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Welcome to

A unique
International Community

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Why is it so Special?


Canada United States

Quoddy is a rich ecosystem that, through an accident of history,

lies primarily in Canada

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Once again the Quoddy Area is being threatened by inappropriate industrial

development. This slide show is designed to show you why the area is so
special and in need of your protection.

Quoddy's international eco-economy
approaches a billion dollars each year
and employs thousands ….

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


It's hard to argue with money. So, right up front we want you to know that local
enterprises likely bring in over a billion dollars annually and they employ
thousands of residents. Aquaculture - $249 million, Agriculture - $10 million,
Fisheries - $204 million , Forestry - ?? , Research - $75 million, Tourism - $340
million, Shipping, Education, Arts, crafts, light Manufacturing, Real Estate,
Seasonal & Retirement – The balance.

It supports over 3,000 marine creatures
including endangered species such as….

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


From tiny plankton to gigantic whales, the Quoddy Area's unique ecosystem
supports over 3,000 species of plants and animals.

Some Listed Marine Species in the Quoddy Region
Special in red are known to occur at one or both proposed LNG Sites
(Last updated in 2007)


• Atlantic Salmon (Maine) •Atlantic Cod (Maritimes population) (Fishes)

• Butternut (Canada) •Atlantic Wolffish (Fishes)
• Eskimo Curlew (Birds) •Barrow's Goldeneye (Birds)
• Jacob's Ladder (Vascular Plant) pdf •Bicknell's Thrush (Birds)
• North Atlantic Right Whale (Mammals) •Canada Lynx (Mammal)
• Peregrine Falcon (Bird) •Eastern Cougar (Mammal)
• Porbeagle (Fishes) •Fin Whale (Atlantic population) (Mammals)
•Gray Wolf (Mammal)
THREATENED •Harbour Porpoise (Mammals)
•Harlequin Duck (Eastern population) (Birds)
• Bald Eagle (Bird) •Monarch (Arthropods)
• Cusk (Fishes) •Redbreast Sunfish (Fishes)
• Least Bittern (Birds) •Red-shouldered Hawk (Birds)
• Peregrine Falcon (Birds) •Short-eared Owl (Birds)
• Striped Bass ((Fishes) •Shortnose Sturgeon (Fishes)
• Tomah Mayfly (Arthropod) •Sowerby's Beaked Whale (Mammals)
• Winter Skate (Fishes) •Wood Turtle (Reptiles)
• Yellow Lampmussel (Freshwater Mollusc) •Yellow Rail (Birds)

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Many listed species occur right where industry wants to locate their route of
entry and their terminals

… and it’s a great place to live!

Eastport, Maine – the most easterly city in the United States.

Canadian islands in the background
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010

Why is this place so different?

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Because of a unique natural phenomenon ….

… that is centred on Head Harbour

Passage at Campobello Island
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010

You have all heard about the huge tides in the Bay of Fundy. When the tons
of water rush in through Head Harbour Passage twice each day, something
magical happens here.

Huge tides that
reach 28 feet rush in
and out between the
dozens of islands
and ledges twice
every day …

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


As the water rises and falls 24 – 28 feet and rushes through the passages
between islands and ledges, the upwellings and whirlpools support
spectacular life forms.

Plankton concentrates in the passages
supporting an abundance of bottom life ….

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


As the waters funnel through the passages, this concentrates plankton and
virtual gardens of bottom-dwelling animals feed on the passing abundance.
They themselves produce eggs and larvae and spew these into the water
creating a localized increase in plankton and productivity

The resident creatures also spew their larvae into
the water creating an astounding local elevation
in planktonic food ….

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


The marine life is so spectacular that thousands of visitors come each year
just to see this natural wealth. Fishermen, tourist operators, and fish farmers
depend on the pristine nature of the area.

This plankton “spike” feeds a complex food web
that is the foundation of all the
natural wealth of this area.

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


The plankton produced in the Head Harbour Passage area, is the foundation
of a complex food web that produces the enormous natural wealth of the
Pasdsamaquoddy Bay area.

This is an Economic Contest with a
Huge Environmental Backdrop.

Here’s What We Can Lose.

