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# RESEARCH MBA

FINAL EXAM

## Name: LEA JOY D. MENDIGUARIN Date: March 09,2019

Year & Section: MBA S.Y. 2018-2019

## Part I. Determine the sample.

A.
1. 678, e = 2 4. 4901, e = 4
n = N/(1+Ne²) n = N/(1+Ne²)
n= 678 / (1+678 x .022) n= 4901 / (1+ 4901 x .042)
n=678 / (1+678 x .0004) n= 4901 / (1+ 4901 x .0016)
n=678 / (1+0.2712) n= 4901 / (1+7.8416)
n=678 / 1.2712 n= 4901 / 8.8416
n=533 n= 554

## 2. 1092, e=5 5. 968, e = 3.5

n = N/(1+Ne²) n = N/(1+Ne²)
n=1092 / (1+1092 x .052) n = 968 / (1+968 x .0352)
n=1092 / (1+1092 x .0025) n = 968 / (1+968 x .001225)
n=1092 / (1+2.73) n = 968 / (1+1.1858)
n=1092 / 3.73 n = 968 / 2.1858
n= 293 n = 443

3. 3462, e=3
n = N/(1+Ne²)
n= 3462 / (1+3462 x .032)
n= 3462 / (1+3462 x .0009)
n= 3462 / (1+3.1158)
n = 3462 / 4.1158
n = 841
B.
ZONE POPULATION SAMPLE PERCENTAGE
1 14,962 103 21%
2 12,608 83 17%
3 10,501 69 14%
4 13,605 93 19%
5 11,386 78 16%
6 9,205 64 13%
TOTAL 72,267 490 100%
PART II.

## 1.1 FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY

LITERATURE REVIEW

Spector (1997) refers to job satisfaction in terms of how people feel about their jobs and
different aspects of their jobs. Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) support this view by defining job
satisfaction as the extent to which employees like their work. Schermerhorn (1993) defines job
satisfaction as an affective or emotional response towards various aspects of an employee’s
work. C.R. Reilly (1991) defines job satisfaction as the feeling that a worker has about his job or
a general attitude towards work or a job and it is influenced by the perception of one’s job. J.P.
Wanous and E.E. Lawler (1972) refers to job satisfaction as the sum of job facet satisfaction
across all facets of a job. Abraham Maslow (1954) suggested human need from a five-level
hierarchy ranging from physiological needs, safety, belongingness and love, esteem to
selfactualization. Based on Maslow’s theory, job satisfaction has been approached by some
researchers from the perspective of need fulfillment.

Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction not only depends on the nature of the job, it also
depends on the expectations what the job supply to an employee (Hussami, 2008). Lower
convenience costs, higher organizational and social and intrinsic reward will increase job
satisfaction (Mulinge and Mullier, 1998). Job satisfaction is complex phenomenon with multi
facets and influenced by the factors like salary, working environment, autonomy,
communication, and organizational commitment (Vidal, Valle and Aragón, 2007). Different
people interpret compensation differently. Compensation, reward, recognition, and wages are
terms used in different situations (Zobal, 1998). The compensation is defined by American
Association as “cash and non-cash remuneration provided by the employer for services
rendered”. Salary was found to be the prime factor for the motivation and job satisfaction of
salaried employees of the automobile industry in the results of the survey done by Kathawala et
al. (1990). The survey tried to assess the various job characteristics and the way the employees
ranked them as motivators and satisfiers. The results showed that compensation was ranked as
the number one job element for job satisfaction and increase in salary for performance was
ranked as the number one job element for motivation. Compensation is very valuable tool for
retention and turnover. It is also a motivator for an employee in commitment with the
organization which in result enhances attraction and retention (Zobal, 1998; Moncarz et al.,
2009; Chiu et al., 2002). It also works as communicator when it is given to employee against his
services which shows how much an employee is valuable for its organization (Zobal, 1998).

The mentoring is used for development-orientation (Scandura and Williams, 2004). When
a supervisor provides mentoring, the relationship affects the protégés skill development and
intentions to remain with the employer (McManus and Russell, 1997). On the other hand non-
organization (Scanduraa and Williams, 2004). The immediate supervisor support is very
important in organizational change. Although the support of supervisor is not very crucial in
satisfaction but it has positive impact on satisfaction (Griffin, Patterson and West, 2001).
According to Chakrabarty, Oubre, and Brown (2008), “perhaps the finest way in which
supervisors can portray himself as a role model is to personally demonstrate proper techniques
so that employee could understand how job should be done.” J.D. Politis (2001) has examined
the roles played by leadership in the process of knowledge acquisition and a survey was carried
out on 227 persons who were engaged in knowledge acquisition activities to examine the
relationship between leadership styles and knowledge acquisition attributes. The results showed
that the leadership styles that involve human interaction and encourage participative decision-
making are related positively to the skills and essential knowledge acquisition.

