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TITLE PAGE.NO.
1. CERTIFICATES 1
2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 5
3. ABSTRACT 6
4. TURBO MACHINE 7
5. TURBINES 9
6. HISTORY OF GAS TURBINE 11
7. GAS TURBINE 13
8. GAS TURBINE PARTS 14
9. COMPRESSOR 16
10. COMBUSTION SYSTEM 17
11. TURBINE SECTION 19
12. TYPES OF GAS TURBINES 20
13. FUELS USED IN GAS TURBINE 21
14. GAS TURBINE ROTOR 22
15. COMPRESSOR ROTOR 23
16. COMPRESSOR WHEEL 24
17. MATERIAL COMPOSITION 25
18. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 26
19. STRESSES IN COMPRESSOR WHEEL 27
20. MANUFACTURING OF AS TURBINE 28
21. SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS CARRIED 29
22. MANUFACTUR OF COMPRESSOR WHEEL 31
23. COMPRESSOR WHEEL MACHINING 32
24. ADVANTAGES OF GAS TURBINE 33
25. UNIQUE FEATURES OF GAS TURBINE 34
26. APPLICATION OF GAS TURBINE 36

ABSTRACT
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The present work aim to study in detail on gas turbine.


BHEL Hyderabad is the only organization in the public sector in India actively
involved in manufacturing gas turbine for the industrial applications
The gas turbine represents the most satisfactory way of producing very large
quantities of power in a self-contained and compact unit. The gas turbine may have a future
use in conjunction with the oil engine. A gas turbine is used in aviation and marine fields
because it is self contained, light weight not requiring cool water and generally fit into the
overall shape of the structure. Gas turbine is generally selected for power generation
because of its simplicity, lack of cooling water, needs quick installation, and quick starting. It
is used in oil and gas industry because of cheaper supply of fuel and low installation cost.
The mechanical efficiency of a gas turbine is quite high as compared to I.C. engine,
since the I.C. engine has large number of sliding parts. Gas turbines are widely used for
power generation than steam turbines because maintenance of steam turbines is costlier when
compared to that of gas turbines, as well as the efficiency of steam turbine is comparatively
less with gas turbines. In

GAS TURBINES
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Gas turbine is rotary type of I.C. engine. The cyclic events of gas turbine are similar
to reciprocating type I.C. engine, but each event in the gas turbine is carried out in different
devices.
A simple gas turbine is comprised of three main sections a compressor, a combustor,
and a power turbine. The gas-turbine operates on the principle of the Brayton cycle, where
compressed air is mixed with fuel, and burned under constant pressure conditions. The
resulting hot gas is allowed to expand through a turbine to perform work. In a 33% efficient
gas-turbine approximately two / thirds of this work is spent compressing the air, the rest is
available for other work i.e. (mechanical drive, electrical generation).
The air is first compressed in a rotary compressor before passing to combustion
chamber where fuel is injected and ignited. The hot burnt gases expand through the blades of
a turbine where the kinetic energy of burnt gases is utilized to produce power. Finally the
gases are exhausted from the turbine unit.
The part of power developed is used to drive the compressor, thus the overall
efficiency of the gas turbine unit is lowered. Gas turbines are comparatively small weight and
size as that of steam turbines.

TURBO MACHINES

Turbines, compressors and fans are all members of the same family of machines
called turbo-machines. Turbo-machines is a power or head generating machine, which
employs the dynamic action of a rotating element, the rotor, the action of the rotor changes
the, energy level continuously, of the fluid flowing through the turbo machine. The majority
of the turbo machines run at comparatively higher speeds without any mechanical problems.
The gas will experience change in it state dictated by the surroundings in turbo machines are
the adiabatic machines. On the account of much high rotor and fluid velocities, the flow rates
in turbo machines are much larger.

