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Name : Ulin Noor Rahmani

NIM : 29318002
Class : ENTRÉE 15

Cohen & Bradord – Influence without Authority

In organizational life, you can't always get what you want, especially from people over whom
you have no authority. The Cohen-Bradford Influence model offers a practical process of
reciprocity and exchange—trading what you have that the other person desires in exchange for
what you need to accomplish workplace and personal goals. The authors also discuss some
common currencies of exchange in organizational life and how to use them effectively. The
Influence Model by Allan R. Cohen and David L. Bradford that was originally published in
their 2005 book, "Influence Without Authority." This is a book about influence—the power to
get your work done. You need to influence those in other departments and divisions, that is,
people you can’t order and control. You need to influence your manager and others above you,
and you certainly can’t order and control them!

To work well in contemporary organizations, you need to be able to wield influence. The
essence of leadership at any organizational level is to elicit cooperation, since even leaders with
authority rarely have enough power to force people to cooperate. Cooperation is a two-way
street, and influence is a kind of exchange. To achieve your objectives, you need collaborators.
To enlist them, plan ahead so you can help those you seek to influence achieve their own
objectives.

Cohen and Bradford believe that authority can be problematic. It does not always guarantee
that you will get support and commitment from those around you; and it can create fear, and
motivate people to act for the wrong reasons. This is why it's so useful to learn how to influence
others without using authority. The Influence Model is based on the law of reciprocity – the
belief that all of the positive and negative things we do for (or to) others will be paid back over
time. that means, you get the help you need and that person gets something they need in return
in due time.

The Cohen-Bradford Model is a six-step approach to control behavior at work:


1. Assume everyone as potential allies: Never write anyone off, and never lose heart, no
matter how hostile or uncooperative the person. Influencing someone else, especially
someone who seems to be "being difficult", can make you feel upset, nervous, or
unsure. Approach this situation by looking at the other person as a potential ally. That
means, think of the person or groups of people you're trying to influence as being on
your side, whether they are or not. This is like approaching a situation that you need to
influence with a positive mindset that you're going to succeed in your efforts

2. Clarify goals and priorities: Determine the need to influence the person, what benefits
the person can provide, and why to influence the person. Here, it's important to keep
your personal wants and goals out of the situation. For instance, you may
subconsciously want to be seen as "right," or you may want to have the "last word."
These personal motivations often get in the way of effective negotiation. Focus on your
goals for your role, and leave personal motivators or drivers aside

3. Diagnose the other’s world: In this step, you need to understand your potential ally's
world. To determine what drives behavior. Apply empathy to understand the other
person’s roles and responsibilities, peer pressure, cultural background, value
orientation, rewards, and what seems important to him or her. Such diagnosis helps to
overcome the tendency to blame bad personality, character or motives for undesirable
behavior.
4. Identify relevant "currencies,": Or, what matters most to the other person by
analyzing the diagnosis made in step three above. Cohen and Bradford identify
inspiration, task, position, relationship and personal related currencies as the five that
most people value highly. Most people care for more than one currency, and identifying
all or most of such motivators allows flexibility in framing the proposal. A ‘currency’
is what someone values. Currencies are very personal and don’t underestimate their
value to others if they don’t seem valuable to you.

5. Deal with relationships: This step is about knowing the person who you wish to
influence and developing a relationship of mutual trust. This depends largely on the
extent of rapport or acquaintance already existing with the other person. For instance,
one can directly ask what one wants from a familiar person on good terms, whereas
asking the same to a stranger or someone with hostility requires some work building
trust and good relationship first.

6. Influence through give and take: The principles of give and take are similar to win-
win negotiations and puts a price on the proposed information exchange. Having
established trust and identified the relevant currency, the person makes the request in a
way that by complying, the other person gets something they value in exchange.
Ultimately, most stakeholders are influenced to support or oppose a project or
programme based on what effect it will have on them. If someone’s support is needed
then hopefully they will receive something in return.

The Influence Model can be an effective tool for helping you influence others. It's especially
effective in situations where you have no authority over the other person, or where he or she
seems unwilling to help you.