## According to the study conducted by Friedlander and Margulies (1969), it was

discovered that management & friendly staff relationships contribute to the level of job
satisfaction. However, this result contradicts with view of Herzberg (1966) who supported the
view that supervision is irrelevant to the level of job satisfaction. Arnold and Feldman (1996),
promoted factors such as temperature, lighting, ventilation, hygiene, noise, working hours, and
resources as part of working conditions. The worker would rather desire working conditions that
will result in greater physical comfort and convenience. The absence of such working conditions,
amongst other things, can impact poorly on the worker’s mental and physical well-being (Baron
and Greenberg, 2003). Arnold and Feldman (1996) shows that factors such as temperature,
lighting, ventilation, hygiene, noise, working hours, and resources are all part of working
conditions. Employees may feel that poor working conditions will only provoke negative
performance, since their jobs are mentally and physically demanding.

Sophie Rowan (2008) reveals how to create a happier work life, without changing career.
She provides practical and realistic guidance on how one can achieve optimal job satisfaction
and overcome the obstacles that make so many of us unhappy at work.

Robert M. Hochheiser (1998) reassessed the meaning of the workplace and proposed a
simple formula for success- Forget the idea that hard work alone leads to success and instead
focus on building good relationships. He asserts that the best way to win at work is to understand
what is needed to support the egos of bosses, peers, and subordinates. Accurate assessment of
those needs can then be indirectly associated with one's own personal goals and exploited to
make substantive workplace gains. Methods of determining needs are given for a variety of
situations, and strategies are offered to help make some of the worst work situations at least
marginally better through networking and personal development.

C. J. Cranny, Patricia Cain Smith, Eugène F. Stone (1992) reveals perceiving future
opportunity can actually be more motivating than actually receiving a raise, getting promoted, or

Joanna Penn (2008) teaches how to improve your position in your current employment,
gaining more from your job, discovering more about yourself and what it is you would be happy
doing, stress management and people management.

Evren Esen (2007) examined in terms of industry and staff size as well as employee age
and gender more than 20 indicators of job satisfaction including career-advancement
opportunities, benefits, the flexibility to balance life and work, and compensation.

Elwood Chapman (1993) helps to determine employee level of satisfaction and then
assists in making positive changes to increase both satisfaction level and quality of work.
Patricia Buhler, Jason Scott (2009) present an academic argument for building an
employee-centered culture. They also examined a real-world case study of a company that has
experienced the economic benefits of this practice, making it abundantly clear that modern
businesses can't afford not to make employee satisfaction a top priority.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The term job satisfaction was brought to limelight by Hoppock (1935). According to him
job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological and environmental factors that
makes a person to admit, “I am happy at my job”. It has also been defined as the ‘end state of
feeling’. It is an important dimension of morale and not morale itself. TYPES OF HUMAN
RESOURCES

The human resources of an organization can be broadly classified into two types. They are:
1. External Human Resources
These types of human resources stay outside the structure of the organization
and they are of prime strength to the development activities including expansion of the
operations of the undertaking. The examples for such human resources are customers,
shareholders etc.
2. Internal Human resources

These types of human resources stay inside the structure of the organization,
i.e, the human beings at the disposal of the undertaking or otherwise it is the
productive capacity of the human organization of the firm.

The human resources at the disposal of the organisation, i.e., the internal human resources can
be broadly divided into three categories. They are:
(a) Lower Level Workers
(b) Middle Management
(c) Top Management

## 1. Motivation – Hygiene theory.

2. Need-Fulfilment theory
3. Equity theory
4. Discrepancy theory
5. Equity - Discrepancy theory

## DIMENSIONS TO JOB SATISFACTION

1. Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. As such, it cannot be seen, it can
only be inferred. It relates to one’s feeling towards one’s job.
2. Job satisfaction is often determined by how will outcomes meet the expectations or exceed
the expectations.
3. Job satisfaction and job attitudes are typically used interchangeably.