TURBINES

The power generating turbo machines decreases the head or the energy level of the
working fluids passing through them. These machines are called turbines, e.g. Steam, gas,
hydro and wind turbines. They are coupled to power absorbing machines such as electric
generators, pumps, compressors etc.
A stage of turbo machine generally consists of a ring of moving blades along with a
ring of fixed blade. The principal element in a turbo machine stage is the rotor, which
performs the basic function of the transfer of energy. Thus a gas turbine is a turbo machine.
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A Gas turbine is a turbo-machine, which is also an I.C. engine to drive the generator
rotor as a prime mover for the power generation and also mechanical drive for other rotating
parts.
A Gas turbine consists of basically of a gas generator section and a power conversion
section. The gas generator section consists of a compressor, combustion chamber in which
the gas is burned at constant pressure and the next section is the turbine.

HISTORY OF GAS TURBINE


The gas turbine has developed into very reliable and versatile engine, since it was first
patient 1791 with a high power to weight ratio.
The first gas turbine that actually operated was designed and built in France, by
stolze. Testing of this unit began in 1900, but the results were very discouraging because of
low compression efficiencies. After consecutive attempts, H. Holtz worth apparently did the
major work.
Brown boveri of Switzerland introduce the first power generating gas turbine in
production in 1937. Now the present gas turbine generates 30GW power per year.

GAS TURBINE

The gas turbine is a rotating internal combustion engine, which takes air from the
atmosphere and compresses it to a higher pressure in a axial compressor (compressor section)
and the compressed air flows into combustion chamber where fuel is admitted and ignited
with the help of a spark plug. The products of combustion are used as a working fluid for
developing power in the turbine section of the Gas Turbine.
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The thermodynamic cycle upon which a gas turbine works is called the Brayton
Cycle. A systematic diagram of a single shaft, simple cycle gas turbine is shown in Fig. Air
enters the compressor at point 1 of schematic at ambient conditions. The air is compressed to
a higher pressure in the compressor. Upon leaving the compressor, the air enters the
combustion system at point 2, where fuel is injected and combustion takes place. The
combustion process occurs at essentially at constant pressure. The combustion system is
designed to provide mixing, dilution and cooling. Thus, by the time the combustion mixture
leaves the combustion system and enters the turbine at point 3, it is at some mixed average
temperature: In the turbine section of the Gas Turbine, the energy of the hot gases is
converted into work. This conversion actually takes place in two steps. In the nozzle section
of the turbine, the hot gases are expanded and thus a portion of the thermal energy is
converted into kinetic energy. In the subsequent bucket section of the turbine, a portion of the
kinetic energy is transferred to the rotating buckets and is converted to work. Fig. shows the
pressure-volume (p-v) and temperature-entropy (T-s) diagrams for the Brayton
Cycle. The numbers on the diagrams corresponds to the numbers used in the Fig, that
is, path 1-2 represents, the constant pressure addition of heat in the combustion section, and
path 3-4 represents the expansion that takes place in the turbine. The path from 4 back to 1 on
the cycle diagrams is indicative of constant pressure cooling process taking place in the
atmosphere.

A Brayton Cycle is characterized by two very significant parameters: pressure ratio


and firing temperature. The pressure ratio of the cycle is the pressure at point 2 divided by the
pressure at point 1. The firing temperature point 3 on the fig., is the highest temperature
reached in the cycle. The thermodynamic cycle efficiency and Power output of a Gas Turbine
depends on these two parameters.
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INLET COMPR CDC TURBINE EXHAUST


GAS TURBINE PARTS
CASING CASING CASE FRAME

The compressor draws air into the engine, pressurises it, and delivers it to the combustion
chamber. It is driven from the turbine by a shaft. There are two types of compressor: the
centrifugal flow impeller type, as used in Whittle’s designs, and the axial flow type which has
several stages of alternate rotating and stationary aerofoil blades. The rotor blades are
mounted on a drum and the stator vanes in the compressor casing. Axial compressors can
achieve compression ratios in excess of 40:1. At full power the blades of the Trent 892
compressors rotate at 1000mph (1,600kph) and take in 2,600lb (1,200kg) of air per second.
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THE COMPONENTS OF GAS TURBINE


The major components of a Gas Turbine are the compressor, combustion system and
turbine section. These are dealt in detail in the following sections.