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Our Billion Dollar Eco-Economy includes:
Washington Co. Charlotte Co. Employment Total Value

Aquaculture* $26 million $223 million 2,700 $249 million

Agriculture* $5 million $5 million ? $10 million
Fisheries* $31 million $173 million 3,500 $204 million
(lobster only)
Forestry* - - - -
Research* Unknown $75 million ? $75 million
Shipping Unknown Unknown 100 ships ?
Tourism* $50 million $300 million ? $340 million
Education Unknown Unknown ? ?
Arts, crafts, light Unknown Unkown ? ?
Real Estate Unknown Unknown ? ?
Seasonal & Unknown Unknown ? ?
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010

* Aquaculture -Salmon of the Americas, Maine 20% of $130 million;

Agriculture - Primarily Blueberries – 4-5 million Charlotte County, estimated
the same in Washington County, no other products included; Fisheries -
DFO $173 million Charlotte County (internal source), Washington County
unknown. Lobster only $31 Million (DMR); Forestry – Little Sustainable
practice. Not included; Research – DFO $40 million building budget,
Estimated $30 Million budget of $160 million science budget; Huntsman at
about $2 million, ASF at about 4.5 million; Tourism – Estimated at 1/3 of $1.2
billion in New Brunswick = $300 million, Maine about $40 million upriver
(SCIWWC) and $10 million estimate for coastal areas.

Today it’s a billion dollar industry!
$1.2 Billion – Province Wide in NB
Estimated $300- $400 Million locally

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Today, the tourism industry is worth more than a billion dollars in New
Brunswick and 8.9 billion dollars in Maine where there are 115,000 jobs.

The traditional fishery has sustained our society for
more than 10,000 Years.
It’s worth about $173 million today. Employs 3,500.

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


The local fishery has sustained generation after generation and continues to
do so. Today it is worth about $172 million on the Canadian side alone.

Averages $200 - $300 million on the Canadian side alone. Employs 2700.

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Highly controversial, fish farming began in 1979 on Deer Island and in

Eastport in 1981. It has since grown into a major industry that employs large
numbers of coastal residents. Salmon pens are located where LNG tankers
will need to go.

Vital Ferry Traffic and
Small Scale Shipping
Unknown local value

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


The Quoddy Region has two ports: one at Eastport and another at Bayside.
Small scale shipping also occurs from other ports such as Blacks Harbour.
Passage of LNG tankers will likely delay access and could lead to loss of
business. In addition, several ferries in the area could be delayed on an
almost daily basis.

There are Two Proposed Terminal Sites
May, 2010
Calais LNG
Red Beach
Downeast LNG
Terminal & Tanks

Quoddy Bay Cryogenic Pipeline
Split Rock, Eastport
Quoddy Bay LNG

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Developer 1 proposed a terminal at Split Rock near Eastport.

This proposal appears to have been terminated.
Developer 2 proposes a terminal and tanks at Robbinston with a similar or
shared pipeline going to Baileyville.
Developer 3 proposes LNG terminal and facilities at Red Beach within the city
limits of Calais, Maine. The pipeline will go to Baileyville.

All tankers going to any of these terminals must pass through sovereign
Canadian waters and then pass back and forth across the international
boundary as they proceed to their terminals or lay over.

And These Tankers are huge – About the size of
the Queen Mary shown here in downtown Bar
Harbor (actual photo)

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


This is an actual photo of the Queen Mary in Bar Harbor. It is huge.

Photo Credit: Joyce Morrell

LNG Tanker in Downtown Bar Harbour (simulated).

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


This is a simulation of an LNG tanker at Bar Harbour. It is only slightly

smaller than the Queen Mary.
Photo Credit: Joyce Morrell

Tanker Size
At about 290 meters, LNG Tankers
are slightly smaller than very large
Crude Carriers. They require several
large tugs to pass through Head
Harbour and into Passamaquoddy
Bay. LNG Tankers currently under
contract will be as large as VLCCs

QE 2 LNG Tanker
150,000 tons 130,000 – 150,000 tons
14 decks above water 12 stories above water
1,132 feet long 800 – 1000 feet long
136 feet wide 150 – 200 feet wide
33 foot draft 40-50 foot draft

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


The inset photo shows one of the largest coastal freighters currently entering
Passamaquoddy Bay and docking at Bayside Port. It is compared with the size of an
average simulated LNG tanker.