A. Organizational Factors
1. Salaries and wages
2. Promotion chances
3. Company Policies
B. Work Environmental Factors
1. Supervision.
2. Work Group.
3. Working Conditions.
C. Work Itself
1. Job Scope
2. Variety
3. Lack of autonomy and freedom
4. Role ambiguity and role conflict

5. Interesting Work
D. Personal Factors
1. Age and seniority
2. Tenure
3. Personality
4. Level of Education
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

S SALARY

WORK ENVIRONMENT

JOB
SATISFACTION

MOTIVATION

In this conceptual framework, five (5) major factor variables and twenty-three (23) first

level indicators are identified. The relationship between the five variables and first level

indicators is tabulated above. The questionnaire will be based on those first level indicators in

relation to each factor. Each indicator contains two, three, or more questions. According to this

conceptual framework, job satisfaction is the dependent variable here, and other factors are

independent variables.
1.2 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

The survey was conducted in three branches. The total number of employees in three

## branches are twenty thousand twenty-eight (20,028).

BRANCH POPULATION

BRANCH A 9,512

BRANCH B 8,406

BRANCH C 2,110

TOTAL 20,028

Sampling Technique

The actual number of respondents was chosen through a stratified random sampling

technique. To determine the size of the sample, the researcher used the Slovin’s formula (Pagoso,

et al)

n = N/(1+Ne²)

where

## N = the size of the population

e = margin of error

e = 3%

N = 20,028

Based on the result of the computation using the 3% margin of error, the sample size was

1,053.
Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this research are the employees of the said organization in its three
branches.

Table 1

## BRANCH FREQUENCY (Sampling PERCENTAGE

Technique)
A 495 47%
B 442 42%
C 116 11%
Total 1,053 100%

The researcher will consider a total of 1,053 respondents comprising the branches A, B

and C to obtain the parametric reliability and validity of the data gather through the

questionnaire.

## 1.3 RESEARCH DESIGN

The objective of this research is to examine the effect of salary, work environment,
leadership, motivation as well as work load on employee job satisfaction in an organization. The
research design is based on the theoretical framework with proposing the key variables,
formulating the hypotheses and testing the relationships between independent, moderating and
dependent variables. In this research, quantitative method is used to test accuracy of the theories
and hypotheses stated previously. The research method used is a survey questionnaire where it is
a bridge between empirical observation and the quantitative statistical relationship.

## FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION

The following information will be used only for the purpose of analysis and will not be shared
with anyone.
SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC

## 1 20 years old and below

2. 21 - 35 years old
3. 36 - 50 years old
4. 51 years old and above

1. Male
2. Female

## 3. What is your Highest Educational Attainment?

3. Master’s Degree
4. Doctorate Degree
5. Other: _____________

## 4. Position in the Organization: ____________

__________________
SECTION B. FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION

Choose and tick your level of agreement for each item, using a scale of l=strongly disagree to
5=strongly agree.

## 1= Strongly Disagree, 2= Disagree, 3= Fairly Disagree, 4= Agree, 5= Strongly Agree

Statements 1 2 3 4 5
1. SALARY
a) I am satisfied with the salary I receive.
b) My salary is fair for my responsibilities
c) I am satisfied with the bonuses or incentives available to me
d) Salary increment is based on performance
e) Salary increment based is on upgraded education or specialty
training
2. WORK ENVIRONMENT
a) I am provided with all resources to perform.
b) The working conditions are good and safe.

c)
The organization structure facilitates teamwork, which enhances
d) I get an opportunity to do innovative things at work.
e) Management has created an open and comfortable work
environment.
a) My superior clearly defines my job responsibilities.
b) My superior communicates to me the areas of improvement in
my job.
c) My superior is objective, in terms of tasks assigned and
outcomes observed, while evaluating my feedback.
d) My superior, or colleagues at work, seems to care about me as a
person.
e) In this organization the inter departmental communication is
effective and reliable.
4. MOTIVATION
a) I am recognized as an individual.
b) The employee policy of the organization makes me feel that my
job is important.
c) The organization makes efforts to identify my strengths and
weaknesses.
d) The organization views its employees as assets.
e) My views and participation are valued.
a) The amount of work I am asked to do is always reasonable
b) I feel comfortable that excessive working hours are recognized
and compensated
c) I am given support to manage peaks in workload.
d) Balance between personal & professional life.
e) I feel that workload is equally distributed.

## 1.5 Statistical Treatment of Data

SPSS Version 17.0 software was used to analyse the data in this research.

Descriptive analysis had been used to transform the raw data in a way to describes the basic

characteristics such as finding the mode, mean, median and plot into frequency table as well as

## means standard deviations curves.

In addition, the correlation test had been done to measure how strong the relationship

between variables and the direction of the linear relationship. For this purpose, Pearson

Correlation Coefficient was used to measure the correlation between two variables while

controlling another variable that may affect the relationships. By using this Pearson Correlation

analysis, the strength of the correlation between the dependent and independent variables can be

justified.