COMPRESSOR:
The Gas Turbine compressor is an axial flow design of subsonic type that efficiently
compresses a large volume of air. The compressor consists of many individual stages
operating in series, for example total number of stages being 17 for 40 MW GT. Each
compressor stage consists of a rotating row of blades (aerofoil) that increases the velocity of
the incoming air there by increasing its kinetic energy, followed by stationary row of blades
that act as diffusers, converting the kinetic energy to pressure increase. The number of stages
used for a particular gas turbine compressor depends upon the design pressure ratio for that
turbine. Typical pressure ratio ranges from 6:1 to 14.9:1.
At the compressor inlet there is a row of stationary blades, called inlet guide vanes
(IGV's) that direct the incoming air on to the first rotating stage in a smooth way. In some
compressors the flow angle of the IGV's can be changed to control the volume of air being
drawn into the compressor. The variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV's) are used to ensure
aerodynamically smooth operating compressor throughout a large operating range.
At the compressor discharge, there are several rows of stationary diffuser blades and a
cone shaped diffuser to obtain maximum pressure rise before the air goes into the combustion
system.

COMBUSTIONSYSTEM:
The combustion chamber receives air from the compressor which mixes with fuel
sprayed from nozzles in the front of the chamber.The mixture is burned at temperatures up to
2,000ºC to generatethe maximum possible heat energy. The burning process isinitiated by
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igniter plugs, isolated after start-up, and remains continuous until the fuel supply is shut off.
At cruise the Trent 892 uses about 1,000 gallons (4,500 litres) of fuel per hour.
The combustion system consists of several liners into which fuel is added and burnt with a
portion of compressed air. The excess compressed air is used to limit the temperature level
usable by the turbine.
The individual liners are connected to the turbine section by transition pieces. Fuel is
injected into each liner by fuel nozzles that atomize the fuel for effective burning.
The fuel is ignited initially by electric igniters. Once the fire is started, the combustion
process is self-sustaining as long as the fuel and air are available.

TURBINE SECTION:

Each turbine consists of one or more stages of alternate stationary and rotating aerofoil-
section blades. The rotating turbine blades are carried on discs, which are connected by a
shaft to the compressor. The stationary blades - nozzle guide vanes – are housed in the
turbine casing. The turbine extracts energy from the hot exhaust gases to drive the
compressor. In the Trent 892, the
first turbine has to be air-cooled as it operates in a gas stream temperature of around 1,500ºC
- hotter than the melting point of the blade material. The total power generated by the engine
is
250,000hp (200,000kW) and the exhaust gases exit at 1,000

The turbine consists of several stages. Each stage comprises of a stationary row of
nozzles where, the velocity of the high-energy gases is increased and directed towards a
rotating row of buckets (aero foils) attached to the turbine shaft. The high velocity gases
impinge on the buckets, converting the kinetic energy of the gas into shaft power.
Varying the amount of fuel injected into the combustion chamber, changes the energy
from the combustion system available to drive the turbine.
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TYPES OF GAS TURBINES

S. No TYPES OF GAS TURBINES

1. MS 1002 3MW

2. MS 3002 10MW

3. MS 5001 25MW

4. MS 6001 38MW

5. MS 9001 120MW

S.No Frame of Gas Capacity(MW) No.ofstages in


turbine turbine
1. 5 30 2
2. 6 37 3
3. 6FA 75 3
4. 9E 125 3
5. 9FA 256 3
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FUELS USED IN GAS TURBINE

Sl No FUEL USED IN GAS TURBINE

1. Natural Gas

2. Naphtha

3. Diesel

4. Dual Gas

5. Process Gas

GAS TURBINE ROTOR

The importance of gas turbine, thus being known, has made it necessary for its
manufacture. The unit rotor plays a key role on functioning of the turbine. The assembly of
compressor and turbine rotors on a single shaft manufactures it. The compressor rotor is an
assembly of17 compressor wheels being stacked using tie bolts. The two rotors long with a
distance piece and a forward shaft and backward shaft a single termed as "Unit Rotor"

Parts of Rotor
1. Unit Rotor.
2. Compressor Rotor.
3. Turbine Rotor.