The ways of influencing others are many: rational persuasion, inspirational appeal, personal
appeal, forming a coalition or alliance, relentless pressure, etc. Success, however, depends on
ensuring the person targeted values such measures. The core of the influence model is
identifying such relevant currencies, or understanding what motivates or works with the other
person. The possible types of currencies are endless. Cohen and Bradford identified five types
of currency that are most often valued:
1. Inspiration-Related Currencies: reflect inspirational goals that provide meaning to
the work a person does.
2. Task-Related Currencies: are directly related to getting the job done. They relate
to a person’s ability to perform his or her assigned tasks or to the satisfactions
that arise from accomplishment.
3. Position-Related Currencies: These currencies enhance a person’s position in the
organisation and, thereby, indirectly aid the person’s ability to accomplish tasks
or advance a career.
4. Relationship-Related Currencies: are more connected to strengthening the
relationship with someone than directly accomplishing the organisation’s tasks.
5. Personal Currencies: These currencies could form an infinite list of idiosyncratic
needs. They are valued because they enhance the individual’s sense of self. They
may be derived from task or interpersonal activity.

Negative Currencies
Currencies are what people value. But it is also possible to think of negative currencies, things
that people do not value and wish to avoid:

The Cohen-Bradford Model finds use for a variety of purpose, such as seeking help from
someone outside one’s span of authority, ensuring that subordinates put their heart and soul
into work, overcome any resistance or challenges to authority, establishing a new vendor,
supplier or contractor relationship with a stranger and requiring instant support, and more. In
the corporate world, the concept finds application in many ways, mainly in give and takes.
When applied right, the influence model goes a long way to ensure the vitality of the product.
“Influence without Authority” outlines the key components of this model, illustrating the
scenarios in which the model can be applied. These are the three learning points I took away
from reading this book:

1. The currencies of exchange — The aforementioned Cohen-Bradford model is based on


exchange and reciprocity — making trades for what you desire in return for what the other
person desires. There are number of potential currencies that one can use to trade.

2. Gaining clarity on your objectives — For the Cohen-Bradford model to work effectively,


it’s important that you figure out exactly what you want, and prioritise your goals
accordingly.

3. Deciding with whom to attempt exchanges — The ability to consider and decide potential
allies to exchange is a critical part of the Cohen-Bradford model and the book outlines some
valuable considerations how to exchange directly with a potential ally. Considerations for
deciding how to exchange directly with a potential ally include:
Centrality of the Ally – How powerful is the other person? Power means more than
hierarchical position: What needed resources does he or she control? How exclusive is the
person’s control of those resources? How dependent are you on that person for success?
To what extent does the person’s opinion affect others? If the person gets angry with you,
can he or she harm your project?
Amount of Effort/Credits Needed
 Do you already have a relationship with the person, or will you be starting from scratch?
Is there any way to quickly establish a working relationship, or is the process inherently
slow?
 Is the person likely to insist on trading in currencies you do not command or cannot
gain access to? How expensive will it be to you to pay in the desired currencies?
 Will the person be satisfied as long as you at least pay your respects and stay in touch,
without asking anything directly?
Alternatives Available
• Do you know anyone whose support will help gain the support of the potential ally? In
other words, who can influence the ally if you are not able to directly?
• If you can’t influence the person in the right direction, can you find a way to neutralize
him or her? Can you reshape your project to take the person’s opposition into account
or to skirt the person’s worst concerns?

On my way to criticize this influence model, I absolutely agreed, since this model could gave
us the trading about the situation also how we could take right position in those kind situation.
Influence without authority is more effective when there is no direct benefit for the stakeholder
you need help from and is based on “trading favors” or, more simply, the “you scratch my back
and I’ll scratch yours” approach. We can and often do intuitively understand the give-and-take
in a transaction for small things, such as sharing the effort to pick up the morning coffee.
However, for large complex transactions, we need to be more methodical and think through
our processes, goals and interests, those of our allies and those of the stakeholders we need to
influence. But even so, influencing without authority isn’t an easy task. The key to influence
without authority is creating and banking “organizational currency” in advance of the time you
need to use it. Keep in mind you need to invest your time and effort to earn organizational
currency with your stakeholders before you can “spend” it.