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Thematic Module

in English 10

Overcoming
Challenges

REYNALDO L. ENRIQUEZ
Eng 513
Development of Instructional and Assessment Materials
in English
Reading Comprehension

EN10RC-Ia-2.15.2: Determine the effect of textual aids like advance organizers, titles,
non-linear illustrations, etc. on the understanding of a text

DAEDALUS & ICARUS


Nick Pontikis

Daedalus -- his name means "skilled


worker" -- was a famous architect, inventor,
and master craftsman known for having
created many objects that figure
prominently in various myths. He had a
beloved son named Icarus.

Among the many inventions and creations


crafted by Daedalus were the wooden cow
he constructed for the queen Pasiphae, the
Labyrinth of the Minotaur at Knossos on the
island of Crete, artificial wings for himself
and his son Icarus, and he was even said to
have invented images.

The infamous Labyrinth was so cunningly


crafted that Daedalus himself could barely
find his way out after constructing it. With
countless winding passages and turns that
opened into one another, the Labyrinth
appeared to have neither beginning nor
end. Daedalus built the maze to imprison the Minotaur, half man - half bull.

His homeland was Athens but his parentage is uncertain. Alcippe, Merope and Iphinoe
are all mentioned at different times as being his mother. His father's identity was never
precisely established but many claim that it was Metion, son of Erectheus.

For a short time, his apprentice was his sister's son Perdix. But Daedalus was so proud
of his achievements that he could not bear the idea of a rival. His sister had placed her
son Perdix under his charge to be taught the mechanical arts.

Perdix was an apt scholar and showed striking evidence of ingenuity. Walking on the
seashore, he picked up the spine of a fish. According to Ovid, imitating it, he took a
piece of iron and notched it on the edge, and thus invented the saw.

Perdix also put two pieces of iron together, connecting them at one end with a rivet, and
sharpening the other ends, and made a pair of compasses.

Daedalus was so envious of his nephew's accomplishments that he seized an


opportunity to toss him from the hill of the Acropolis. As he was plunging to his death,
however, the goddess Athena turned Perdix into a partridge to save him.

Other sources claim instead that his apprentice was his nephew Talos. They say that it
was Talos, at the age of twelve, who displayed a skill that nearly rivaled his mentor's.
Daedalus, fearing that the boy would surpass him in talent, murdered the boy by tossing
him from the Acropolis of Athens.

He was then tried at the Areiopagus, which was the ancient Greek court, and banished
from his home city of Athens. He fled to the island of Crete, where he began to work at
the court of King Minos and Queen Pasiphae, in the magnificent palace of Knossos.

It is said that Daedalus was the first to conceive masts and sails for ships for the navy of
Minos, helping Crete become a naval power. The statues he carved were so exquisite,
they looked as if they were alive. It is said that they would have escaped were it not for
the chain that bound them to the palace wall.

Daedelus also constructed a wooden cow for the queen to hide in to satisfy her
amorous longings for a white bull sent by Poseidon, and by which she became pregnant
with the Minotaur. Long story.

When the dreadful Minotaur was born, Daedalus built the Labyrinth to contain the
monstrous half-man, half-bull. For years Minos demanded a tribute of youths from
Athens to feed the creature as punishment for the accidental killing of his son while he
was visiting Athens.

Eventually, the Athenian hero Theseus came to Crete to attempt to slay the Minotaur.
Princess Ariadne, daughter of king Minos and queen Pasiphae, fell in love with Theseus
and asked Daedalus to help him.

Daedalus gave her a flaxen thread for Theseus to tie to the door of the Labyrinth as he
entered, and by which he could find his way out after killing the monster, simply by
following the thread back. Theseus succeeded, and escaped Crete with Ariadne.

Minos, enraged at the loss of his daughter, not to mention the killing of his pet Minotaur,
shut Daedalus and his son Icarus into the Labyrinth, knowing that Theseus could not
have accomplished the deed without inside help.

Daedalus managed to get out of the Labyrinth - after all, he had built it and knew his
way around. Daedalus decided that he and his son Icarus had to leave Crete and get
away from Minos, before he brought them harm.

However, Minos controlled the sea around Crete: the king kept strict watch on all
vessels, permitting none to sail without being carefully searched by his soldiers.

Since Minos controlled the land and sea routes, and there was no route of escape
there. Daedalus realized that the only way out was by air. But only the gods could fly!

To escape, Daedalus built wings for himself and Icarus, fashioned with feathers held
together with wax. Daedalus tried the wings on himself first and was satisfied that his
plan would
work.