The sub parts are

1. a) Compressor Rotor.
b) Turbine rotor.
c) Marriage bolts.
d) Marriage nuts.

2. a) Forward stub shaft.


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b) Stage2 to Sage17 compressor wheels.

c) Tie rods & nuts.

d) Blades &spacers.

3. a) A forward turbine stub shaft.

c) Spacers stage 1 to stage 2.

d) Distance piece.

e) Tie rods & nuts.

COMPRESSOR ROTOR

The compressor rotor is built up of small individually forged wheels connected by


through bolts, providing a rugged steel assembly with fine rotor dynamic balance. Each
individual wheel undergoes X-ray inspection for material flaws. In addition, each wheel is
balanced individually in order to have minimum unbalanced of assembled rotor.
Each wheel has minimum thickness directly Linder the rim to eliminate dead weight,
this area, known as the web, is designed to control and maintain constant tangential and
residual stresses. Rabbet fits are used to ensure concentricity and multiple through-bolts
secure the wheels to form a correctly pre-stressed assembly. The blades are held in position
by dovetail groves on the compressor wheel mounted on the compressor rotor. The stainless
steel blades provide excellent corrosion resistance and good internal damping characteristics.
The compressor blades of large chord broad-blade design, with low stresses, uniquely
provide the ability to withstand foreign object damage as well as to maintain high
performance inspite of normal wear and contamination. The stator casing horizontally split
for ease of assembly, maintenance and inspections. Iron castings give dimensional and
thermal stability to maintain good radial tip clearance for maximum power and efficiency.
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COMPRESSOR WHEEL

Compressor wheel is a part of compressor rotor in Gas Turbine rotor. The each
compressor wheel is machined separately and assembled with tie rods. The compressor rotor
is an axial flow type with 17 stages,

BOLT HOLES COMPRESSOR WHEEL


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MATERIAL COMPOSITION

The wheel is made of haste alloy (Ni, Cr, Mo forged steel). It has the following

material composition.

Carbon -0.31

Silicon -0.05

Manganese -1.10

Chromium -19.0

Nickel -9

Molybdenum -1.4

Phosphorous -0.4

Sulphur -1.4

Iron -66.0

Titanium -0.20

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Tensile strength 15-135 ksi

Yield strength 90 ksi

Elongation 15%

Reduction of area 52

Brinell's hardness 228-277 BHN.


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STRESSES IN COMPRESSOR WHEEL

The forces exerted on the gas turbine parts and resulting on that of compressor wheel
are

a) Air Forces

Air Forces caused by pressure difference between upstream and down stream of the
blades. They can be steady or vibratory and can be minimized by sound aerodynamic design.

b) Forces due to constrained thermal expansion

Any component should be allowed to expand freely under all operating conditions.
Any constraint will endure thermal stress. A good design will limit them within the elastic
limit.

c) Dynamic Stresses due to vibration

Time dependant stresses may be induced due to blade vibrations or due to the rotor

vibration should be small under normal operating conditions. Since, these are considerable in

case of unbalanced shaft.

d) Centrifugal Stresses

Considering wheel to be a rotating disc, the following principle stress exists in it.

i. Hoop stress or circumferential stress

This acts along the circumference of the wheel, tends break the ring into two halves.

ii. Radial stress


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It acts along the radius of the wheel.


iii. Longitudinal stress

It acts along the length of the cylinder but since the axial thickness of the wheel is 80-150
mm in length, these stresses are not considered

MANUFACTURING OF GAS TURBINE


Gas turbine consists of
1. Stator
2. Rotor

Stator of a gas turbine consists of the following casings:


1. Inlet casing
2. Compression casing
3. Compression discharge casing
4. Turbine casing
5. Exhaust

All the casings are manufactured by following similar operations. Casings are made up of
Cast iron.
In 9FA compression discharge casing is made of steel and remaining are of cast iron.

Sequence of operations carried in manufacturing of casings:


1. Marking:
Firstly the job is kept on a plane surface. It is then marked using vernier height
gauge considering allowances and excess material on the job. Marking is done
which include tolerances. Marking is very important for any job to get accurate
results.