Then, some inferential statistic methods were conducted such as multiple regression, t-

test and ANOVA test to analyse the relationships between independent, dependent and

moderating variables. Multiple regression technique was used to measures relationship between

one dependent variable and a number of continuous independent variables. ANOVA test will help

to confirm whether the model used is correct, robust of model fit and whether the dependent and

independent variable chosen are in order. and Finally, rank order of the independent variables

had been calculated by multiplying the frequency by the rank score for each choice resulting a

new scale. These approaches were consistent with the previous study done by previous studies.
2.) Why is research design important? Explain the different research design.

Research design carries an important influence on the reliability of the results attained. It

therefore provides a solid base for the whole research. It is needed due to the fact that it allows

for the smooth working of the many research operations. This makes the research as effective as

possible by providing maximum information with minimum spending of effort, money and time.

For building of a car, we must have a suitable blueprint made by an expert designer. In a similar

fashion, we require a suitable design or plan just before data collection and analysis of the

research project. Planning of design must be carried out cautiously as even a small mistake might

mess up the purpose of the entire project. The design helps the investigator to organize his ideas,

which helps to recognize and fix his faults, if any. In a good research design, all the components

go together with each other in a coherent way. The theoretical and conceptual framework must

with the research goals and purposes. In the same way, the data gathering method must fit with

the research purposes, conceptual and theoretical framework and method of data analysis.

A researcher must have a clear understanding of the various types of research design to select

which type of research design to implement for a study. Research design can be broadly

## Qualitative Research Design is implemented in cases where a relationship between collected

data and observation is established on the basis of mathematical calculations. Theories related to

## a naturally existing phenomenon can be proved or disproved using mathematical calculations.

Researchers rely on qualitative research design where they are expected to conclude “why” a

particular theory exists along with “what” respondents have to say about it.

## Quantitative Research Design is implemented in cases where it is important for a researcher to

have statistical conclusions to collect actionable insights. Numbers provide a better perspective
to make important business decisions. Quantitative research design is important for the growth of

any organization because any conclusion drawn on the basis of numbers and analysis will only

## a. Descriptive Research Design: In a descriptive research design, a researcher is solely

interested in describing the situation or case under his/her research study. It is a theory-based

research design which is created by gather, analyze and presents collected data. By implementing

an in-depth research design such as this, a researcher can provide insights into the why and how

of research.

## b. Experimental Research Design: Experimental research design is used to establish a

relationship between the cause and effect of a situation. It is a causal research design where the

effect caused by the independent variable on the dependent variable is observed. For example,

the effect of an independent variable such as price on a dependent variable such as customer

## satisfaction or brand loyalty is monitored. It is a highly practical research design method as it

contributes towards solving a problem at hand. The independent variables are manipulated to

monitor the change it has on the dependent variable. It is often used in social sciences to observe

human behavior by analyzing two groups – affect of one group on the other.

## c. Correlational Research Design: Correlational research is a non-experimental research design

technique which helps researchers to establish a relationship between two closely connected

variables. Two different groups are required to conduct this research design method. There is no

assumption while evaluating a relationship between two different variables and statistical

## analysis techniques are used to calculate the relationship between them.

Correlation between two variables is concluded using a correlation coefficient, whose value

ranges between -1 and +1. If the correlation coefficient is towards +1, it indicates a positive

relationship between the variables and -1 indicates a negative relationship between the two

variables.

## d. Diagnostic Research Design: In the diagnostic research design, a researcher is inclined

towards evaluating the root cause of a specific topic. Elements that contribute towards a

##  Solution for the issue

e. Explanatory Research Design: In exploratory research design, the researcher’s ideas and

thoughts are key as it is primarily dependent on their personal inclination about a particular topic.

Explanation about unexplored aspects of a subject is provided along with details about what,

## 3.) Why is discussion of the results important and the conclusion?

The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your

findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated

and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your study of

the problem. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research

questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does
not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain

The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research

should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not

merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem,

but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future

research.

## 2. How can a research prepare good recommendation?

Recommendations are the added suggestions that researcher want people to follow

when performing future studies. These are based off of what he has found or what he might

be interested in doing at some point in the future. As the researcher write these

recommendations, he will have to look at what he have gotten out of his paper while also

thinking about any possible ideas he might have for later research studies. This can help with

producing a strong paper that will inspire people to think differently about whatever it is he

have written and could especially inspire new research to come about over time.