pistons to choose from, depending on
how aggressive they need to be.

SCARIFYING: CONCRETE AND STEEL


Scarifying is the use of a drum of multi-
tipped cutters that rotate at high speeds, Learn more at csunitec.com/JPCL or call 877-288-8169.
PHOTO: © CS UNITEC, INC
to produce a cut in the surface. Surface
profiles can range from light cleaning to heavy material removal. Walk-behind scarifiers
cover large areas while hand-held scarifiers, also known as peening preparation tools, are
a great alternative for small-area shot blasting.

GRINDING: CONCRETE
Hand-held and walk-behind grinders use a horizontal rotating disc for a variety of func-
tions. These include profiling floors prior to coating or painting, breaking up deposits of
grease, dirt and industrial contaminants and leveling uneven joints or high spots.

SURFACE STRIPPING/SCRAPING: CONCRETE AND STEEL


Surface strippers and scrapers use an oscillating mechanism combined with a chisel,
scraper, needle or comb attachment to remove a wide range of materials from concrete
and steel. They are often used for chipping and scraping tiles and screed; adhesive, vinyl
carpet and glue removal; brick cleaning and reclamation and more. ☐
Claims or positions expressed by sponsoring authors do not necessarily reflect the views of Technology Publishing Co. or its editors.

22 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


Dust Control Surface Prep
Industrial Tools for Steel and Concrete

Scarifying Grinding Scabbling Descaling

Dust Collection for Low-Vibration Operation for


Safer Working Conditions Less Worker Fatigue

Needle Scalers and Chisels


Scaling and 7x less vibration than standard scalers
Deck Hammers

Deck/Floor
ATEX
ATEX
Grinders for
for
and Scarifiers Hot
Hot Work
Work
Ex
Ex Zones
Zones
Vibro-Lo™ and
TVS® Dust Collection
Genuine

Dust Collection Vacuums with HEPA Plus™


Automatic filter cleaning without loss of suction
Demo
Videos

1-877-288-8169
… the power of innovation! ® www.csunitec.com/JPCL

CSU-201808-PaintSquare SurPrep Supplement.indd 1 8/30/18 10:26 AM


SURFACE PREPARATION 23
SPONSORED

A Viable Alternative to
Abrasive Blasting

T
he Bristle Blaster from Montipower, Inc. offers a unique The Bristle Blaster
surface preparation solution when a blast-quality finish has been deployed
is required but abrasive blasting is not feasible, econo- extensively for
mical or permitted. Bristle Blasting enables the user use on pipelines,
to remove coatings, corrosion and scale while simultaneously refineries, bridge
generating an anchor profile with a power hand tool. The tool refurbishment,
marine fabrication
is a combination of a wire bristle “belt,” dynamically tuned to a
and repair and other
drive unit, and is designed to allow the bristle tips to strike the
industrial mainte-
corroded surface with the same kinetic energy as blast media. nance applications.
Bristle Blasting can deliver a level of surface preparation
on par with abrasive blasting. Corroded and pitted steel
surfaces can be restored to a near-white metal appearance,
For more information:
and an anchor profile of 2.6 to 3.3 mil is routinely obtained on call 877-629-8777 or
standard API 5L steel. ☐ visit mbxit.com

24 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


features the

PEOPLE PRODUCTS

PROJECTS COMPANIES
shaping the coatings
industry today!
To sign up to receive PaintSquare Press FREE,
visit paintsquare.com/pspress.

To advertise, contact sales@paintsquare.com


THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT

Recyclers

26 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


1 A recyclable blast medium, such as steel grit, can be used more
than 100 times for an initial cost of $500 to $1,200 per ton, versus
$300 for an expendable blast media like coal slag1.

2  brasiverecoveryratesdependonairflowrates,amount
A
of vacuum, hose diameter, distance debris being conveyed,
and density and size of the material being conveyed. For
distances of over 100 feet, the capacity for recovering abrasives
decreases substantially2.

3 There are three common methods employed to separate the


usableabrasivesfromtheabrasivefines,dust,paintandother
debris:air-washseparators,cycloneseparatorsandrotary
vibratory screen separators2.