2. Parting plane milling:


Each casing contains of two halves upper half and lower half. These two halves
are joined through studs and bolts. The plane which divides two halves is called
parting plane. After marking the excess material is found and it is removed by
milling with T-max cutter. The PP milling is done on horizontal boring machine.
Milling is done firstly to the upper half and then to lower half. As the casing is of
CI no coolant is required for milling operation because air and
kerosene are the coolants for CI.
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3. Parting plane drilling:


This operation is done on horizontal boring machine. The job is placed on the
machine and is clamped. Tracer is used for marking of holes. After marking drill
bit is fixed to the spindle of required dia and holes are drilled on the parting plane.
These holes are useful in joining the two halves of the casing.

4. Assembling:
In assembling of casing both the halves of each casing are joined through nuts and
bolts. After assembling each casing undergoes its internal operations separately.

5. Turning:
Casings having two halves are joined and turning is done internally upto
markings. In this stage plane turning and making grooves internally for fixing of
fixed blades in compressor casing, bearings and housings in inlet casing, nozzles
diaphrams in turbine casing is done. Turning is performed after assembling of two
halves to obtain symmetric shaping for casings.

6. Peripheral operations:
These include making grooves for attaching flanges on the casings etc., peripheral
operations are done on casing for connection of auxiliaries at required locations.

7. Dismantling:
After finishing the above operations the two halves are then again separated by
removing nuts and bolts.

8. Inside operations:
Any operations remaining in above sequence are done here. This operations
include turning, drilling etc.,

9. Connecting flange:
It is a flange between any of two casings. Connecting flange is used for joining
two casings.

10. Tapping:
Tapping is done wherever required. This is performed at parting plane holes,
horizontal and vertical holes of casings.

11. Inspection:
Every casing after completing above sequence of operations is checked for
accuracy. All the measurements and operations are ensured to be within limits in
inspection and errors if any are corrected and casing is then sent to assembly.

.
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MANUFACTURE OF COMPRESSOR WHEEL


The compressor rotor rotates at a very high speed of 5104 rpm. During rotation,
presence of unbalanced material creates stresses and leads to the bending of rotor. To avoid
this, much care is to taken during the manufacturing process. Each and every operation is
performed carefully and the total imbalance material allowed only one gram per wheel.

Sequence of Operations in Compressor Wheel Machining:

The wheel made out of combination of Ni, Cr, Mo, is forged into its shaped and when
the following sequence of operations is performed on it.
1. Material identification

2. Ultrasonic Test

3. Turning

4. Grinding

5. Run out Inspection

6. Bolt Hole Drilling

7. Blade Groove Slot Milling

8. Magna Particles' Inspection

9. Sand Blasting

10. Grit Powder Painting

11. Blading
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12. Knocking

13. Blade Tip Grinding

14. Balancing

15. Inspection by Quality Control

16. Assembling

ROTOR:
A gas turbine rotor consists of compressor rotor and turbine rotor. Compressor rotor consists
of 17 stages of compressor wheels. Each wheel of the rotor has its own specifications.
Compressor rotor is assembled by vertically stacking the wheels. First the compress forward
stub shaft and first wheel are put into the stacking pair with tie rod in place.