Before
taking off
from the
island,
Daedalus
warned his
son to
follow
closely
behind him.
He sternly
cautioned
Icarus not
to fly too close to the sun, as it would melt his wings, and not too close to the sea, as it
would dampen them and make it hard to fly.

They successfully flew from Crete, but Icarus grew exhilarated by the thrill of flying and
began getting careless. The father and son passed the islands of Samos, Delos and
Lebynthos, and the further away from Crete they flew, the more cocky became Icarus.

Forgetting his father's stern advice, Icarus flew too close to the sun god Helios, pulling
the sun behind his chariot high in the sky.

The wax holding together his wings softened and melted from the heat and, try as he
might, Icarus could not prevent the feathers from falling off his body. Furiously he
flapped his arms, but soon no feathers at all were left and he fell to his death, drowning
in the sea, as his helpless father with anguish watched his son perish.

His father cried, bitterly lamenting his own arts, and called the land near the place
where Icarus fell into the ocean Icaria in memory of his child. The Icarian Sea, where he
fell, was forever named after him and it is said that the great hero Heracles (Hercules),
who was passing by, gave him proper burial.

Daedalus grieved for his dead son and then continued to Sicily, where he came to stay
at the court of Cocalus in a place called Camicus. On the island's south coast Daedalus
built a temple to Apollo, and hung up his wings, as an offering to the Olympian god.

But vengeful King Minos wasn't quite done -- he then went in pursuit of Daedalus,
hoping to locate and trick the great inventor into revealing himself.

At each city he visited, Minos offered a reward to whomever could thread a spiral
seashell, a seemingly impossible task. Eventually, Minos came to Camicus in Sicily and
presented the contest at Cocalus' court.

Cocalus knew of Daedalus' talents, and gave the shell to him. The clever Daedalus tied
the string to an ant, place the ant at one end of the shell, and allowed the ant to walk
through the spiral chambers until it came out the other end.

When Minos saw that someone had solved the puzzle, he demanded that Cocalus
surrender Daedalus, for he insisted that only he would have been inventive enough to
solve the task. King Cocalus promised to do so, but he persuaded Minos to first take a
bath and stay for some entertainment.

Minos agreed, and was consequently murdered by Cocalus' daughters, who had been
totally impressed by the toys and gifts which Daedalus had bestowed upon them and
did not want any harm to come to him.

In some versions of the myth, Daedalus himself poured boiling water on Minos and
killed him.

Daedalus eventually left Camicus, much to the dismay of king Cocalus and his
daughters, and ended up in Sardinia with a group led by Iolaus, who was a nephew of
Heracles.

Comprehension Check:

1. Who hires Daedalus?

2. What does Daedalus design to hold the Minotaur?


3. What does Daedalus invent to help him and Icarus escape from the Labyrinth?

4. What does he warn Icarus not to do?

6. What happens to Icarus?

7. Why did Minos imprison Daedalus in the Labyrinth?

8. Why did Minos think that, if Daedalus can’t find his way out, “so much the better”?

9. Minos tells Icarus that the plan is dangerous. Why does he want them to take this
risk?

10. Why did Daedalus leave his wings on the altar of Apollo? Why wouldn’t he want to
fly some more?

Directions: Give a brief summary of the story. Use this chart to determine the causes
and effects of an event.

Starting Event

which
caused

which
caused

which
caused

which
caused

which
caused

which
caused

which
caused
Let’s Think About It.

1. In a short paragraph, describe how Daedalus planned to escape from the island
prison of Crete.
2. Do you think Daedalus’s plan is a good one? Explain your answer.
3. Which events in the myth could have happened in real life?
4. If you had access to building resources and materials, how would you design a flying
machine to help you escape from the island prison of Crete?

Listening Comprehension

EN10LC-Ia-11.1: Get information that can be used in everyday life from news reports,
speeches, informative talks, panel discussions, etc.

Listen to the song attentively.