4  ncethevacuumcrewisdonewithitswork,oneshouldallowall
O
steel grit to return through the grit-cleaning system and into the
storagebin.Dependingonhowfarawayfromtherecyclingunit
thevacuumcrewisworking,itwilltypicallytake10minutesor
less to clear the entire cleaning system of grit3.

5  hentheblastingseasondrawstoaclose,abrasiveblasting
W
equipmentmustbepreparedforwintermonths,whichincludesa
thorough clean-out of debris and abrasive, from the cleaning sys-
tem intake to the blast pot outlet. Blast valves should be removed,
cleaned and stored separately. Engine oil should be changed and the
filtercleaned.Oneshouldcleanorreplacetheaircleaner,drainor
stabilizethefuelwithanadditive,checkthelevelandconditionof
theradiatorfluid,andremoveandcleanthebatteriesforstorage3.

PHOTO: COURTESY OF ATLANTIC DESIGN , INC.


1. Pittsburgh Spray Equipment Company.
2. Bridge Paint: Removal, Containment and Disposal by Bernard R. Appleman, 1992.
3. “Abrasive Blasting and Recovery Units: Tips on Daily, Seasonal, and Annual Maintenance” by Gus
Lyras, Victor Pallotta and Don Evans, Advanced Recycling Systems, Inc., JPCL, December 2005.

SURFACE PREPARATION 27
SPONSORED

Proper Safety
Is No Accident

T
o ensure that operators of equip-
ment will be able to perform their
work in a safe manner, it is important
that the equipment itself has been
designed with safe operation in mind. When
Blast skid ladder
equipment with a purported ”safer” design PHOTO: © ATLANTIC DESIGN, INC.
still requires the operator to be exposed to
hazardous situations, the functionality of its safety features is diminished. A system that
has safety guards over dangerous components but still requires the operator to stand on
a ladder to attach hoses and other apparatus during assembly, disassembly or operation
is not a safely designed system.
SAFETY CHECKLIST A holistic design approach addresses safety
Look for these basic features when at every stage of the equipment lifespan —
researching equipment for purchase. from installation to operation to maintenance —
and every related procedural function that may
• Remote abrasive adjust put operators or others on the job site at risk.
• Auto load/refill When assessing equipment for purchase, look
• Low voltage for thoughtfully designed systems that avoid
Higher voltage — especially dangerous scenarios.
three-phase — is very dangerous For example, remote abrasive adjustments
and can be fatal upon contact. allow the operator to adjust blast-pot blast valves
• Lowest-possible access points from a safe distance. Controls can be designed
If access requires elevation, to be fully operational at a lower, intrinsically
a proper attached ladder and safer, voltage. Check to see if all assembly
handrail system should be part of connections can be reached at easy-access,
the equipment design. ground-level points. Relying on a ladder to reach
• Easy-access points and connect hoses creates an unnecessary risk
• Fewer moving parts exposure that can lead to injuries. Avoid cluttered
Any moving parts — especially equipment layouts that block easy access and
rotating shafts, fans and moving force the operator into tight areas for service.
belts — are pinch points that can Discharge points should have enough clearance
injure an operator. for disposal into full-size drums or bags.
Not all hazards can be eliminated, but
For additional guidance, contact the team at
Atlantic Design, Inc., info@callADI.com, thoughtful consideration of all aspects of an
1.866.CallADI (225.5234) or visit callADI.com. operation can smooth the process and foster a
safer work environment. ☐

Claims or positions expressed by sponsoring authors do not necessarily reflect the views of Technology Publishing Co. or its editors.

28 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


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THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT

Wet-Blasting
Units

30 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


1  ormanAshworthiscreditedwithdevelopingthefirst
N
wet abrasive blasting systems in the 1950s and went on to
found Abrasive Developments Limited (now Wheelabrator)
with his sons Stewart and Colin1.

2 There are two basic types of wet abrasive blasting systems.


In one, dry abrasive is ejected from the nozzle through a
shroud of water, which reduces the dust. The other mixes
water and abrasive in the blasting machine itself before
they exit the nozzle2.

3 Surging upon start-up, a large volume of grit and water


passing through the nozzle for a few seconds and then
clearingtonormalflowcanindicateafaultyvalve2.