Exclusion Zone
Armed boats prevent boats from entering
the exclusion zone.
Exclusion Zone = 2 miles
All activities cease within the
exclusion zone during anchorage
or passage. Ships are protected
by gun boats.
2 Miles ahead
1 Mile behind
500 yards on either side
Area may be extended if Terror
Alert rises.
Arrival is not announced
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010

Armed Guards enforce the exclusion zone around tankers and terminals.
Security will be provided by boat and by land-based vehicle; probably on
Campobello, at Eastport and along the western shore of Passamaquoddy

30% – 100% Downtime for
the Tourism, Fisheries,
Transporation, and
Aquaculture Businesses
All activities cease within the exclusion
zone. 2- 9 ships per week could pass in
and out of Passamaquoddy Bay
resulting in potential downtime ranging
from 30% – 100% for operators in the
passage and terminal areas. Losses
will be in the millions
Elsewhere, potential layover time to fog
during May – October (Green lines
show inner and outer daytime limits)
could be as high as 20 days/month

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


As capacity grows, so does the frequency of tankers entering

Passamaquoddy Bay. Originally 2-3 tankers per week were predicted. With
current proposals this could rise as high as nine tankers per week. This could
result in total closure within the excluded areas. Fog data from Gaskin.

Terrorist Risks
• LNG is highly volatile and in
the era of terrorism offer
opportunities for terrorist
strikes on vulnerable energy

• A terrorist attack by a boat

bomb - such as the one used
against the French tanker
Limburg off the coast of
Yemen in 2002 - could cause
at least half a cargo hold's
worth of LNG to seep out of
the ship and ignite.

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Sources of LNG
• Trinidad and Tobago
• Indonesia
• Algeria, Nigeria, Libya
• Malaysia
• Australia
• Alaska
• Qatar, Oman , United Arab Emirates
• Russia, soon
• Iran, soon, worlds second largest supply
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010

Not all potential suppliers are friendly to America.

Fire Risks
•In just over 3 minutes, a fire
could spread 2/3 of a mile from
the ship.

•There is nothing safety officials

can do in such a case. They
would have no time to evacuate
people or to put out the fire.

•Intense heat within a mile radius

of the tanker would set fire to
homes and cause significant
losses of life and property.

•Costs for safety, rescue, and fire

services will be large. Each
community will have to pay for
this upgrade.

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Belgian Gas Explosion - 18 dead, 200 injured Workers Had Reported piercing
underground pipeline, Associated Press, Saturday, July 31, 2004

Increased Air Pollution
Current available data show an average
of more than 1 ton of Toxic chemicals are
released by Industry into the air each day
- 2000/01 (Red are cancer causing

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Currently EPA and Environment Canada data show that during plant
operation, approximately a ton of toxicants are released into the air each day,
on the average based on available statistics.

Local Water Pollution
Chemical Releases

Table 8.1 Environmental Releases, Transfers, and Production-Related Waste (Pounds from
TRI (total Release Inventory) sources)

Year Air Releases Water Releases Land Releases

1988 3,352,445 27,195 0
1989 2,460,654 33,780 0
1990 2,078,702 28,820 0
1991 2,091,422 202,060 139
1992 1,823,063 141,050 91
1993 1,007,585 125,890 5,376
1994 816,266 111,850 10,320
1995 935,755 59,890 9,267
1996 679,577 122,773 4,148
1997 742,305 276,460 67,994
1998 748,905 310,260 128,561
1999 547,477 138,239 109,959
2000 591,556 256,110 58,374

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010



Water Pollution Impacts of releases from tankers,
terminal, tugs, escort vessels, dredging is unknown.

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010


Releases from terminals, tugs, escort vessels, and potential dredging are
expected to be substantial but are presently unknown. Water needed for
regasification may be cooled by 10 degrees. This will have an impact in
Passamaquoddy Bay at least in the vicinity of the regasification facility.

A Sustainable Eco-Economy
Requires Choices

01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010