Bohemian Rhapsody
Queen

[Intro]
Is this the real life? Is this just fantasy?
Caught in a landslide, no escape from reality
Open your eyes, look up to the skies and see
I'm just a poor boy, I need no sympathy
Because I'm easy come, easy go, little high, little low
Any way the wind blows doesn't really matter to me, to me

[Verse 1]
Mama, just killed a man
Put a gun against his head, pulled my trigger, now he's dead
Mama, life had just begun
But now I've gone and thrown it all away
Mama, ooh, didn't mean to make you cry
If I'm not back again this time tomorrow
Carry on, carry on as if nothing really matters

[Verse 2]
Too late, my time has come
Sends shivers down my spine, body's aching all the time
Goodbye, everybody, I've got to go
Gotta leave you all behind and face the truth
Mama, ooh, (any way the wind blows)
I don't want to die
I sometimes wish I'd never been born at all

[Guitar Solo]

[Verse 3]
I see a little silhouetto of a man
Scaramouche, Scaramouche, will you do the Fandango?
Thunderbolt and lightning, very, very fright'ning me
(Galileo.) Galileo. (Galileo.) Galileo. Galileo Figaro magnifico
I'm just a poor boy, nobody loves me
He's just a poor boy from a poor family
Spare him his life from this monstrosity
Easy come, easy go, will you let me go?
Bismillah! No, we will not let you go
(Let him go!) Bismillah! We will not let you go
(Let him go!) Bismillah! We will not let you go
(Let me go.) Will not let you go
(Let me go.) Will not let you go. (Let me go.) Ah
No, no, no, no, no, no, no
(Oh mamma mia, mamma mia) Mamma mia, let me go
Beelzebub has a devil put aside for me, for me, for me!

[Verse 4]
So you think you can stone me and spit in my eye?
So you think you can love me and leave me to die?
Oh, baby, can't do this to me, baby!
Just gotta get out, just gotta get right outta here!

[Guitar Solo]

[Outro]
Nothing really matters, anyone can see
Nothing really matters
Nothing really matters to me
Any way the wind blows

Comprehension Questions

1. What is the song all about?


2. What type struggle was underscored in the song?
3. How will you handle the situation if you are the persona of the song?
4. Pick out your favorite lines from the song and explain why you picked those lines.

Let’s Do It.

Write a news report about the incident that happened in the story. You may add names
of the characters and places of the events.
Viewing Comprehension

EN10VC-Ia1.4/2.4: Determine how connected events contribute to the totality of a


material viewed

Let’s Watch It!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3ld9_p2bS0

1. What is the video all about?


2. What type of attitude was underscored in the video?
3. Does this kind of attitude still manifested these days? How or in what way?
4. How do you explain the concept of Pay It Forward?

Writing and Comprehension

EN10WC-Ia12.1: Identify features of persuasive texts

Read these paragraphs.

1. Filipinos are truly the happiest people. They laugh at their flaws and even make
fun of themselves. They laugh at the situation they are in, may it be favorable or
not.
2. Dogs are very helpful pets. Pets provide happiness and help, too. Have you ever
heard of the dog that saved his master’s drowning son? There was also this
puppy that saved his master from a fire. My grandfather’s dog, a very shy one,
surprised everybody last week by driving away two burglars according to the
neighbors, the dog jumped alternately onto the two bad guys, until they retreated
to the street.
3. Cellular phones are more useful than any other gadget. I use my cellular phone
to call my loved ones, or send them messages anytime. I can also take pictures
or record videos which I can share to them. When I am bored, I can listen to
music or play games in my cellular phone.

Why are Filipinos the happiest people? Why are dogs said to be helpful pets? Why
are cellular phones considered more useful than any other gadget?
The Structure of a Persuasive Essay

A persuasive essay aims to convince a reader about a particular issue that a writer
believes in. An effective persuasive paragraph uses sound reasoning, solid evidence,
facts and examples. It even quotes experts. With these, it is easier to make the reader
accept the writer’s point of view, or take a particular action.

This essay may be developed using the five-paragraph approach as shown in the
idea organizer.

Introduction  It introduces the body paragraphs


 It states the thesis statement or the assertion about the
issue
Body  It consists of the second, third and fourth paragraphs
 The body paragraphs contain facts and evidences that
support the thesis statement
 Each paragraph has a topic sentence and details that
support it. The topic sentence is directly related to the
thesis statement
Conclusion  It closes the essay by relating the position or calling the
reader for action
 It is the last paragraph of the essay

Activity 1

To support a particular position, one can use facts, statistics, quotes, and examples.
Study the given topic, then write down the needed information to complete each
table. Decide which side you are on before writing your thesis statement.

Topic: Curfew for High School Students

Thesis Statement:
Support Advantages Disadvantages
Facts

Statistics

Quotes

Examples

Activity 2
Direction: Study your completed table in Activity 1. Write a short composition about the
topic. Provide a suitable title, introduction, and conclusion. Follow the guidelines
discussed and observe proper punctuation and capitalization.