4 SSPC-TR 2/NACE 6G198, “Wet Abrasive Blast Cleaning”


was published in 1998 and revised in 2004. It covers several
differenttypesofwetblastingsystemsincludingradial
water injectors, coaxial water injectors, slurry blasters
and water blast with abrasive injection — all systems
that either involve introducing water at some point with
a pressurized air system or introducing an abrasive into a
pressurized water system3.

5  hekeydifferencebetweenwetanddryabrasiveblasting
T
cleanliness levels is that the wet abrasive blasting
standardsincludelevelsofflashrust3.

PHOTO: COURTESY OF GRACO INC.


1. https://www.vapormatt.com/news/history-wet-blasting.
2. “Is Your Wet Blasting System Working to Its Full Potential?” by Ivan Sewell, Quill International
Industries PLC, Falcon KwikBlast® Systems, Protective Coatings Europe, November, 2005.
3. “The Difference Between Waterjetting and Wet Abrasive Blasting” by Duane T. Hough, Champion
Painting Specialty Services Corp., JPCL, September, 2016.

SURFACE PREPARATION 31
SPONSORED

Shown: Wet blasting with


EcoQuip 2, a fluidized system
from Graco used to prepare a
wide variety of surfaces.
PHOTO: COURTESY OF GRACO

Understanding the Different


Wet-Blasting Technologies
There are many wet WATER-INJECTION SYSTEMS
abrasive-blasting With nozzle-based wet blasting, water is introduced into the blast
technologies offered stream at the nozzle on a dry-blast system. Accelerated abrasive is
in the market today, slowed down by the water before it impacts the substrate, causing
making it a challenge loss in production. In addition, the media usage is the same as
to decide what when the pot is dry, so the pot must be refilled with abrasive just
type to use on any as often — more frequently than with some other wet technologies.
given project.
Before selecting a SLURRY OR WET SYSTEMS
wet-abrasive system, Slurry-blasting equipment combines water and abrasive in a pot
it is valuable to under air pressure. The mixture is then drawn into the airflow using
compare run time the Venturi effect. While slurry blasting is more effective at dust
and production suppression than nozzle-based wet blasting, it provides only limited
instead of focusing flow control. Abrasive control is achieved by metering the amount
solely on pot size. of water and abrasive exiting the pressure pot as they enter the
Here, three of the blast stream. Because of this limited flow control, slurry blasting
most common sys- also consumes relatively high amounts of abrasive and water.
tems are compared.
FLUIDIZED SYSTEMS
Fluidized abrasive-blasting equipment combines water and abra-
sive in a pot under water pressure; then wetted material is injected
Learn more about
into the airflow. This technology provides finer flow control by
wet blasting at metering pressurized water as it enters the pressure pot instead
graco.com/knowthetruth. of metering water and abrasive as it exits the pot. The result, as
demonstrated in the photo above, is a more consistent flow of
Claims or positions expressed
by sponsoring authors do not material and greater variable control of the blast pressure and
necessarily reflect the views
of Technology Publishing Co.
abrasive usage, allowing the contractor to clean and prepare a
or its editors. wide range of surfaces. ☐

32 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


Experience more
for less!
Less Containment –
Spend less time assembling, disassembling
and moving containment systems for
increased efficiency.

Less Water –
Vapor Abrasive blasting uses less than
a quart of water per minute. Much less
than WIN and Halo nozzles.

Less Media –
Blast four or more hours before refilling
the pot unlike dry blast equipment with
water injection systems.

Less Maintenance –
Thanks to the addition of water, there is
far less friction on parts resulting in
less maintenance.

Less Health Risks –


Protect your employees from exposure
to high levels of airborne dust
that could contain silica.

See what sets EcoQuip 2 apart


from the competition at graco.com/knowthetruth

Visit the Graco Blasting channel to learn what differentiates an EQs elite from a regular skid model.

©2018 Graco Inc. 350147 Rev. A


SPONSORED

Safely and Effectively Wet Blast


Wet abrasive blasting has benefits — but misunderstanding
them can be dangerous.