Each wheel is slid vertically over the bolts. In the same fashion all the remaining wheels are
installed into the rod. Once the last wheel and aft stub are stacked the tie bolts are then
stacked.
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Once the compressor wheel is assembled it is slow speed balanced to make sure that vibration
levels meet design standards. GE is leader in rotation and vibration analysis.
First step of installing first stage buckets to the turbine wheel is to insert radial locking pin
into the locking bucket of tail. The first bucket is installed in the counterclockwise by joining
tail slot and is held in place with a D-key. Remaining buckets are installed in this fashion
around the wheel counterclockwise. The last bucket is installed to its groove and its axial
locking pin is driven into the wheel. This pushes the radial locking pin up to hold the last
bucket in place. All the buckets are now locked on to the turbine wheel.
Before second and third stage buckets are installed twist locks are put in place and buckets
are installed as 360° ring. Once they are installed twist locks are rotated to lock them in place.
Now these turbine wheels are installed to the turbine rotor. A spacer is provided in between
two wheels of a turbine in the rotor.
Compressed rotor and turbine rotor are joined through a distance piece. It separates the
compressor and turbine and prevents the flow of air directly to the turbine.
After completing the rotor assembly all the lower halves are joined. Fixed blades are installed
in the compressor casing and nozzles are installed in the turbine casing. Then journal and
thrust bearings and housings are placed into their respective casings the lower halves putting
first. Journal bearings prevent radial movement of the rotor and thrust bearing prevents from
axial movement of the rotor.
Then the upper halves of bearings and housings are installed. Then the bearings are aligned
with the casings installed. Upper halves of casings, bearings and housings are removed to
allow for internal component installation. All horizontal and vertical bolts are removed and
the casings are lifted up one at a type following the sequence. First turbine shell is removed
followed by compression casing, inlet casing, exhaust casing and finally the compression
discharge casing.
Final step is installation of rotor and upper halves of bearing and housing casings.
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To arrange first stage nozzles the nozzle segments are installed into the support ring. Seals
are installed to minimize gas leakage. Alignment pins are installed to radially align the
segments in the ring.

To assemble second stage nozzle, core plugs are installed in investment cast piece. To allow
for even cooling down the senere of the bore of the nozzle segment the diaphram alignment.
Wheel space cooling tubes and plugs are installed in the diaphragm. Third stage nozzle is
similar to second stage nozzle but it is not air-cooled. So there is no core air plug and no
cooling tubes.
Once the casings are installed combustion chamber systems are installed. Next the shell
cooling air piping is installed. Air comes from off base blowers to facilitate shell cooling in
the turbine and exhaust casings. Then inlet and exhaust plenums are installed. The flex seals
are put in place, the flex seals keep the exhaust gases from escaping into turbine compartment
or out into the atmosphere for allowing thermal expansion. Finally compression bleed valves
are installed these are operational during start up and shut down to protect the unit from
surge.
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ADVANTAGES OF GAS TURBINES:

There are many advantages of the gas turbines over other turbines, like:

 Smaller in size

 Easy of shifting

 Erection time is less

 Less space is required

 Less water is required

 Less pollution

 It can be erected anywhere

 Continuous power supply can be made available

 Flexible to use different fuels such as HSD, Naptha, Heavy Oils, Crudes & Coal gas.

 Higher reliability

UNIQUE FEATURE OF GAS TURBINES

Keeping view of disadvantages of gas in both hydro and thermal power

stations -
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Gas turbines are well designed and introduced for power generation.

1. To make use of Natural gas as a fuel.

2. To eliminate the pollution from coal based power sector.

3. To reduce the usage of water unlike Hydro and thermal power sector.

4. To get continuous power supply, unlike seasonal power supply by Hydro

(6months) and thermal (9months) sectors, all through the year.

5. Fuel flexibility.

APPLICATION OF A GAS TURBINE

1. Power Generation

Higher capacity gas turbines are widely used in power generation and
stand by.

a. The Grid System: Power is produced and distributed continuously to large system
through a grid system.

b. Stand by Generation: Power is produced for emergency uses in hospitals, public


building. Only for local purpose.

2. Mechanical Drive Application

a. To pump gas & oil through pipeline.


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b. Instead of engines where power ranger is ofrange above 6MW where the scope for diesel
engine is almost nil.

3. Automotive Applications

a. For high-speed engines.

b. For gas cars (once upon a time)

c. Hybrid electric vehicles. The gas turbines supply power to recharge

batteries of electric motors.

d. For racing cars.

e. In battle tanks -Abram MI tank.

4. Marine

a. Merchant Container's.

b. Sub marines.

5. Aircraft Application

a. Unmanned vehicle systems.

b. Commercial aircrafts & military trainee.

c. Advanced Military fighters.

d. Missiles.

6. Chemical Processing

a. Process Drives.
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b. Petroleum Production.

c. Natural gas processing.

d. Plastics manufacturing.

e. Ethylene production.