W
et abrasive blasting is experiencing a resurgence within the surface
preparation industry. The process (also known as vapor, dustless or slurry
blasting) involves suppressing dust in blasting operations by mixing
abrasive with a small amount of water.
“This dust suppression has advantages over dry blasting,” says Tom Enger, director
of product safety at Clemco Industries, a manufacturer of air-powered abrasive blast
equipment. “It increases operator visibility, eases containment and reduces the ‘zone of
influence’ where hazardous dust may circulate; however; wet blasting does not eliminate
inhalation hazards.“
In 2015, Enger mailed a formal letter to OSHA, requesting clarification about respirator
use when wet blasting. OSHA’s response,* in summary, was that NIOSH-approved, Type
19CE supplied-air respirators are required unless operator exposure does not exceed
permissible exposure limits (PELs) or if an operator is working in an exhaust-ventilated en-
closure where the operator is separated from the nozzle and blast, such as a blast cabinet.
“OSHA’s response,” Enger concludes, “clearly shows that when wet blasting,
operators must wear Type 19CE supplied-air respirators — the same as in dry blasting.
Likewise, powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) are not approved for wet blasting or
any abrasive blasting.”
Clemco manufactures Type 19CE supplied-air respirators for use in wet or dry blasting
operations. It also manufactures two wet-blast systems. Its Wetblast FLEX is an all-in-one
system that includes a 6-cubic-foot blast machine, pump module and a 120-gallon storage
tank. The complete unit is mounted on a portable, steel-framed skid. Its Wetblast Injector
conversion kit adds wet-blast capability to most dry-blast machines. Both options allow for
rinsing and air drying and can quickly be set up for dry blasting. For those strictly inter-
ested in dry blasting, Clemco has been producing its line of Classic Blast machines since
1949. The machines range in size from ½ cubic foot to 160 cubic feet.

*OSHA’s full response is posted on the Clemco website:


http://www.clemcoindustries.com/images/pdfs/OSHA_Reply_SARs_Wet_Vapor_Blasting.pdf

Claims or positions expressed by sponsoring authors do not necessarily reflect the views of Technology Publishing Co. or its editors.

34 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


High-Performance Wetblast FLEX
All-in-one, portable system. Wetblast anywhere, any wetblast
Dust Suppression application—now!
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Wetblast Injector
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most dry blast machines.

©2018 Clemco Industries Corp. • One Cable Car Drive • Washington, MO 63090 • Phone: 636.239.4300 • Fax: 800.726.7559
www.clemcoindustries.com
THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT

Vacuum
Equipment

1  hefirstmanualvacuumwasinventedin1860byDaniel
T
HessofWestUnion,Iowa.Itgathereddustwitharotating
brushandabellowsforgeneratingsuction1.

2  irrequirementsaregreaterwithvacuumblastingbecause
A
additionalairisneededforthevacuumsystem2.

3  hemainenvironmentalconcernswithvacuumblasting
T
arelossoflargeparticulatematterfromimproperuse
ofthetoolandasmallslugofabrasiveordebrisduring
start-upandshutdown2.

4  ustcollectorsdojusttwothings:theymoveair,andthey
D
filterair3.

5 Vacuumequipmentisonlyeffectiveonflatorveryslightly
curvedsurfaces.

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_cleaner#cite_note-1.
2. “Methods for Removal of Lead Paint from Steel Structures” by Lloyd Smith, Corrosion Control Consultants & Labs, Inc. and Alfred
Beitelman, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, September, 1994.
3. “Dust Collector Efficiency: A Model for Suggested Standards” by Marshall Seavey, Russell Roden, P.E., and Curtis Dillard,
Environmental Containment Systems, JPCL, November, 1996.

36 5 THINGS TO KNOW | TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING CO.


PHOTO: COURTESY OF INDUSTRIAL VACUUM

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INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
ABMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Abrasives, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Atlantic Design, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 TECHNOLOGY PUBLISHING COMPANY
Axxiom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17 1501 Reedsdale St ., Ste . 2008
Chemours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 Pittsburgh, PA 15233
Clemco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-35 © 2018, Technology Publishing Company
CS Unitec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-23 Printed in the U .S .A .
Graco, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-33
Industrial Vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
JPCL Article Collection . . . . . . . . . . . 2 To advertise in other TPC publications,
JPCL Monopoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 contact our sales team at:
Montipower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 sales@technologypub.com
Novatek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21 To inquire about editorial submissions,
Paint BidTracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 contact Pamela Simmons,
PaintSquare App . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 editorial director, at:
PaintSquare Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 psimmons@technologypub.com
Strategic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 Visit paintstore.com to discover other
US Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 publications from TPC .
W Abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

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